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(Comp. p. xv.) 






































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Geograph- Anstalt -von 

Wagner * Debes, Leipzig. 









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'Go, little book, God send thee good passage, 
And specially let this he thy prayere 
Vnto them all that thee will read or hear, 
Where thou art wrong, after their help to call, 
Thee to correct in any part or all.' 



lhe object of the Handbook for Norway and Sweden is 
to supply the traveller with information regarding the most 
interesting scenery and physical characteristics of these 
countries , and with a few notes on the history , languages, 
and customs of the inhabitants. Like the Editor's other 
handbooks it is based on his personal acquaintance with the 
country described, a great part of which he has himself ex- 
plored , visiting the most important places repeatedly. His 
exertions to secure the accuracy and completeness of the 
work have been supplemented by the kind assistance of sever- 
al gentlemen, Norwegian, Swedish, English, and German, 
to whom his grateful acknowledgements are due. If, how- 
ever, any of the statements in the Handbook should be found 
erroneous or defective, he will gratefully receive any correc- 
tions or suggestions with which travellers may favour him. 

The traveller will effect a considerable saving both of time 
and money by preparing an outline of his tour before leaving 
home, but the details cannot be finally adjusted until the 
latest local time-tables have been consulted. The most im- 
portant of these are 'Norges Communicationer' for Norway 
and 'Sveriges Kommunikationer' for Sweden, both issued 
weekly in summer at Christiania and Stockholm respectively, 
but these publications, the latter in particular, are far from 
complete, containing no mention of many of the small steam- 
boats which ply on the remoter fjords, lakes, and rivers. An 
excellent itinerary for the southern districts of Norway is 
the 'Lomme-Keiseroute' (usually published in June, price 
1 kr. 50e.). 

On the Maps and Plans of the most important districts 
and towns the utmost care has been bestowed, and it is hoped 
that they will be found to suffice for all ordinary travellers. 

Heights are given approximately in English feet (1 Norw. 
ft. = 1.029 Engl. ft. ; 1 Sw. ft. = 0.974 Engl. ft.). Distan- 
ces by land and on inland lakes are given in kilometres , as 
the tariffs for carrioles and boats are now calculated on the 
metrical system (comp. pp. xxn. xxm) , while those by sea 
are stated in nautical miles (1 naut. M. = 4 Engl. M.). The 
Populations and other statistics are given from the most 
recent official sources. 

First-class Hotels, though much less numerous in Norway 


and Sweden than in more densely peopled countries, are to 
be found in many of the larger towns , while in the smaller 
towns and country districts there are inns (Norw. Gjcestgive- 
rier , Sw. giistgifvaregardar) , posting-stations (Norw. Shyds- 
stutioner, Sw. skjutsstationer) , and farm-houses (Norw. Bonde- 
gaarde, Sw. bondegardar) , the proprietors of which are bound 
ito receive travellers and to provide them with horses when- 
ever required. The accommodation at these country inns or 
stations is usually unpretending, but they are generally clean, 
and the charges are very moderate. In the Introduction and 
throughout the Handbook the ordinary items of expenditure 
are given approximately. The landlords are a much more in- 
dependent class than the innkeepers of most other countries, 
being in many cases substantial farmers or shopkeepers , a 
very small proportion of whose livelihood is derived from 

To the Languages of Norway and Sweden , the former 
in particular , an unusually ample space has been allotted 
(see removable cover at the end of the volume) , partly on the 
ground that a slight knowledge of them is essential to the 
complete success of the traveller's tour, and partly because 
they are not included in any of the ordinary manuals of con- 

Lovers of Sport will still find considerable scope for their 
favourite pursuits both in Norway and Sweden , but seldom 
without deviating from the beaten track of tourists , and un- 
dergoing some privations. A number of the places where the 
best shooting and fishing are obtainable are mentioned in 
the Handbook. 

From this, as well as from the Editor's other Handbooks, 
advertisements of every kind are strictly excluded. 




I. Expenses. Money. Language. Passports. Post Office xv 

II. Plan of Tour xvi 

III. Conveyances xix 

IV. Luggage. Equipment. Tourist Club xxiii 

V. Hotels and Inns xxv 

VI. National Character xxvii 

VII. Maps xxviii 

VIII. Topographical Nomenclature xxix 

IX. Physical Geography of Scandinavia xxx 

Situation. Geological Formation. Coast Line xxx 

Mountains, Lakes, and Rivers xxxv 

Climate and Vegetation xxxviii 

Animal Kingdom. Population xli 

X. History of Sweden and Norway xlii 

Prehistoric Period xlii 

Transition to the Historical Period xliii 

Norway before the Union .... . xliv 

Sweden before the Union lii 

Transition to the Union . . lvi 

The Union lviii 

Sweden after the Dissolution of the Kalinar Union. 

Literature lxii 

The Continued Union of Norway with Denmark. Literature Ixx 

Union of Sweden and Norway lxxv 

Literature lxxviii 

Chronological Table lxxix 

XI. Outlines of Norwegian and Swedish Grammar, at the 
end of the volume. 


Route Page 

1. Christiania and Environs 1 

Oscarshall. Hovede>. Ekeberg. Frognersaeter. . . .10-12 

2. From Christiania to the Randsfjord by Drammen and 

Hougsund 13 

1. From Sandviken to Krogkleven and Hefnefos .... 14 

2. From Lier to the Tyrifjord. Svangstrandsvei .... 15 

3. Excursion through the Lierdal to the Bejstad-Aas. . . 17 

4. From Vikersund to St. Olafs-Bad 18 

3. From (Christiania) Hougsund to Kongsberg and the 

Rjukanfos 19 

From the Rjukanfos to Odde or to Eidfjord on the Har- 

danger Fjord 24 

From Kongsberg to the Hardanger Fjord through the 

Numedal 24 


Route Page 

4. From Christiania to Odde. Thelemarken 26 

a. Via Kongsberg 26 

1. From Moseb«> to Dale in the Maanelv Valley 27 

2. Ascent of the Vindegg 27 

3. From Botten to Stavanger 29 

4. From R0ldal to Stavanger 31 

b. Via Skien 31 

1. From Skien to the Hitterdal (Rjukanfos) 34 

2. From Hvideseid to Tvedestrand or Arendal 35 

3. From Bandakslid to the Fyrisvand. Lille Ejukanfos . 36 

5. From Christiania to Christianssand 37 

From Langesund to Porsgrund and Skien 39 

6. Christianssand and Environs 40 

From Christianssand to Ekersund (by land) 41 

The Ssetersdal 42 

7. From Christianssand to Stavanger 43 

Excursions from Stavanger. Lysefjord. Sandsfjord. 

Hylsfjord. Saudefjord. Sandeidf'jord 48-50 

The Suledalsvand 49 

8. From Stavanger to Bergen 51 

9. The Hardanger Fjord 54 

From Tere to Vik i 0ifjord 55-60 

1. From Skjelnses to the Maurangerfjord. Bondhusbrse . . 56 

2. From the Maurangerfjord across the Folgefond to Odde 56 

3. From Jondal to the S0rfjord 57 

4. From Norheimsund to the Aadlandfjord by Eikedal . . 57 

5. The Fiksensund. From Botnen to Vossevangen ... 57 

6. From Eide to L'lvik 58 

7. From Tlvik to Ose. Osefjord. Osedal 60 

8. From L'lvik to Aurland 60 

Excursions from Vik. Veringsfos. Simodal 61-63 

From Vik i 0ifjord to Odde. Excursions from Odde . .63-68 

10. Bergen and Environs 68 

11. From Bergen to Vossevangen and on to Eide on the 

Hardangerfjord or to Gudvangen on the Sognefjord 76 

12. From Christiania through the Hallingdal to Laerdalseren 

on the Sognefjord 79 

1. From Nees to Lake Spirillen 81 

2. From Viko to the Valders Route 81 

3. From Ekre to the Valders Route . 82 

4. From Tuf to Nystuen 82 

5. From Tufte to the Hallingskarven 84 

13. From Christiania through the Valders to Lserdalseren 

on the Sognefjord 85 

a. Via. Lake Spirillen to Frydenlund 86 

b. Via, the Bandsfjord to Odnaes and thence by carriage 

to Laerdalseren 88 

1. Hvidh0fd and Kvalehugda 92 

2. From Skogstad to the Opdalst0le 93 

3. Stugon0s and Suletind 94 

4. From Nystuen to Aardal 94 

14. The Sognefjord 97 

a. Aardalsfjord. Vettisfos 99 


Route Page 

1. From Farnses to Muradn and Fortun 99 

2. From Moen to Eidsbugarden 100 

3. Store Skagast0lstind 100 

4. Circular Tour round the Horunger 101 

b. Lysterfjord. Jostedal 101 

1. From Solvorn to Hillestad 101 

2. From Hillestad to Fjaerland 101 

3. From Marifjseren to Sogndal 102 

4. From D/Jsen to the Church of Jostedal 102 

5. From Skjolden through the 3l0rkereidsdal to the Jostedal 103 

6. From the Krondal to the Tunsbergdalsbrse 105 

7. From Kroken across the Jostedalsbraj to Gredung i Stryn 106 

c. Aurlandsfjord and Naerefjord 106 

1. Ascent of the Blejan from Ytre-Fr/zrningen 106 

2. The Flaamsdal 107 

3. From Aurland to Vossevangen 108 

4. From Aurland to T0njum in the Lserdal 10S 

d. From Laerdalseren to Bergen by steamer. The "W. 

Sognefjord 109 

1. From Amble to Sogndal (by land) 110 

2. From Sogndal to Fjeerland Ill 

3. Fjserlandsfjord. Store Suphellebrfe. Bojumsbrre . . . 112 

4. From Balholmen to Sande by the Svsereskard .... 112 

5. From Balholmen to Fjzrrde 113 

15. From Christiania to Molde by the Gudbrandsdal and the 

Romsdal. Lake Mj»sen 114 

1. From Eidsvold to Eidsvoldsverk 115 

2. From Gj0vik to Framnses 116 

3. From Lillehammer to the Gausdal Sanatorium .... 118 

4. From Skjseggestad to Jerkin 119 

5. From Storklevstad to Bj0lstad and S0rum 120 

6. From Laurgaard to the Formokampen and to S0rum . 121 

7. From Holsset to Aanstad 123 

8. From M0lmen to Aanstad 123 

9. From Stuefloten to the Norddalsfjord 125 

16. Eoutes from the Gudbrandsdal to Jotunheim 128 

a. From Kvisberg to Lake Gjende 128 

b. From Bjalstad to Lakes Gjende and Bygdin .... 129 

c. From Bredvangen to Bajshjem 130 

d. From Storvik to Lake Gjende 131 

From the Rusilienssetre to the top of the Nautgardstind 

and to the Memurubod , 132 

17. Jotunheim 133 

a. From Fagerlund in Valders to Raufjordsheim , and 

across Lake Bygdin to Eidsbugarden 135 

1. Ascent of the Thorflnstind 138 

2. From the Nybud on Lake Bygdin to the Gjende Lake 

by the Langedal, or by the Thorfmsdal and Svartdal . 138 

3. Excursions from Eidsbugarden. Skinegg. Langeskavl. 

Uranaastind 140 

b. From Skogstad and Nystuen to Tvindehoug and Eids- 

bugarden 140 

Ascent of the Koldedalstind 141 

c. From Eidsbugarden to the Gjendebod on Lake Gjende 141 
1. Ascent of the Memurutunge , Gjendetunge, and Knuts- 

hulstind 142 


Route Page 

2. From the Gjendebod to Skogadalsbtfen through the 

Eauddal 142 

3. Aacents of the Veslefjeld (Besegg) and the Beshjzr ... 143 

d. From the Gjendebod to Rejshjem 144 

1. From the Hellerkjsern to the Leirdal by the Htfgvagel . 144 

2. From the Spiterstul to the Galdhtfpig 146 

3. Ascent of the Glittertind 146 

4. From the Visdals-Ssetre to the Gokraskard, the Lauvhtf, 

and the Smaadal 146 

e. Rerjshjem and Environs. The Galdhepig 147 

f. From Re<jshjem over the Sognefjeld to Fortun . . . 149 

g. From Eidsbugarden through the Melkedal to Sko- 

gadalsbaen, and across the Keiser to Fortun . . 152 

h. From the Vettisfos to Tvindehoug and Eidsbugarden 155 

Ascent of the SWsnaastinder 156 

i. From the Vettisfos to Rajshjem through the Utladal, 

the Gravdal, and the Leirdal 156 

Ascent of the Skogadalsnaasi and the Styggedalstind. . . 157 
k. From Skjolden on the Sognefjord to Fortun and the 

Horunger 160 

18. From the Gudbrandsdal to Maeraak on the Geirangerfjord 162 

1. From Lindsheim to Mork and the Nordfjord 163 

2. From Grjotlid to the Nordfjord 165 

19. From Bergen to Throndhjem by Steamer 166 

1. The S^ndf.jord (Dalsfjord and Fflrdefjord) 167 

2. The Nordfjord, Hornindalsvand, Isfjord, and Hyenfjord 168 

3. The Fjords near Christianssund 173 

20. From Aalesund toHellesylt(Molde)by 0rstenvikand0ie 173 

21. Overland Route from Bergen to Aalesund and Molde . 177 

From Sylte to Veblungsnaes and Aak. The Tafjord . . . 187 

22. From Faleide to the Valleys of Stryn, Loen, and Olden 189 

23. Molde and the Moldefjord with its Branches 195 

a. Steamboat Voyage from Molde to Veblungsnaes in 

the Romsdal 196 

b. Land Route from Molde to Veblungsnaes 197 

c. From Molde to the Eikisdal 199 

24. Land Routes from Molde to Throndhjem 202 

a. By Battenfjordseren and Christianssund 202 

b. By Angvik and Orkedal 203 

25. FromDomaas (Molde or Lillehammer) to Steren (Thrond- 

hjem) 204 

1. Ascent of the Snehfetta 205 

2. From Jerkin through the Foldal to Lille-Elvdal ... 205 

3. From Aune through the Sundal to Sundals/zfren . . . 206 

4. From Bjerkaker to 0rkedals0ren 207 

26. From Christiania to Throndhjem 208 

27. Throndhjem and its Environs 213 

28. Inland Route from Throndhjem to Namsos 220 

'-* Ll 1- F rom Levanger to Stenkjier 221 

2. From Stenkjfcr to the Snaasenvand and the Fiskumfos . 221 

3. From Namsos to the Fiskumfos and Vefsen 222 

29. The Nordland 222 


Route Page 

I. From Throndhjem to Bod» 228 

1. From Namsos to Kongsmo on the Indre Foldenljord . . 230 

2. The Bindalsfjord and Thosenfiord 230 

3. The Velfjord . ' ' 231 

4. The Vefsenfjord \ [ 231 

5. From S0vig to Herizren . . . 231 

6. The Ranenfjord, Dunderlandsdal, and Junkersdal . . 233 234 

7. The Melfjord '335 

8. Holandsfjord. Reindalstind. Glomfjord ...... 236 

Excursions from Bod». Beierenfjord. Saltenfjord! 

Skjerstadfjord. Sulitjelma 237-239 

II. From Bode to Troins». The Lofoden and Vesteraalen 

Islands 240 

1. The Foldenfjord '.'.'..'. *240 

2. Ofotenfjord. Skjomenfjord . . . 246 

3. From Sjzrveien to the Bardudal and Maalselvsdai .' . .' 248 

4. From Maalsnses to the Rostavand 248 

5. From Maalsnses to the Altevand . 949 

6. From Kirkemo to Sjziveien [ 249 

7. Ascent of the Tromstind [ 252 

III. From Tromsa to the North Cape ........ 252 

1. The Ulfsfjord and Stfrfjord 252 

2. The Lyngenfjord 253 

3. The Altenfjord 254 

IV. From the North Cape to Vads» . 260 

From Vadsa to Nyhorg 265 

30. Syd-Varanger 266 

31. Inland Routes from the Altenfjord 268 

a. From the Altenfjord to Karasjok 268 

b. From Alten to Haparanda in Sweden 269 

32. From Christiania by Railway to Charlottenberg .... 271 

From Kongsvinger to Elverum 272 


33. From Christiania to Gothenburg by Railway 273 

1. From Ski to Sarpsborg 273 

2. From Fredrikshald to Venersborg by the Dalslands Canai 276 

34. From Christiania to Gothenburg by Sea 278 

35. Gothenburg 280 

Towns to the S. of Gothenburg 284 

36. From Gothenburg to Venersborg. Trollhatta Falls. Lake 

Venern 285 

1. From Oxnered to TJddevalla 28S 

2. From Venersborg to Herrljunga 289 

37. From Gothenburg to Stockholm 289 

1. From Herrljunga to Boras 280 

2. From Stenstorp to Hjo 280 

3. From Stenstorp to Lidkoping. The Kinnekulle. . . . 290 

4. From Skofde to Karlsborg 291 

5. F'rom Moholm to Mariestad 292 

38. From Falkoping via, Jonkoping to Nassjo 293 

The Taberg. Husavarna 294 


Route Page 

39. From Jonkoping to Stockholm by Lake Vettern and the 

Gota Canal 294 

40. From Nassjo to Stockholm 302 

1. From Mjdlby to Motala and Hallsberg 303 

2. The Kinda Canal 304 

3. From Norsholni to Vestervik 304 

4. From Norrkoping to Stockholm by the night-steamer . 306 

41. From Charlottenberg to Stockholm .' 306 

1. From Frvkstad to the Fryken Lakes 307 

2. The Valley of the Klarelf 308 

3. From Christinehamn to Fillpstad 308 

42. From Hallsberg to Orebro, Koping, and Stockholm . . 309 

1. Lake Hjelmaren and the Hjelmare Canal 310 

'2. From Friivi to Ludvika 310 

43. Stockholm and its Environs 312 

Staden and Eiddarholmen 319 

The Northern Quarters of the Town 324 

The National Museum 329 

Siidermalm 337 

Environs: Djurgarden , Marieberg , Karlberg, Solna 

Kyrka, Haga, TJlriksdal 338-343 

Excursions on Lake Malaren : Drnttningholm, Mariefred, 

Gripsholm, Strengniis 343-346 

The Baltic : Vaxholm, Gustafsberg, etc 347-348 

44. FromKolback andValskog to Flen, Nykoping, andOxelo- 

sund 349 

45. From Stockholm to Upsala 350 

a. By Bailway 350 

b. By Steamer 351 

46. Upsala 354 

From Upsala to Norrtelge 358 

47. From Upsala to Gefle 358 

t. From Orbyhus to Dannemora 358 

2. From Gefle to Falun 359 

48. From Gothenburg to Falun 360 

1. From Daglosen to Filipstad 360 

2. The Strbmsholms Canal j . . . 361 

Excursion to Lake Siljan. 363 

49. From Stockholm via. Upsala to Ostersund and Throndhjem 364 

1. From Krylbo to Borlange 365 

2. Ascent oif Areskutan 365 

50. From Gefle to Sundsvall and Haparanda. The Swedish 

Norrland 368 

1. From Sundsvall to Torpshammar 369 

2. From Lulea to Qvickjock and to Boa0 in Norway . . 371 

51. From Stockholm to Visby 373 

52. From Stockholm to Malmo by Nassjo 378 

1. From Vislanda to Bolmen 379 

2. From Vislanda to Karlshamn . . 379 

3. From Hessleholm to Christianstad and Solvesborg . . 380 

4. From Stehag to libstanga and to the Kingsjb ..... 381 

5. From Lund to Trelloborg 383 

From Hessleholm to Helsingborg 383 

C. From Helsingborg to Halmstad. The Promontory of 

Kullen ' . . 385 


Route Page 

53. From Alfvesta to Kalmar and Karlskrona ...... 385 

Island of Oland 387 

From Oskarshamn to Nassjo 388 

54. Malmo and its Environs 389 

From Malmo to Ystad. Bornholm 391 

From Ystad to Eslof 391 

From Eslof to Landskrona 392 

Index 393 

Plans and Maps. 

Comp. the Key Map at the End of the Book. 
Plans: 1. Christiania (1 : 20,000), with Map of the Environs 
(1:100,000). — 2. Bergen, with Environs (1 :24,000). — 3. Thrond- 
hjem, with Environs (1 : 100,000). — 4. Fredrikshald (1 : 15,000). 

— 5. Gothenburg (1:25,000). — 6. Sarpsborg (1 : 26,100). — 

— 7. Stockholm (1 : 15,000). — 8. Upsala (1 : 20,000). — 9. Visby 
(1 : 15,000). — 10. Lund (1 : 20,000). — 11. Malmo (1 : 30,000). 

Maps. 1. General Map of S. Norway (1 : 2,000,000): before 
the Title-page. 

2. Map of the District between Christiania , Kongsberg, and 
Lake Krederen (1 : 500,000): between pp. 10, 11. 

3. Map of North Thelemarken (1 : 500,000) : between pp. 18, 19. 

4. Map of South Thelemarken (1 : 500,000): between pp. 32, 33. 

5. Map of the Stavanger Fjord and its Branches (1 : 500,000) : 
between pp. 48, 49. 

6. Map of the Outer Hardanger Fjord (1 : 500,000) : p. 52. 

7. Map of the Inner Hardanger Fjord (1:500,000): between 
pp. 54, 55. 

8. Map of the Inner Sognefjord (1 : 500,000) : p. 99. 

9. Map of the Central Part of the Sognefjord (1:500,000): 
between pp. 106, 107. 

10. Map of Jotunheim (1:500,000): between pp. 132, 133. 

11. Map of the Nordfjord and its Surroundings (1:500,000): 
between pp. 168, 169. 

12. Map of the Moldefjord and its Branches (1:500,000): be- 
tween pp. 194, 195. 

13. Map of the North -West and North Coast of Norway 
(1 : 1,500,000), 1st Sheet: between pp. 228, 229. 

14. Map of the North - West and North Coast of Norway 
■ (1 : 1,500,000), 2nd Sheet: between pp. 240, 241. 

15. Map of the Estuary of the Gota-Elf(l : 100,000): p. 284. 

16. Map of the Trollhatta Falls (1 : 24,000): p. 285. 

17. Map of the Djurgard near Stockholm (1 : 25,000) : p. 338. 

18. Map of the Environs of Stockholm (1 : 100,000): between 
pp. 338, 339. 


19. Map of the Banks of the Sund (1 : 500,000): p. 388. 

20. General Map of 8. Sweden (1 : 2,000,000) : after the Index. 

21. Key Map of Norway and Sweden, showing the RouteB and 
Maps of the Handbook : after the Vocabulary. 

N., S., E., W. = north, nor- 
thern ; south, southern ; east, 
eastern ; west, western. 

M. = Norwegian mile in Nor- 
way (1 Norw. M. = 7 Engl. 
M.), and Swedish mile in 
Sweden (1 Sw. M. = 63/ 4 Engl. 
M., nearly), unless the con- 
trary is stated. 


R., B., D., S., A. = room, break- 
fast, dinner, supper, atten- 

R. also = Route. 

Kr., e. = crowns and ere in 

O. = ore, the form used in 

Ft. = English feet. 

On all land-routes and inland lakes and rivers the distances 
are given in kilometres (1 Kil. = 0,621 Engl. M. ; comp. the 
Table before the title-page), while on sea-routes in both countries 
they are expressed by sea-miles (1 sea-mile = 4 Engl. M.). — 
On railway and steamboat-routes the distances are generally 
reckoned from the starting-point of the journey, while on high- 
roads the distances from station to station are given as more con- 

Asterisks (*) are used as marks of commendation. 


I. Expenses. Money. Language. Passports. Post Office. 

The cost of travelling in Norway and Sweden is much more 
moderate than in most other parts of Europe, but as the distances 
are very great and much time is consumed in traversing them by 
road, steamboat, and rowing-boat, the sum total of the traveller's 
expenses will not usually amount to much less than would be spent 
on a tour in Switzerland or the Tyrol. After arriving in the country, 
the traveller should allow at least 11. for each day of his tour, but 
less will suffice if a prolonged stay be made at one or more rest- 

Money. By the monetary conventions of 1873 and 1875 the 
currency of the three Scandinavian kingdoms was assimilated. 
The crown (krone) is worth Is. l 1 ^- aI) d is divided into 100 parts 
called ere in Norway and ore in Sweden (see money-table before 
the title-page). English sovereigns, each worth 18 kr., usually 
realise their full value at all the principal centres of commerce, 
though the rate of exchange is often a few ere less than 18 kr. per 
pound, as in the remoter districts it is sometimes difficult to pro- 
cure change for a gold piece of 10 or 20 kr. The traveller will find 
it more convenient to obtain an abundant supply of small notes 
and coins (Smaa Penge) at Gothenburg, Stockholm, Christiania, or 
Christianssand before starting on his tour. 

Language. English is spoken on board almost all the Nor- 
wegian steamboats and at the principal resorts of travellers both 
in Norway and Sweden , but in the country districts the native 
tongue alone is understood. The Danish language, as pronounced 
in Norway, is on the whole the most useful , especially as most 
travellers devote far more time to Norway than to Sweden. (See 
grammars and vocabularies in the removable cover at the end. of 
the volume.) 

Passports are unnecessary, except for the purpose of procuring 
delivery of registered letters. — The Custom House Examination 
is invariably lenient. Comp. p. 306. 

Post Office. The postage of a letter to Great Britain, weighing 
*/2 oz., is 20 ere, and of a post-card 10 e. The traveller should 
avoid giving his correspondents any poste restante address other 
than steamboat or railway stations , as the communication with 
places off the beaten track is slow and uncertain. Telegraph 
Offices are numerous in proportion to the population. 


II. Flan of Tour. 

A careful plan should be prepared before the traveller leaves 
home, but the details must be left to be filled in as he proceeds 
on his way. The steamboat arrangements are constantly undergoing 
alteration, and the slowness and uncertainty of travelling by car- 
riole and rowing-boat often give rise to disappointment, while 
many of the traveller's movements must of course depend on the 
state of the weather. 

The best season for travelling, both in Sweden and Norway, is 
from the beginning'of June to the middle of September, but for 
the Jotunheim and other mountain regions July and August , as 
many of the loftier routes are apt to be obstructed by snow both 
earlier and later in the season. The gnats which swarm in some of 
the inland districts, especially in the Swedish Norrland, including 
Lapland, are a great source of annoyance and suffering , but the 
plague generally abates after the middle of August. For a voyage to 
the North Cape (R. 29), or to Haparanda and Avasaxa (RR. 31, 50), 
for the sake of seeing the midnight sun, the best season is from 
the middle of June to the end of July. It 'may also be noted that 
August is often a rainy month in the eastern districts of Norway, 
while the wet season sets in somewhat later on the W. coast. 

An energetic traveller may see almost all the chief points of 
interest in Norway and Sweden in 272-3 months, but a thoroughly 
exhaustive tour cannot be accomplished in one season. The chief 
attractions in Norway are the fjords of the west coast , the Jotun- 
heim Mountains, and the magnificent scenery of the Nordland 
within the Arctic Circle. The chief interest of Sweden consists in 
its towns and its canals. — The railway companies have lately 
begun to issue Circular Tour Tickets, available for 30-60 days, 
and these may sometimes be found serviceable by the tourist in 
Sweden. He should, however, avoid routes conducting him over 
the Kil and Falun railway (p. 360). The fine scenery on the W. 
coast of Norway is not included in any of the districts for which 
circular tickets are issued. — The routes given in the Handbook 
may be combined in many different ways, but a few of the favou- 
rite tours are subjoined as specimens. 

i. Two or three Weeks from Christianssand. Days 

From Christianssand by steamer to Slavanger and Odde on the Har- 

danger Fjord, and thence to Bergen (RR. 7-10) 5-7 

From Bergen by steamer to Bolstaderen, and byroad, small steamer, 

and road again to Gudvangen on the Sognefjord (R. 11) ... . 2-3 

From Gudvangen to Lcerdalseren, and Excursion to the Jostedals- 
Irce (it. 14) 3-4 

From Lairdalsizrren over the Fillefjeld to Christiania (R. 13) . . . 4-6 

ii. Three or Four Weeks from Christianssand. 

From Christianssand by steamer to Arendal, and by road to Tin- 
oset; or (quicker) all tV» w»v >.v steamer to Skien, and thence 


by lake steamer to Notodden-Hitterdal , and by road to Tinnoset 

(RR. 3, 4, 5) ... . 4-6 

From Tinnoset to the Rjukanfos , and thence to Mule , either via 

Tinoset or via the Totakvand (RR. 3, 4) 3-4 

From Mule to the Haukelisaster and Odde (R. 4) 3-4 

From Odde to Bergen and thence either via Boldstaderen as in 

Tour i, or by steamer all the way, to Lcerdalsaren (RR. 9, 10, 11, 14) 5-6 
Excursions from Lgerdalsjafren , and thence to Ckristiania as above 

(RR. 14, 12, 13) _. 7-9 

iii. Three or four Weeks from Christiania. 
From Christiania to Drammen, Kongsberg, and the Rjukanfos (RR. 2, 3) 2-3 
From the Rjukanfos to Odde, Bergen, Lmrdalseren, and Christiania 
(as in Tour ii) 18-24 

iv. Three or four Weeks from Christiania. 

By steamboat from Christiania to Skien, and thence by lake steamer 
to Hitterdal; excursion thence to the Rjukanfos and back 
(RR. 4, 3) 5-6 

From Hitterdal by road to Hvideseid and by steamer to Triscet and 
Dalen; excursions from ^Trisret and Dalen (RR. 3, 4) 5-6 

From Dalen or Trisset to Odde; steamboat to Side; road to Vosse- 
vangen and Gudvangen; and thence to Christiania (as in Tours 
ii, iii) 10-16 

v. Three or four Weeks from Christiania. 
From Christiania over the Fillefjeld to Lwrdalseiren and Gudvangen 

(RR. 13, 12) 5-7 

From Gudvangen to Eide on the Hardanger Fjord; thence to Odde, 

and from Odde to Bergen (RR. 11, 9) 7-9 

From Bergen by the Overland Route to Molde (R. 21) 4-5 

From Molde to the Romsdal, the Gudbrandsdal , Lillehammer, and 

Christiania (R. 15) 6-8 

vi. Four or five Weeks from Christiania. 

As in Tour V. to Molde 16-21 

From Molde to the head of the Romsdal and back (R. 15) ... 3-4 
From Molde by steamboat direct, or partly overland, to Thrond- 

hjem (RR. 19, 24) 1-3 

From Throndhjem over the Dovrefjeld to Lillehammer, and thence 

to Christiania (R. 25) 7-9 

vii. Seven to eleven Weeks from Gothenburg. 
From Gothenburg to Trollhdltan , JSnkbping, Vadstena, and Stock- 
holm (RR. 36, 37, 38) 5-7 

Stockholm and Environs 3-4 

From Stockholm to Upsala, Ostersund, and Throndhjem (RR. 45, 

46, 49) 3-4 

From Throndhjem to the North Cape , and back to Throndhjem 

(RR. 28, 29) 15-20 

From Throndhjem over the Dovrefjeld to the Romsdal and Molde 

(R. 25) 5-6 

From Molde overland to the Sognefjord and Bergen (R. 21) . . . 4-6 
From Bergen to Odde on the Hardanger Fjord , thence to Eide, 

Gudvangen, Lwrdalseren, and Christiania, as in Tours ii, iii. 14-21 

Baedekee's Norway and Sweden. 3rd Edit. t> 

xviii II. PLAN OF TOUR. 

Walking Tours. All the above tours are easy, being accom- 
plished almost entirely by steamboat , railway, and carriole, and 
the traveller will rarely suffer any privation worthy of mention. 
To mountaineers, pedestrians, and lovers of wild and grand scenery, 
who are prepared for occasional privations and fatigues, the follow- 
ing walks and excursions are recommended : — 

From Christianssand through the Scetersdal to the Suledalsvand and 
Odde, RR. 6, 9. 

Excursions to the Buarbrw and Folgefond, the Bkjaggedalsfos, the 
Veringsfos, and the walk from Ulvik to Eide, R. 9. 

From Lardalieren to Jostedal; back to the Lysterfjord, and then to 
Skjolden, Fortun, and Oscarshoug, RR. 14, 17. 

From Fortun to Aardal and the Vetlisfos, and thence to Lakes Tyin, 
Bygdin, and Gjende, RR. 14, 16. 

From Lake Gjende to the Galdhepig, the highest mountain in Nor- 
way, and to Rejshjem, R. 17. 

From E0jshjem to Opstryn, and excursions at the head of the Nord- 
fjord, RR. 18, 22. 

From Hellesylt to the Norangsfjord and back, R. 20. 

From Hellesvlt to Mceraak, and thence to Slavbrcekkene and back, 
RR. 21, 18. 

From Mseraak across the mountain to Yttredal and Sylte, and thence 
to Aak in the Romsdal, R. 21. 

From Veblvngsnces or from Molde to the Eikisdahvand and Sundals- 
0ren, RR. 23, 25. 

From Bode to the Sulitjelma, R. 29. 

From Tromse to the Lyngenfjord, R. 29. 

Sport of all kinds has fallen off greatly in Norway and Sweden 
of late years. Excellent salmon-fishing is indeed still obtainable, 
but only at high rents, and the best rivers, such as the Namsendv 
above Namsos, are let on long leases, chiefly to wealthy Englishmen. 
Trout fishing , however, may still be had in abundance by those 
who are prepared for some hardships. Among the best waters ('Fis- 
kevand') for trout and grayling are the Thelemarken Lakes, the 
Messna and Laagen which fall into Lake Mj»sen , the Storsje, 
Isternsje, and Fcemundsjei, the Ostra Dalelf and other streams fall- 
ing into Lake Siljan in Sweden, the Lule Elf and the lakes from 
which it descends in Lapland, and many other lakes and rivers 
mentioned in the Handbook. — It is difficult now to obtain good 
shooting in Norway and Sweden , but the mountains enclosing the 
Hallingdal are still said to afford good reindeer-shooting , which 
may also be had on the Hardanger Vidder, in the neighbourhood 
of the Romsdal, near Rotos, and in Lapland. Wild-fowl abound 
in many parts of Norway, particularly in the trackless forests of 
0sterdalen, in the Ostra and Vestra Dal in Dalarne, in the vicin- 
ity of the Storsjci in Jemtland, and in Lapland, but the sportsman 
will find serious difficulties to contend with. In the first place 
a very large proportion of the mountain and forest districts , where 
the best sport is obtainable, belongs to government, and by a Nor- 
wegian law passed in 1877 200-500 crowns , according to circum- 
stances, must be paid for a license to shoot there. Persons found 
shooting without a license are liable to a fine of 200-1000 crowns. 


Although no license is required when permission is obtained to shoot 
over private property, the sport is generally very inferior. Another 
drawback to the sportsman's enjoyment is the difficulty of obtaining 
good or even tolerable quarters. The Swedish game-laws, however, 
are as yet much less stringent, no license being required for shoot- 
ing on unenclosed land belonging to government. 

The Close Seasons in Norway are as follows : — For heath-hen and 
Mack-hen (Rei and Aarhgne), 15th March to 15th Aug. ; capercailzie (Tiur), 
hlackcock (Aarhane), and hazel-hen (Bjerpe), 15th May to 15th Aug. ; par- 
tridge (Rapphens), 1st Jan. to 1st Sept. ; eider-duck (Edderfugl), 15th April 
to 15th Aug. (no eider-fowl to he killed in Tromsgr Stift or in the Fog- 
derier of Fosen and Namdal till the end of 1885) ; ptarmigan (Rype), 15th 
May to 15th Aug. ; reindeer (Rensdyr), 1st April to 1st Aug. ; hare (Bare), 
1st .Tune to 15th Aug. ; elk (Elgsdyr), beaver (Bcevev), and deer (HJorl), 
1st Nov. to 1st Aug. (hut foreigners are prohibited from shooting them 
at any time). — Salmon (Lax) and sea-trout (Beerret) in rivers, estuaries, 
and lakes, 14th Sept. to 15th April ; in brooks or on the sea-coast, 14th 
Sept. to 14th Feb. 

The close seasons for game in Sweden are nearly the same, usually 
ending on 9th August. 

III. Conveyances. 

Time Tables for Norway appear in '■Norges Communicationer' (20 0.) 
and for Sweden in 'Sveriges Aommunikationer' (10 o.), both published 
weekly in summer. Some of the more important steamboat arrangements, 
which are less liable to change, are given in|this Handbook ; but travel- 
lers should in every case consult the latest time tables, for even a slight 
alteration in the hours of the trains &c. may cause great inconvenience 
and disappointment. 

Steamboats (Norw. Dampskibe, Sw. angbatar). Most of the 
steamboats, both in Norway and Sweden, are comfortably fitted up, 
and have good restaurants on board. The Danish steamboats (Del 
Forenede, Dampskibs-Selskab are said to be the best of those plying 
on the Baltic Sea, while the steamers of DetBergensk-Nordlandske 
Dampskibs-Selskab are commonly reported to be the most comfort- 
able for a journey to the North Cape (comp. p. 222). The smaller 
steamers plying on the Norwegian fjords are comfortable during 
the day , but their sleeping accommodation is rather inadequate 
(see p. 97). The steamers on the Swedish canals should be used 
only for short distances. The traveller should take every oppor- 
tunity offered of making previous enquiry as to the comfort of the 
vessel in which he contemplates making a long tour. It is, perhaps, 
superfluous to state that he should always travel in the first cabin. 

Travellers who are about to spend one or more nights on 
board a steamer should lose no time in securing a berth by personal 
application to the steward. In the smaller vessels the dining- 
saloon is used at night as a sleeping-cabin, but there is always a 
separate ladies'-cabin. A passenger travelling with his family pays 
full fare for himself, but is usually entitled to a reduction ('Mod- 
eration') of 25 per cent for each of the other members of the 
party. On most of the steamboats return- ti ckets , available for 
various periods, are issued at a fare and a half. 

The food is generally good and abundant, but vegetables are 



rare, and 'hermetiske Sager', salt relishes, and cheese always pre- 
ponderate at breakfast and supper. The usual charge for a sub- 
stantial breakfast or supper is l-l'^i t" 01 dinner 2-272 crowns. 
Wine, beer (250. per half-bottle), tea, and coffee are all extras. 
No spirits are procurable. At 7 or 8 a.m. most passengers take a 
cup of coffee and a biscuit or rusk ('Kavringer'). The account should 
be paid daily, to prevent mistakes. The steward expects a fee of 
y 2 -l kr. for a voyage of 24 hours, but less in proportion for longer 

Railways (Norw. Jernbaner, Sw. jernvagaf). Most of the rail- 
ways are similar in all respects to those of other European countries. 
Both in Norway and Sweden , however, there are several narrow- 
gauge lines (373 ft.), with two classes only, which correspond with 
the 2nd and 3rd on the other lines. The carriages on these narrow 
lines are often badly hung and unprovided with spring-buffers , so 
that the passenger sustains a severe jolting at starting and drawing 
up. From 50 to 70lbs. of luggage are usually free. All luggage, 
except what the passenger takes into the carriage with him, must 
be booked. The average speed of the quick trains (Norw. Hurtig- 
tog , Sw. snalltag") is 22-24 Engl. M. , that of the mixed trains 
(blandede Tog, blandade tag) 15-20 Engl. M., and that of the goods 
trains (Oodstog , godstag) 10-12 Engl. M. per hour. These last, 
which usually convey 2nd and 3rd class passengers only, are ex- 
tremely tedious for long distances. All the trains have smoking 
carriages (Regekupe, rokkupe) and ladies' compartments (Kvinde- 
kupe, damkupe). 

The Railway Restaurants in Norway are often poor, but in 
Sweden they are good and inexpensive. Passengers help them- 
selves, there being little or no attendance. For breakfast the usual 
charge is IV4-IV2) f° r dinner or supper lV2"l. 3 /4 crowns; for a 
cup of coffee or half-bottle of beer 25 0. Spirituous liquors not 
obtainable. The express trains stop at fixed stations, the names of 
which are posted up in the carriages, to allow time (generally only 
15 min.) for meals 

Posting (Norw. Skyds, Sw. skjuts; pronounced shoss or shyss 
in each case). Sweden is so well provided with railways and in- 
land steamboat-routes that the traveller rarely has occasion to drive 
on the high-roads. In Norway, however, there are still immense 
tracts of country where the Stolkjarre (a light cart with seats 
for two persons, and generally without springs) and the Kariol\ 
(a light gig for one person) afford the sole means of communication. 
The luggage is strapped or attached with a rope behind the trav- 

+ A comfortable carriole or a ' Trille' (open four-wheeler) may be 
hought at Christiania, or hired for the whole journey, at moderate cost, 
but serious drawbacks to this mode of travelling are the loss of inde- 
pendence thereby occasioned, and the delays and expense of conveying 
the vehicle long distances by railway, steamer, and rowing-boat. 


eller, and on the top of it the Skydsgut (or simply Gut) takes his 
seat, while the traveller usually drives himself. If he does so he 
will he responsible for any accident, hut not if he allows the 'Gut' 
to drive from behind. The horses, or rather ponies, which are al- 
most always weak and slow, are often cruelly overdriven by for- 
eigners. The traveller should bear in mind that the average charge 
of 2-3i. per Engl, mile is very inadequate remuneration to the 
Skydspligtige, or peasants who are bound to supply the horses, and 
that on this account also it is unfair to overdrive them. As a rule 
12-15 min., and sometimes more, should be allowed for each Eng- 
lish mile. Most of the principal roads in Norway have been re- 
constructed of late years, and are now as good and level as is con- 
sistent with the hilly character of the country. Some of the still 
existing older roads are extraordinarily hilly, and of course very 
trying to the horses, but they are certainly more picturesque than 
the new. The roads are made by government , but maintained 
by the peasantry through whose land they pass, often entailing on 
them a heavy burden. At intervals of 10-25 kilometres there are 
Skydsstationer (pron. stashooner), or farmhouses (Gaarde) whose 
proprietors are bound to supply travellers with horses whenever 
required, and most of whom also provide board and lodging. 

Those stations where the proprietor is bound to have several 
horses always in readiness, and is liable to a flue if he keeps the 
traveller waiting for more than 1 /4- 1 /2 hour, are called Faste Station- 
er (i. e. 'fixed stations', where a 'fixed' number of horses is always 
in readiness), or usually by English travellers 'fast stations'. An- 
other class of stations, now rare, except in little frequented districts, 
is the Tilsigelse-Stationer (or Shifter) , the owners of which are 
bound to procure horses from the neighbouring farmers. For the 
'Tilsigelse' (from tilsige, 'to tell to', 'send to'), or trouble of send- 
ing for horses, the sta.tionma.ster (Skydsskaffer) is entitled to 14 e. 
for each. At these stations, which are justly called 'slow' by Eng- 
lish travellers by way of antithesis to the 'fast', the charges are 
very low, but the traveller may often be kept waiting for several 
hours. These annoying delays are obviated by sending Forbud 
a'previous message') to stations of this class, and the same remark 
tpplies to 'slow' boat-stations. The 'Forbud' must be sent at least 
hree hours before the time at which horses are required, or better 
on the previous day. If there is regular postal communication on 
the road, the message may be sent by letter or post-card ; or it 
may be sent by any one preceding the traveller on the same route. 
Otherwise it is sent by post-card, which the post-office transmits 
to the nearest post-town or poststation, after which it is forwarded 
from station to station at a fixed charge for the les Hest which the 
messenger rides) f . 

t The Forbudseddel, or message, may be expressed as follows: — 
Paa SkydssMftet (. . . name the station) bestillts en Hest (to Heste , etc.) 


Among other regulations , it may be mentioned that each pass- 
enger drawn by one horse is allowed 64lbs. of luggage. If two per- 
sons travel together in a Stolkjarre, for which they pay a fare and 
a half, they are allowed 24lbs. of luggage only. Lastly it should 
be noted that in hilly districts the 'Skydsskaffer' is frequently au- 
thorised to charge for more than the actual distance. Every station- 
master is bound to keep a Dagbog (Skydsbog) or day-book, in which 
the traveller enters his orders and records his complaints if he has 
any to make. On the first page of the 'Dagbog' is always entered the 
distance to the nearest station in each direction, whether by road or 
by small boat , so that the traveller will have little difficulty in 
calculating the fare. Strictly speaking the fare may be exacted 
before the hirer starts, but it is usually paid at the end of the stage, 
when the 'Gut', or girl (Jente) who takes his place, receives a gra- 
tuity of 15-20 0. per station. The 'Gaardskarl', or man who helps to 
harness the horse, does not expect a gratuity. The following table 
shows the fares exigible at the different kinds of posting-stations : — 



Slow stations in the country. 

Fast stations in the towns and 
in the country (new tariff). 


r 1 Person 

2 Pers. 

For 1 Person 

2 Pers. 


A 'J 


ja -J 

ja . 

ft & 


<B ■ 

TO <U 

0) "-s 

% 6 
^ a 





o o 

B 03 

B 55 





































































































The old tariff, still in force in some of the remoter districts, is 
lower than the above. 

For the transmission of passengers and their luggage by boat 
(Baadskyds or Vandskyds) the regulations are similar. The follow- 
ing table shows the usual fares : — 

med Karjol (Karjoler) eller Stolkjwrre (Stolkjcerrer) Mandagen den 20. Jnli 
Formiddagen (Eftermiddagen) Klokken et (to, tre, etc.). Pact same Tid varm 
Frokost for en Person (to, tre Personer). 

Date & Place. Signature. 

The station-master may dismiss the horses if the traveller is more 
than 2'/s hours late, and after the first hour of waiting he may exact 
Ventepenge or 'waiting-money'. 




Fast stations in the towns and 

Slow stations in the 


in the country (new tariff ; old 

tariff lower). 








»M ■ 


> CO 

£ u 

is E 

% E 


P >3 




§ ° 

S o 







C 4 * 












































































Travellers accompanied by a guide may always employ Mm as 
a rower, and thus dispense with one of the boat's usual crew. Each 
rower generally wields (or 'sculls' with) two oars. A boat manned 
with two rowers is therefore called a Firring, or four-oared boat, 
one manned with three rowers a Sexring, and with four rowers an 
Ottering. The number of persons accommodated depends on the 
size of the boat. For a large party, or where speed is desired, three 
or four rowers had better be taken. Farther information, if desired, 
will be found in the Lommereiseroute ('pocket travelling itinerary'), 
published every summer by Abelsted of Christiania (price 1 kr. 
30 ».). The exact fare, however, may always be ascertained by en- 
quiry on the spot, and attempts at extortion are happily rare. 

Pedestrian Tours. Neither Norway nor Sweden is suitable for 
long walking excursions, as the distances are too great , and the 
points of interest lie too far apart. Many of the expeditions re- 
commended above to the notice of pedestrians and mountaineers 
may be accomplished on horseback, but there is no lack of glacier- 
excursions and mountain-ascents which can be undertaken on foot 
only. In mountainous regions, as well as on high roads, the natives 
usually reckon the distances by Norwegian miles. On an ordinary 
road a mile may easily be walked in two hours, but on rough ground 
three hours at least should be allowed for each mile. 

IV. Luggage. Equipment. Tourist Club. 
Luggage. Travellers who intend to perform the whole of their 
tour in Norway and Sweden by railway and steamboat need not 
restrict the quantity of their luggage, but those who purpose tra- 
velling by carriole should, if possible, limit themselves to 30-40 
lbs., and this had better be divided between a small and strong 

xxiv IV. LUGGAGE. 

wooden box and a carpet-bag, to which may be added a wallet or 
game-pouch to be used on occasional walking excursions. If long 
expeditions on horseback are contemplated, 32 lbs. must be the 
limit, that being the quantity (2 'Lispund') which a rider may carry 
with him ; if that limit be exceeded, a sumpter-horse (Packhest, 
with a Klevsadel) which will carry 192 lbs. (12 'Lispund') must be 
hired. A soft or compressible portmanteau is not recommended, as 
the 'Skydsgut', who is sometimes a ponderous adult, always sits on 
the luggage strapped on behind. A supply of stout cord and straps 
will be found useful, and a strong umbrella is indispensable. 

Equipment. The traveller is recommended to avoid the common 
error of overburdening himself with 'articles de voyage', eatables, 
or anything not absolutely necessary. On all the ordinary routes, 
and even in some of the remoter places, tolerable food can almost 
always be obtained. Tea and essence of coffee will sometimes be 
found useful in the remoter districts. Spirits are not to be had at 
the inns, but good Cognac may be purchased at any of the large 
towns for 4-5 kr. per bottle. A superabundance of clothing should 
also be eschewed. Two strong, but light Tweed suits, a moderate 
supply of underclothing, a pair of light shoes for steamboat and 
carriole use, and a pair of extra-strong Alpine boots for moun- 
taineering ought to suffice. Lastly a couple of square yards of 
stout waterproof material, to be used as a wrapper for coats and 
rugs, or for covering the knees in wet weather, will complete the 
traveller's equipment. The aprons (Skvcetlader) of the carrioles, it 
may here be observed, are often dilapidated, so that a waterproof 
coat and rug are very desirable. Visitors to Lapland and the Swe- 
dish Norrland should also be provided with veils to keep off the 
gnats. Ladies travelling in Norway should also dress as simply, 
strongly, and comfortably as possible, eschewing all superfluous 
ornament. Those who aspire to the rougher mountain tours should 
be provided with stout gaiters or leggings. 

Tourist Club. The iVorsfee Turistforening ('tourist union') ex- 
tends its useful sphere of operations throughout almost every part 
of Norway. These consist in building refuge-huts, improving moun- 
tain paths, establishing tariffs for guides and boats, and otherwise 
watching over the interests of travellers. The subscription is only 
4 kr. per annum, for which a copy of the 'Aarbog' will be sent to 
the traveller through the medium of any Norwegian address he 
names. The members are always received with marked courtesy 
in the mountainous regions, and enjoy a preference in the case of 
a competition for accommodation at the club huts. Travellers may 
enrol themselves at Christiania(VT. Schmidt' s,p.2), Bergen, Thrond- 
hjem, Fagernaes (p. 91), etc. The club-button (Klupknap), which 
members wear as a distinctive badge, costs 80». more. 

Guides usually receive 4 kr. per day, and on the expiry of their 
engagement have to return home at their own cost. 


V. Hotels and Inns. 

Except in the capitals and a few of the larger towns, hotels of 
the first class are rare in Sweden and still rarer in Norway, hut 
second class hotels and unpretending country inns are abundant 
in proportion to the population, affording, as a rule, cheap and 
very tolerable accommodation. The hotels at Ohristiania, Christian- 
sand, Bergen , and Throndhjem are all as expensive as similar 
houses in Germany or Switzerland. In Stockholm , on the other 
hand, the charges at the three principal hotels are reasonable, and 
in several of the other Swedish towns (Karlstad, Linkoping, Norr- 
koping, Malmo, etc.) there are excellent hotels with very moderate 
charges. At the stations or wayside inns in Norway the usual charge 
for a bed is 80 0. to lkr., for breakfast 1, supper 1, and dinner 
lY2-2kr., while the servant (generally a Pige or Jente) is amply 
satisfied with a fee of 30-40 0. from each person (Norw. Drikke- 
penge, Sw. drickspengar). The country inns (gastgifvaregardar) in 
Sweden are usually cleaner than those in Norway, but in the less 
frequented districts they afford very poor accommodation. In remote 
places the traveller is sometimes asked to share a room and even a 
bed with another. In Norway travellers are generally conveyed to 
or from the railway station or steamboat-quay by the hotel-omnibus- 
es free of charge. 

Tables d'hote are almost unknown in Sweden , and are rare in 
Norway, except in the principal towns. On board of all the steam- 
boats, however, they are the rule. All the Swedish and Norwegian 
hotels have a restaurant attached to them, where most of the natives 
dine and sup h la carte. The Sfnorgasbord or Brannvinsbord, where 
relishes of various kinds, bread-and-butter, and brandy and liqueurs 
are served by way of a stimulant to the appetite, is an institution 
peculiar to Sweden. The following dishes are among the commonest 
in the Matseddel or Spisescddel (bill of fare) at the restaurants : — 


. English. 



. English. 







































Roast veal 












Roast mut 


( Potetes 
\ Kartofler 










Roast veni- 










Roast rein 













Red wine 






White wine Hvidtvin 




01 (short) 

01, bier. 





Beer is the beverage usually drunk (halv Flask or halfva butelj, 
20-250.), but good Bordeaux and other wines are procurable at the 
better inns and on board all the steamers. Porter has also come 
into vogue of late years, particularly at Gothenburg and Stockholm. 
Spirit-drinking, which used to prevail to an enormous extent, has 
been greatly diminished by recent — 

Liquor Laws. In Norway, where the liquor-traffic was formerly al- 
most entirely free, the consumption of raw spirits amounted in 1833 to 
28 quarts per head of the entire population. Owing to the raising of the 
duty and to the efforts of temperance societies the quantity was reduced 
in 1843 to 17'/2 pints per head, and in 1871-73 to about 9 pints per head 
per annum. In 1874 and 1875 the average consumption rose to nearly 12 
pints for each person per annum, hut the recent introduction of a 'per- 
missive bill' has again caused a great reduction and is said to have been 
attended with the most beneficial results. By the laws of 9th June, 1866, 
3rd May, 1871, and 22nd May, 1875, the authorities of each district may, 
by a majority, refuse to grant any license for the retail sale of spirits 
within their district, or they may grant a monopoly of the spirit-trade 
to a company which is bound to pay the whole of its profits to the 
municipality, after deduction of expenses and 5 per cent interest. The 
former option has been exercised in many country-districts , with the 
result that drunkenness is now almost unknown and that poverty, crime, 
and disease are greatly diminished. The other alternative has been 
adopted in many of the larger towns, such as Bergen and Christianssand, 
with the result that drunkenness and crime are much less frequent than 
formerly, and that a considerable revenue is yielded to the municipality 
for the support of the improvident classes. The sale of spirits is entirely 
prohibited on Sundays and saints' days, and also on Saturdays and the 
eves of festivals after 5 p.m. — The laws restricting the sale of wine 
and beer are similar, but of a much less stringent character. 

In Sweden the leading statute regulating the retail spirit-trade was 
passed on 24th August, 1877, partly in consequence of the success which 
for several years previously had attended the 'Gothenburg licensing sys- 
tem'. Its provisions are similar to those of the Norwegian statutes, and 
by § 3 it is farther provided that food shall always be sold at spirit-shops. 
By §§ 10, 14 it is enacted that the authorities of a district may either 
sell one or more licenses , in accordance with the requirements of the 
place, by auction to the highest bidder, or to a company which shall 
pay the whole of its surplus profits to the municipality, or they may by 
a majority refuse to grant any license for the retail sale of spirits. Again, 
by § 17, no license will be granted to any one in a town, except on his 
undertaking to pay duty on at least 1200 Kannor at the rate of 25 0. per 
Kanna (2'/3 quarts) of spirits sold for consumption elsewhere, or at the 
rate of 40 0. per lanna of spirits consumed on the premises. The mini- 
mum quantity on which duty must be paid in the country is 600 Kannor. 
A license in a town, if granted at all, therefore costs 300-480 kr., and in 
the country one-half of that sum. By § 28 spirit-shops are closed in the 
country, and in towns they may be closed by order of the authorities, 
on Sundays and festivals. — In October, 1877, the municipality of Stock- 
holm, under § 10 of the statute, granted the sole license to retail spirits 
to a company similar to that at Gothenburg, and the police statistics 
show that drunkenness and crime have already decreased 

Travellers requiring to leave a country inn early in the morning 
should make all their arrangements and give their orders on the 
previous night, as the people are generally very slow in their move- 
ments. When lodging is obtained at the house of a 'Lensmand' 
or a pastor, the traveller may either ask for the bill, or pay at least 
as much as would have been charged at an inn. In some cases, 


however, all remuneration is refused. — Cafes are almost unknown 
in Norway, but are to be found in all the larger Swedish towns. 
One of their specialties is the famous Swedish punch, a mixture of 
rum or airak with lemon-juice and sugar , which is drunk as a 
liqueur and undiluted. With ice in summer it is a palatable, but 
not very wholesome beverage. 

VI. National Character. 

The Swedes are generally pleasant and courteous in their man- 
ners, and very hospitable and obliging to strangers, but by ordinary 
tourists, who traverse the country by railway and steamboat , they 
are seldom seen to advantage. 

With the Norwegians, on the other hand, whose country, in 
pleasant, old-world fashion, must be explored chiefly by driving, 
riding, or walking, the traveller will have ample opportunity of 
becoming better acquainted. Principal Forbes, the learned author of 
a standard work on Norway, calls the natives 'a free, intelligent, and 
fine-hearted people', and the definition is still correct, particularly 
with regard to those who are removed from the influences of 
modern 'civilisation'. Sincerity, honesty, and freedom from con- 
ventional cant are the chief national virtues. The outward forms 
of politeness are very little observed. On arriving at an inn or 
a station the traveller is seldom welcomed by the host or hostess, 
and on his departure he is treated with the same apparent neglect. 
The omission of such attentions arises partly from the independent 
position of many of the station-masters, with whom innkeeping is 
quite a subsidiary branch of business, and partly from the national 
unobtrusiveness and simplicity of character. Of true politeness and 
genuine kindness there is seldom any lack. The democratic char- 
acter of the people manifests itself in the freedom with which the 
peasant, the guide, and the Skydsgut seat themselves at the same 
table with the traveller. If the latter, however, invites his guide 
or Skydsgut to share his meals, he must pay for them at the same 
rate as for himself. The invitation (which is by no means obliga- 
tory) is accepted with a certain amount of dignity, and not unusually 
responded to by the attendant's ordering an extra bottle of wine or 
beer. On receiving a gratuity, the recipient usually shakes hands 
with the donor in token of his gratitude. Persons who object to 
such demonstrations had better abstain from visiting Norway. 

The Norwegians are uniformly well educated and intelligent, 
often unaffectedly pious and devout, and generally a God-fearing, 
law-abiding people. Occasionally, however, their piety degenerates 
into superstition and mysticism, as in the case of the 'Haugianer'. 

From what has already been said the traveller will rightly 
conclude that extortion, dishonesty, and incivility are rarely met 
with in Norway. In some cases, in parts of Theleniarken for 
example, somewhat high charges are asked on the ground that they 

xxviii VII. MAPS. 

are not higher than -would be paid at Christiania , but they are 
rarely insisted on if the traveller remonstrates. Lastly it may be 
observed that in many cases in which travellers have had cause to 
complain of incivility or overcharging, the offence has been oc- 
casioned by the unreasonableness of their requirements and still 
oftener by their own want of politeness and consideration. 

VII. Maps. 

In maps of an extensive, but sparsely peopled country like the 
Scandinavian peninsula there is abundant space for names, and as 
there is no lack of these (see below, 'Nomenclature') the traveller 
will often be misled by their apparent importance. In mountain- 
ous and remote districts particularly, each farm-house and even 
many insignificant 'saeters' or chalets are named in almost as bold 
type as Christiania itself. In the maps in the Handbook the 
names of unimportant 'gaards' have been omitted, but those of 
churches carefully marked. Where several different names are 
applied to the same place that most commonly used is given. 

In Norway a series of Ordnance Maps, the publication of 
which began in 1826, on the scale of 1:200,000, includes as 
yet only the southern half of Norway and the Troms»-Amt. 
These maps are executed entirely in black, and are often indis- 
tinct, as most of the plates have suffered from frequent use. A 
series of 200 new ordnance maps on a scale of 1 : 100,000, called 
the i Topografisk Kart over Kongeriget Norge' (water coloured blue, 
mountains shaded in chalk), and a 'Oeneralkart over det sydlige 
Norge\ on a scale of 1 : 400,000 (in three colours; to be completed 
in 18 sheets) are now in progress, but in each case only a few sheets 
have as yet been issued. The maps of these two series exhibit a 
good many striking discrepancies. For travelling purposes the 
most satisfactory map that has as yet been issued is the Reisekart 
over det Sydlige fy Nordlige Norge, on a scale of 1 : 800,000, pre- 
pared from official sources by Lieutenant Nissen (published by 
Cammermeyer of Christiania; six plates, l 1 ^ kr. each). In this 
map the 'skyds - stations', the distances between them, and other 
points useful to tourists are carefully noted. Lastly we may men- 
tion l Haffner$ DahVs Kart over Finmarkens Amt' (1:400,000; two 

Of Sweden, on the other hand, there exists a most satisfactory, 
though still uncompleted, ordnance map, called the 'Generalstabens 
Karta ofver Sverige' (water coloured blue), on a scale of 1 : 100,000. 
The southern provinces, extending as far as Gefle and Letaforss, 
will occupy 102 plates, about half of which are published. — An- 
other excellent map is the l Oeneralkartaofver Sverige' (1 : 100,000), 
in three plates, of which the two southernmost have been issued. 
— We may also mention the ^Llinskartor' (1 : 200,000) and the 
'■Atlas ofver Sveriges Liin och Stader' by Dr. M. Roth. 


VIII. Topographical Nomenclature. 

In Norway and Sweden , the former in particular, the spelling 
and pronunciation of the names of places is very variable. In 
Sweden the modified a and o are written a and o, but in Norway 
usually a and 0, while a and also sometimes occur, the latter 
being used by some writers to indicate the short sound of the 
letter. Again in Norway aa, au, ou, and are frequently inter- 
changed, as in Laag, Laug, Loug, or Log, 'river', and Haug or 
Houg, 'hill'. The vowels 0, u, ei, 01, and e (sometimes also u) 
are also frequently interchanged , while their pronunciation is 
nearly identical , so that the same word will sometimes assume 
such various written forms as Synjereim, Sennerheim, or S0nnerum, 
Bredheim or Breum, M&raak or Merok, Eidfjord or Bifjord. The 
letter d in combination with other words or at the end of a word 
is usually silent, and is consequently often omitted in writing 
{Meheia for Medheia, Haukeli for Haukelid, etc.). Lastly it may be 
observed that in many words g and fc, when hard, are used indiffer- 
ently, as Agershus or Akershus, Egersund or Ekersund, Vig or Vik. 
The article en or et (see the grammar in the appendix) is often 
added in common speech to names which appear in the map with- 
out it (Krogleven, Kroglev , etc.). In the Danish or Norwegian 
language the letter w does not occur, but in Swedish v and w are 
constantly interchanged, the latter having of late come more into 

In both countries the traveller will often be struck by the 
simplicity and primitiveness of the nomenclature, names signify- 
ing merely 'the creek', 'the promontory', 'the lake', 'the end of 
the lake', 'the river', 'the river valley', 'the valley river' recurring 
very frequently. Farm-houses again usually take their names 
from their proprietors, and the converse is also often the case. 
The following is a list of several Norwegian words of frequent re- 
currence (ce and being placed last in the alphabet) : — 

Aak, Ok, probably con- Fjord, ba,y, armofthesea. Mork, Merk, forest; also 
traded from Aaker or Fos, waterfall. a 'mountain-tract'. 

Ager, field, cultivated Gaard, farm-house(Engl. Nut, mountain-top, peak, 
land. 'yard'). Nws, nose, promontory. 

Aar, from Aa, river. Gald, rocky slope. Odde , tongue of land, 

Aas, ridge. Groend, group of chalets, promontory. 

Aur, see 0re. Hang, Houg, hill. Os, mnuth, estuary. 

Bros, glacier. Hei, Heia, barren height. Plads, hamlet, clearing. 

Bu, Be, 'Gaard', hamlet Helle, slab >of stone, rock, Prcestegaard, parsonage. 

By, town, village. cliff. R0gja,R0ia,Reie, -parish, 

Bygd , parish, district, Hyl, Heil, hollow, basin. iS<Fto",'chalet', mountain- 
hamlet. Kirke, church. farm, cowherds' hut. 

Dal, valley. Kiev, cliff. Stul, Stel, see 'Sseter'. 

Egg, corner, edge, ridge. Kvam, Qvam, ravine. Slue , wooden house, 

Eide, isthmus , neck of Laag, Log, Laug, Loug, sseter, hut. 
_ land. river. Sund, strait, ferry. 

Elv, river. Lykke, hamlet, garden. Thveit (Eng. 'thwaite'), 

Fjaire, beach. Mark, field. clearing. 

Fjeld, mountain. Mo, Mog, plain, dale. find, peak. 


Tjwm, Tjern, or Kjcem, Ur, rubble, loose stones. Yel, sandy slope, 
small mountain-lake, Vaag, bay, harbour. 0, island, 

'tarn'. Vand, Vatn, water, lake. -6^, -^peninsula, tongue 

Toft, site of a house, plot Vang, meadow, pasture. of land, 
of ground (the English Vas, contracted genit. of 0re , 0yv , alluvial or 
and Scotch provincial 'Vand'. gravelly soil, tongue 

word 'toft'. Vig, Vik, creek. of land. 

Many places have two or more different names, one usually 
applying to the church, another to the principal 'gaard', a third 
to the posting-station, and so on, the number of names being some- 
times in an inverse ratio to the importance of the place. 

IX. On the Physical Geography of Scandinavia. 
Situation. Geological Formation. Coast Line. 

Scandinavia, the largest peninsula in Europe, embracing the 
kingdom of Norway on the W. and N. sides, Sweden on the E. and 
S., and part of Russia to the N.E., is about 296,500 Engl. sq. M. 
in area. It extends from S.S.W. to N.N.E. between 55° 20' and 
71°10'N. latitude, being upwards of 1100 Engl. M. in length. 
Between the Gulf of Bothnia and the N.W. coast its breadth is 
about 260 Engl. M., and towards the S. its breadth gradually in- 
creases, though at the point where the Throndhjem Fjord forms a 
deep indentation it narrows to 160 M. Farther to the 8., in 
latitude 60° (that of Ohristiania and Upsala), the width increases 
to 435 M., beyond which Norway terminates in a rounded penin- 
sula ending in Cape Lindesnses (58° 59'), while the S. part of 
Sweden forms another peninsula to the S.E. of the Christiania 
Fjord, gradually narrowing, and terminating in the promontory of 
Falsterbo (55° 20') near Copenhagen. The entire coast-line of the 
peninsula , disregarding its innumerable indentations, measures 
2060 M. in length, the part between Cape Lindesnaes and Vadsa 
alone measuring 1250 M. 

The peninsula contains no distinct mountain-ranges like those 
occurring in most other countries, but mainly consists in its W. 
part of a vast elevated plateau, descending abruptly to the western 
fjords and sloping gradually down to the plains of Sweden and the 
Gulf of Bothnia on the E. side. Roughly speaking, a line drawn 
parallel with the W. coast, about 50-60 Engl. M. inland, marks 
the boundary of the mountain plateau, the W. margin of which is 
deeply indented with innumerable bays and creeks, and fringed 
with a belt of countless rocky islands. The latter are known as 
Skjar (Sw. skar), and the island-belt as the Skjmrgaard (skargard), 
To different parts of the mountain-plateau are applied the names 
of Fjeld ('fell'), Eeidar ('heights'), and Vidder ('widths', barren 


expanses), and in the N. part of the peninsula Kjeler ('mountain- 
ranges), and from it rise at intervals rounded and occasionally 
pointed, peaks of considerable height. 

The Mountains are composed almost entirely of primary rocks 
presenting nearly the same form as when originally solidified, and 
rarely overlaid with more recent formations, so that for the geolo- 
gist they possess the charm of the most hoar antiquity. These 
primary rocks consist of granite, gneiss, mica, horneblende slate, 
quarzite, clay slate, limestone, and dolomite, disposed in the form 
of strata, corresponding with which are occasional well-defined 
layers of more recent slate - formations and particularly of lime- 
stone. At places, notably in the Romsdal, or Valley of the Rauma, 
the gneiss , the oldest of these rocks , towers in most imposing 
pinnacles, 5000-6000 ft. in height, unencumbered by any later 
formations. That valley extends from the Moldefjord to the S.E., 
intersecting the pure gneiss rock, which rises on each side in almost 
perpendicular cliffs , 2000-3000 ft. in height , and is afterwards 
prolonged by the Gudbrandsdal descending to Lake Mjesen. In 
grandeur of rock-scenery, and in the purity of its formation, this 
magnificent valley is hardly inferior to the far-famed Yosemite 
Valley of the Sierra Nevada in California. 

About the year 1840 rocks of the Silurian Formation were 
discovered by geologists in the vicinity of the Christiania Fjord, and 
since that date other deposits of that period have been found in 
Skane, Western Gotland, the island of Gotland, Herjeadalen, and 
Jemteland in Sweden, and also on the banks of Lake Mjesen and 
in Throndhjems Stift in Norway, but nowhere of great extent. The 
largest Silurian basin in the peninsula is that of the Storsjo in 
Jemteland, a lake of 2580 Engl. sq. M. in area. 

One of the most instructive sections of the country is formed 
by the route from Sundsvall in Sweden to Ostersund on the Storsjo 
and Throndhjem in Norway. The primitive crystalline rocks of 
Jemteland are first replaced by limestone, extending to the E. 
bank of the lake, where the Silurian formations begin. These 
stretch westwards to the great mountain backbone of Sweden and 
Norway. On this route rises Areskutan, the highest mountain in 
Sweden (p. 367), part of the base of which on the E. and W. sides 
belongs to the Silurian formation, while the primary rocks, con- 
sisting of quartzite, horneblende, mica-slate, and gneiss, protrude 
through it all the way to the summit. From this vantage-ground 
we obtain an excellent idea of the character of the Scandinavian 
mountains. Many of the hills, rounded and worn by glacier-action, 
are almost entirely bare , or clothed only with lichens (Cetraria 
cucullata nivalis, Cronicularia ochroleuca, etc.), and present an 
exceedingly sombre and dreary appearance. The slopes of the 
intervening basins are often well wooded, but the lower plateaux 
are mainly covered with vast tracts of lake and marsh. 


Coal occurs here and there in the peninsula. The coal-measures 
of Helsingborg at the S. extremity of the peninsula are of con- 
siderable value 'and extent. On the island of Ande, one of the 
Vesteraalen group, in latitude 69°, a bed of coal was also recently 
discovered at the mouth of the Ramsaa, but investigation has proved 
it to be of little value. The condition, however, of its organic re- 
mains proves that the island must have been subjected to violent 
convulsions about the period when the coal was formed. Under 
the sea extends a thick seam of coal , above which lie strata of 
sandstone, clay-slate, and later coal , extending into the island. 
The island, must therefore have at one period been more extensive 
than now, and thickly clothed with vegetation , after which it ap- 
pears to have been submerged and then upheaved anew. 

The configuration of the mainland must at one time have differ- 
ed greatly from its present form. That it was once higher above 
the sea than now, is proved by the formation of the coast with its 
water and ice-worn fjords, straits, and isthmuses (Eid). On the 
other hand the sea appears within recent centuries to have receded 
at places. This was first observed by Celsius (A. 1744) and Linne 
(d. 1778), who caused marks to be made on the rocks at Kalmar 
and Gefle with a view to measure the retrocession of the sea , by 
the German naturalist Hell at Varde in 1769, and by L. v. Buch, 
the geologist, in 1807. Throughout avast tract, extending from 
Spitzbergen to about latitude 62°, the whole country is ascertained 
to be gradually rising, or the sea to be receding. In the Altenfjord, 
near Hammerfest, there are ancient coast-lines 620 ft. above the 
present sea-level, and others gradually decreasing in height extend 
all the way to Throndhjem and still farther S., while at Throndhjem 
itself a rise of 20 ft. within 1000 years is well authenticated. At 
Tornea, at the head of the Gulf of Bothnia, the ground is even 
said to have risen 5 ft. in a century ; in the Aland Islands, farther 
S., a rise of 3 ft. within the same time has been observed ; while at 
Karlskrona no change of level has been detected. To the S. of 
Karlskrona, on the other hand, a gradual depression of the land or 
encroachment of the sea appears to be taking place. These cal- 
culations are probably not very trustworthy, but careful measure- 
ments made at eleven different places between 1839 and 1865, 
proved that the average rise of the coast-line between Maasfl and 
Christiania during that period was 1 foot. According to Kjerulf, 
the most eminent of the Norwegian geologists, the elevation of the 
coast has taken place fitfully, as several facts tend to prove. Thus 
it will generally be observed that in all the Norwegian valleys and 
fjords there are several distinct terraces, between which there is a 
sudden and well-defined dip, and that the old coast lines , with 
their heaps of debris , descend abruptly at their lower ends at an 
angle of 25-30°. Again it will be noticed that the different water- 
levels on the rocks are marked by a kind of disintegrated pathway 


or furrow, each separated from its neighbour by a comparatively 
intact and unworn surface. 

In glancing at the Glaciers of Norway, the traveller will ob- 
serve that all the most important are situated to the S. of latitude 
67°. Even so far N. as Novaja Semlja, in lat. 72°, there are no 
glaciers of considerable size. The most extensive is the Jostedals- 
brce (p. 103), lying between lat. 61 ° and 62°, 515 Engl. sq. M. in 
area, and the largest glacier in Europe. In form it resembles an 
enormous roof, from which a number of offshoots descend to within 
150-200 ft. of the sea-level. A similar ice-mantle is that of the 
Folgefond (p. 55), a little to the S. of lat. 60°, and another of 
vast extent is that of Svartisen (p. 235), within the Arctic Circle. 
The upper parts of these glaciers form immense and comparatively 
level expanses of dazzling ice and snow, uninterrupted by moraines 
or crevasses , except where their ramifications descend, into the 
valleys, and rarely broken by peaks rising above them. These 
plateaux of ice accordingly correspond with the mountain - con- 
figuration peculiar to Norway, and on a small scale they afford an 
idea of the character of the glaciers which once covered the whole 
country. Of that period numerous traces still exist in Scandinavia 
as well as on the Baltic coasts. Striated rocks are everywhere 
observable, from the coast-line upwards ; the debris of moraines is 
distributed over every part of the country ; and the soil formed by 
glacier-friction now forms good cultivable land and affords abun- 
dant material for brick-making. Erratic Blocks seem to have 
been first deposited in S. Sweden by the glaciers on their south- 
ward course, and they abound in N. Germany, sometimes lying a 
few feet only below the surface of the soil , sometimes clustered 
together with sand, mud, o and gravel, and rising into hills of 70- 
185 ft. in height, called Asar in Sweden , and known in Ireland 
and Scotland as escars and kames. 

The coast is indented with innumerable Fjords, almost all of 
which have several minor ramifications. Similar indentations occur 
in the precipitous W. coast of N. America, extending northwards 
from the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and on the S. American coast, to 
the S. of the Island of Chiloe, and on a smaller scale there are 
numerous fjords on the "W. and E. coasts of Greenland, in Spitz- 
bergen, Novaja Semlja, and on the "W. coasts of Iceland, Scotland, 
and Ireland. All these fjord- formations cease within 40-50° from 
the equator, and at the same time they generally correspond with 
the rainiest regions of the countries where they occur. The E. coast 
of Scandinavia was probably also at one time indented with fjords, 
to which the numerous inland lakes once belonged, but which have 
gradually been filled up by the alluvial deposits of the rivers. That 
the fjords have been formed, as would naturally be supposed, by 
the erosive action of ice and water, seems to be disproved by the 
fact that they are often much deeper than the sea beyond their 

Baedkkee's Sorwii and Sweden. 3rd Edit P 


mouths. The Sognefjord, for example, is no less than 4100 ft. 
deep at places. The fact appears rather to be that these basins 
existed before the glacier era. They are generally narrow and 
deep, and with the exception of those in E. Finmarken , they lie 
at right angles to the axis of the mountains. On the banks of the 
fjords usually extends a strip of fertile and sheltered land which 
has attracted a considerable population. 

The immense and intricate archipelago of the Skjeergaard 
(skargard), or island-belt, which affords admirable shelter to the 
coasting steamers, accompanies nearly the whole of the Scandina- 
vian coast from Vads» to Haparanda. The only considerable inter- 
vals are in the Arctic Ocean near the North Cape, off the mouth of 
the Foldenfjord (64 1 /2°) ) off Jadern and Lister (between 58° and 
59°), and opposite the coasts of Holland and Skane in Sweden. 
Within the Arctic Circle are a considerable number of large islands, 
the Kvale, on which Hammerfest is situated, the Seiland, Sere, 
Stjerne, Kaage, Arne, Varne, Ringsvadse, and Hvale ; between 
the last and the mainland is the Tromse , with the town of that 
name ; then Senjen and the Vesteraalen and Lofoden Islands, Of 
the last-named group the first is the Hinde, the largest island in 
Norway (644 Engl. sq. M.), to the S. of which there are others of 
considerable size. All these islands, particularly those near the 
Arctic Circle, are mountainous, and many of them present strik- 
ingly picturesque forms. Among the finest are the Hestmandse, 
Threnen, Lovunden, Alstene with the 'Seven Sisters', and the sin- 
gular Torghcetta, all of which are described in the Handbook 
(pp. 230-235). 

The great resource of the busy coast-population is the Cod 
Fishery, besides which the Herring, Oyster, and Lobster Fisheries 
and Seal Hunting yield a considerable revenue. The great fishing- 
banks of the Lofoden Islands are mentioned at p. 241. These 
fisheries support a population of no less than 100,000 souls. The 
annual yield of the cod-fishery is estimated at 1,300,000?., and 
that of the seal-hunting (Phoca vitulina) at 55,600i., while about 
a million and a half of lobsters are annually exported to England 
alone. Herrings formerly abounded near Stavanger, but disap- 
peared from 1784 to 1808, during which period cod were abundant 
in that neighbourhood. In 1808 the cod in their turn disappeared 
and the herring returned, but since 1869 the former have again 
been found in their old haunts. The shoals of cod and herring are 
usually attended by a kind of whale (Balenoptera musculus), which 
was formerly supposed to prey on the latter, but this is ascertained 
to be erroneous. The oyster-fishery is chiefly carried on on the S. 
coast near Kragere, and on the W. coast near Finnaas in Send- 
hordland , near Lindaas in Nordhordland , near Vestnas in the 
Romsdalsfjord, by the Bjare, and near Vigtenin the Namsdal. The 
Salmon Fishery is also of considerable importance. Among the 


most famous rivers are the Drammenselv, the Numedalslaag, the 
Ongneelv in Jaederen, the Suledalselv in Ryfylke, the Rauma and 
Driva in the Romsdal , the Gula near Throndhjem , the Namsen 
in the Namsdal, and the Altenelv and Tana in Finmarken. 

These valuable resources of the coast-districts, compared with 
which the Opland or inland districts offer little or no attraction to 
settlers, have also given rise to the important Maritime Trade of 
Norway, the foundation of which was laid by the piratical Vikings 
(inhabitants of 'Vikar' or creeks), whose expeditions extended to 
Constantinople, and who discovered Iceland, Greenland, and N. 
America ('Vinland') 500 years earlier than Columbus. On some 
of the fjords still exist the tumuli of these early navigators, who 
sometimes caused themselves to be buried along with their vessels. 
The commercial fleet of Norway now ranks next to those of Great 
Britain and the United States. Timber for shipbuilding purposes 
is abundant. 

The E. coast of the peninsula is less favourable for the purposes 
of navigation, especially as many of the harbours have altered their 
position or been rendered shallow by the gradual rise of the coast- 
line, and accordingly few of the vikings had their headquarters 
there. The coasting-trade of Stockholm, however, and the inland 
lake and canal-traffic are of considerable importance. 

Mountains, Lakes, and Rivers. 
Owing to the sudden descent of the mountains on the W. coast 
the streams on that side of the peninsula all have the character of 
boisterous torrents, while on the E. coast they take the form of 
long, narrow lakes, connected by rivers and often by waterfalls. 
The mountains in the northernmost part of the peninsula, border- 
ing on Russia, rarely exceed 1000 ft. in height, but they become 
loftier as we proceed towards the S.W., rising to most imposing 
dimensions on the Lyngenfjord (p. 253) and at the head of the 
Saltenfjord (p. 236), where the Sulitjelma forms the boundary 
between the sister kingdoms. To the S. of the great glacier-moun- 
tains of Svartisen (p. 235) the mountains decrease in height, and 
a number of large lakes send their waters eastwards to the Baltic, 
while the Namsen and Snaasen descend to the well-cultivated 
plains on the Throndhjem Fjord. Farther to the S. the mountains, 
such as the Jomafjeld, Kjelhaugen, Areskutan in Sweden, and 
the Syltoppe, again attain a height of 4000-5000 ft., while the 
islands off the coast contain mountains of similar height. In lati- 
tude 63° the main range divides, the backbone of the peninsula 
continuing to run southwards, while a branch diverges to the W. 
nearly at a right angle. In the central range rise the Oster and 
Vester Dalelf, which afterwards unite and descend to the S.E. to 
the Gulf of Bothnia. Adjoining the same range lies the Fiemund- 
Sje, out of which flows the Vn>mim^o.i, v ^ afterwards called the 


Klarelf, and falling into Lake Venein, whence it descends under 
the name of the Gbtaelf to the Kattegat. A little to the N. of the 
Faemund-Sje lies the Aursund-Sje, the source of the Glommen, 
the largest river in Norway, which forms the imposing Sarpsfos at 
Sarpsborg and falls into the Skager Rak at Fredrikstad. Near the 
same lake rises the Quia, which descends to the N.W. to Thrond- 
hjem, and through the valleys of these two rivers runs the impor- 
tant railway from Throndhjem to the copper-mines of Reros and 
Lake Mjesen. 

Between the Faemund-Sje and the Glommen rise the lofty 
Hummelfjeld, Tronfjeld, and Elgepig, and between the Glommen 
and the Gudbrandsdal tower the isolated Rondane. To the 
N.W. of the latter stretches the Dovrefjeld, culminating in the 
Snehatta (p. 205), formerly supposed to be the highest mountain 
in Norway. To the W. of this point, and to the N.W. of the Gud- 
brandsdal, stretch the gneiss mountains of the Romsdal, already 
mentioned. The mountains to the 8. of the Romsdal are usually 
known as the Langfjelde, which include the Jostedalsbrce with the 
Lodalskaupe and extend to the Horungerfjeld and the Jotunheim 
Mountains. To the last-named group belongs the Ymesfjeld, a 
huge mass of granite nearly 10 Engl. M. in breadth, culminating 
in the Oaldhepig (p. 148), and surrounded by rocks of the tran- 
sition period. Farther to the S. lie the extensive Lakes Ojende, 
Tyin , and Bygdin , surrounded by imposing mountains , be- 
longing like the Horunger to the easily disintegrated 'gabbro' 
formation, and remarkable for picturesqueness of form. All these 
mountains are covered with perpetual snow, with the exception of 
the highest peaks, on which, owing to their precipitousness, the 
snow does not lie. 

The southern mountains of Norway, which also run from N.E. 
to S.W., are bounded by the Sognefjord on the N.W. , by the 
Christiania Fjord on the S.W., and by a line drawn on the E. side 
from the Fillefjeld to Christiania. Between the Sognefjord and 
the Hardanger Fjord are the isolated plateaux of the Vosseskavl, 
the Hardanger Jekul, and the Hallingskarv, rising above the snow- 
line. The Hardanger Fjeld is separated by the innermost branch 
of the Hardanger Fjord from the Folgefond (p. 55) , an extensive 
snow-clad mountain with several peaks. To the S.E. of the Har- 
danger-Fjord stretches the extensive Hardanger Vidde, with peaks 
3000-4600 ft. in height, which gradually slope on the E. and S. 
sides. Farther to the E. are the deep valleys of the picturesque 
region of Thelemarken, which frequently intersect each other. The 
E. outpost of the whole of this mountain-region is the Skogs- 
horn, to the N. of the Hallingdal. Farther to the E. are the Xume- 
dal, Hallingdal, and Valders valleys , descending towards the S. 
beyond which we again meet with a number of transverse valleys 
where the most fertile land in Norway is situated (such as Hade- 


land on the Randsfjord and Ringerike on the Tyrifjord). The 
mountains then descend to the plain of Jarlsberg and Laurvig. 
Among their last spurs are the Oausta and the Lidfjeld iu Thele- 
marken, and the isolated Norefjeld, rising between Lake Krederen 
and the Eggedal. 

The mountains extending towards the S.E. next enter the 
Herjeadal and Vermeland in Sweden, where they contain valu- 
able iron ores, particularly in Vermeland, Dalarne, and Vestman- 
land. The range next runs between Lakes Venern and Vettern. 
where it is called Tiveden, and extends to the E. under the names 
of the Tydoskog and Kolmarden. It then intersects the province 
of Gotland and forms the plateau of Smaland to the S. of Lake 
Vettern. An important spur a little to the S. of that lake is the 
Taberg, a hill containing about 30 per cent of iron ore. The hills 
then gradually slope down to the plains of Skane and Holland, 
where there are a few insignificant heights only. In the plains of 
Gotland rise the isolated Kinnekulle on Lake Venern , the Halle- 
berg, the Hunneberg, and the Omberg. 

The Swedish islands of Gotland and Oland contain no hills 
above 210 ft. in height. 

To a comparatively recent geological period belongs the Swe- 
dish Basin extending from the Skager Rak through Lakes Venern 
and Vettern to Lake Malaren, the land to the S. of which was 
probably once an island. These lakes are believed to have once 
formed a water-way to the Gulf of Finland, which again was pro- 
bably connected with the White Sea, and this theory seems to 
be borne out by the fact that a kind of crayfish found in the 
White Sea and Lake Venern does not exist in the Atlantic or in 
the Baltic. The modern canal-route connecting these lakes is de- 
scribed in RR. 36, 37, 39. 

The coast to the N. of Stockholm is flat and well wooded, and 
intersected by numerous rivers and long lakes, at the mouths of 
which lie a number of towns chiefly supported by the timber-trade. 
One of the most important lakes is the picturesque Siljan (p. 363), 
through which the Osterdalelf flows. Below Falun that river joins 
the Vesterdalelf, and their united waters form a fine cascade at 
Elfkarleby. Of the many other rivers the most important are the 
picturesque Angermanelf (j>. 369), the Lule-Elf (p. 370), and the 
Tome-Elf (p. 372). The last, the longest of all, is connected by a 
branch with the parallel river Kalix. Most of these eastern rivers 
are rather a series of lakes connected by rapids and waterfalls. The 
heavy rainfall in the mountain regions descending into the valleys, 
where the sun has not sufficient power to evaporate it, forms these 
lakes and extensive swamps, the overflow of which descends from 
basin to basin till it reaches the sea. The lower ends of these 
rivers are generally navigable for some distance. Steamboats ply 
on the Angermanelf and the T.nio-Tf.if r~p_ 369, 371). 


Climate and Vegetation. 

Temperature. Judging from the degrees of latitude within 
which the peninsula is situated, one would expect the climate to 
be uniformly severe and inclement, but this is only the case on 
the E. coast and among the central mountains. The climate of the 
W. coast is usually mild, being influenced by the Atlantic and 
the Qulf Stream which impinges upon it. In the same latitude in 
which Franklin perished in the Arctic regions of America, and in 
which lies the almost uninhabitable region of E. Siberia, the water 
of these western fjords of Norway never freezes except in their 
upper extremities. As we proceed from W. to E., and in some 
degree even from N. to S., the temperate character of the climate 
changes, and the winters become more severe. The climate is 
perhaps most equable at Skudesnces, near Stavanger, where the 
mean temperature of January is 34.7°Fahr., and that of July 55.4 : 
difference 20.7°. At Stockholm, on the other hand, the mean tem- 
perature of January is 24.8°, and that of July 63.5°: difference 
38.7°. The difference is still greater in many places farther to the 
N., as at Jockmock (66° 36' N. lat. ; 925ft. above the sea), where 
the January temperature is 3.2°, that of July 57. 92° , and the diffe- 
rence 54.90°. The tract lying between the Varanger Fjord and the 
Gulf of Bothnia, the interior of Finmarken and Lapland, and the 
southern mountains above the height of 2300 ft., all have an an- 
nual mean temperature below the freezing point. Some of the 
other isothermal lines are curious. Thus the line which marks a 
mean January temperature of 32° Fahr. runs from the Lofoden 
Islands southwards, passing a little to the E. of Bergen and through 
the inner part of the Stavanger Fjord. It then turns to the S.E. 
to Cape Lindesnces, and thence to the N.E. towards the Christia- 
nia Fjord, and southwards to Gothenburg and Copenhagen. The 
line marking a mean January temperature of 23° passes through 
Hammerfest, Saltdalen, Reros, Christiania, and Upsala. In the 
depth of winter, therefore, the Lofoden Islands are not colder than 
Copenhagen, or Hammerfest than Christiania. Again, while the 
mean temperature of the whole year at the North Cape is 35.6°, it 
is no higher at Ostersund in Jemtland, 552 Engl. M. farther 
south. Lastly, it may be mentioned that while the climate on the 
W. coast is comparatively equable throughout the year, that of 
the E. coast and the interior of the country is made up of a long, 
severe winter and a short and sometimes oppressively hot summer. 
The average temperature of the sea is 3i/ 2 -7 warmer than the air, 
being of course lower than that of the air in summer and higher 
in winter. The healthiest part of the peninsula is probably the 
island of Karme, where the death rate is only 12 per thousand. 
The average rate for Norway is 19, for Sweden 20 per thousand. 

Rainfall. In the interior of Norway less rain falls than on the 
coast. In Sweden the o-veatpst. rainfall is between Gefle and Gothen- 


burg. The mean rainfall in Sweden is 20.28 inches , that of 
Gothenburg 28.18, and that of the E. coast 16.88 inches. August 
is the rainiest month in Sweden , especially in the N. provinces. 
In Norway the maximum rainfall is at Flore, where it sometimes 
reaches 90-91 inches per annum; on the S. coast the average is 
about 40 inches, and on the W. coast, to the S. and N. of Flore, 
70-75 inches. August and September are the rainiest months in 
the E. districts of Norway, but on the W. coast the rainy season 
is somewhat later. June and July are therefore the best months 
for travelling in Sweden and the E. districts of Norway, and July 
and August for the W. coast. In the neighbourhood of the Roms- 
dal the rainy season does not usually set in before December. 
Hail and thunderstorms are rare in Norway. The latter, however, 
are sometimes very violent on the W. coast, where no fewer than 
forty churches have been destroyed by lightning within the last 
150 years. The following table shows the mean temperature and 
average rainfall in different parts of Norway : — 


a c 

■^ -^ ^ 


" .S-S 



Varde . . . 
Nijborg . . . 
Fruholmen . 
Alien .... 
Troms0 . . 
Andences . . 
Bode .... 
Ranen . . . 
Brent . . . 

YUereen . . . ; 

Christiansund I 66 




70° 22' 
70° 2' 
71° 6' 
69° 58' 
69° 39' 
69° 20' 
67° 17' 
66° 12' 
65° 28' 
63° 49' 
63° T 43.16'37.48 




Ona .... 

Dovre . . . 
Rtros . . . 
Flora . . . 
Bergen . . 
Mandal . . 

2095 62° 
33 60° 
56 58° 





Air Pressure. The pressure of the air in January is greatest 
in the interior of N. Norway and lowest in Finmarken. In July it 
is highest on the W. coast and lowest in the interior. The pre- 
vailing winds in winter are accordingly land-winds, which are fre- 
quently diverted towards the N. and follow the line of the coast. 
In summer, on the other hand, W. and S.W. winds prevail, blow- 
ing towards the region where the air-pressure is lowest, also fre- 
quently following the line of the coast towards the N., and rarely 
impinging on the coast at a right angle. The most prevalent wind 
blows from the S.W., and on the coast is usually accompanied with 
dull weather, but this is less the case in the interior. The most 
violent storms, which prevail chiefly in winter, come from the same 
quarter. The mountains form a boundary between two distinct 
climates, the W. wind being the dampest on the W. coast and the 
driest in the interior. 


The Vegetation, as might be expected from the climate and 
the geological features of the peninsula, is generally poor, but the 
flora is unusually rich for so northern a Tegion. About 25,758 
Engl. sq. M. are covered with forest, chiefly pines, the wood of 
which is valuable owing to the closeness of the rings which mark 
its annual growth. Next in point of frequency are the oak , the 
birch, the elm, and the beech. Other trees occur frequently, but 
not in the forests. The beech , which suffers more from cold than 
the oak, but does not require so high a mean temperature, rarely 
occurs in Sweden N. of Kalmar, while the oak is found as far N. 
as Gefle. In Norway, on the other hand , the beech extends to a 
point beyond Bergen , and the red beech even occurs at Thrond- 
hjem. Near Laurvig, in latitude 59-59 1 /2° the beech is found in 
considerable plantations. — The apple-tree (Pyrus malus) occurs 
as far as 65° 10' N. lat., the plum (Prunus domestica) up to 64°, 
and the cherry to 66°, while currants (Ribes nigrum and rubrum), 
gooseberries (Ribes grossularia) , strawberries (Fragaria vesca), 
raspberries (Rubus idaeus), and the common bilberry (Vaccinium 
myrtillus) occur as far north as the North Cape. 

Wheat is cultivated as far as 64 1 /2°> and in the S. of the country 
to a height of 1000-1250 ft. above the sea ; Rye grows as far N. as 
69°, and in the S. up to a height of 1950 ft. ; Barley and Oats 
occur up to 70°, and in the S. to a height of 2050 ft. above the 
sea. Botanists are referred to the instructive works of Schuebeler 
and Axel Blytt. — The cultivated land in Norway occupies the 
insignificant area of 1074 Engl. sq. M., but in Sweden 10,678 sq. 
M. In the northern regions the Oxyria remiformis, a kind of sorrel, 
is largely cultivated as a substitute for corn. It is kept in a frozen 
condition in winter and boiled down to a pulp for use, being fre- 
quently mixed with flour and made into Fladbred. In the S. 
districts, however, the 'flat bread' is usually made of wheat or 
barley flour mixed with mashed potatoes, and sometimes with 
pease-meal. The Lapps mix their bread with reindeer-milk and 
sometimes with the bitter Mulgedium alpinum , which is believed 
to be a preventive of scurvy. 

It is a curious fact that barley takes exactly the same time 
(90 days! to ripen at Alten (70° N. lat.) as at Christiania and in 
the S. of France, but it is now generally believed that the great 
length of the Arctic days compensates for the lack of warmth. The 
seed, however, if brought from a warmer climate, requires to be 
acclimatised, and does not yield a good crop until after two or three 
seasons , so that the effects of a bad harvest are felt for several 
succeeding years. 

The traveller will also observe that the leaves of most of the 
trees which occur in the northern districts of Norway are larger 
than those of trees of the same kind in the southern regions. Thus 
the leaves of maples and plane-trees (Acer platanoides and pseudo- 


platanus) transplanted from Christiania to Troiiis** have been found 
to increase greatly in size , while the trees themselves become 
dwarfed in their growth. This leaf development is also attributed 
to the long continuance of the sunlight in summer. It would be 
interesting to know what effects the protracted light produces on 
the colours of flowers and the flavour of fruits , but these points 
have not yet been investigated. 

The Animal Kingdom comprises most of the domestic and other 
animals common in Great Britain , besides many which are now 
extinct there, and a number of others peculiar to the Arctic regions. 
Among the animals most characteristic of the country are the rein- 
deer (Cervus tarandus), an exceedingly useful mammal , and the 
sole support of the nomadic Lapps, and the lemming (Georychus 
lemmus), a rodent, somewhat resembling a water-rat, which some- 
times affords food to the reindeer (see p. 153). Among beasts 
of prey the bear and the wolf are still common in many parts of 
the country, and the lynx and glutton occasionally occur. For 
killing any one of these the government offers a reward of 25 
crowns. Conspicuous among large game is the handsome elk 
('Elgsdyr' ; Cervus dices), now becoming rare, next to which rank 
the reindeer and the red deer. The finest of the wildfowl is the 
capercailzie ('Tjur' ; Tetrao urogallus], after which come the ptar- 
migan ('Rype'; Lagopus mutus) and hazel-grouse ('Hjerpe'; Tetrao 
bonasia). Partridges rarely occur in Norway, but abound in the 
S. of Sweden, where they were introduced about the year 1500. 
The most valuable of the wildfowl , however, is the eider-duck 
('Edder'; Anas moUissima) , which is most abundant within the 
Arctic Circle. The down of the female, which she uses in making 
her nest, is gathered in the Dunvair of Finmarken, yielding a con- 
siderable revenue. 

The Population is now almost exclusively of Gothic origin, but 
the oldest element consists of the Lapps and the Finns, who were pro- 
bably the aboriginal inhabitants of the country and who both belong 
-,-to the Ugrian race. Their languages are both of the Turanian stock 
(akin to Hungarian), and are said by Castren , the philologist, to 
have been identical some 2000 years ago. The Lapps now number 
about '24,000 only in Norway and Sweden, and the Finns about 
22,000 souls. They are both of the Mongolian type, with high 
cheek-bones, low foreheads, full lips, narrow eyes, blunt noses, 
and yellowish complexions, but the Finns are now by far the su- 
perior race, both physically and mentally. The names usually 
applied to them are not used by themselves. The Lapps ('nomads') 
call themselves Sami or Sahmelads, and the Finns ('fen-dwellers') 
Suomi. — The dominant race, by which the Lapps have been well- 
nigh extinguished , is of the Aryan or Indo-Germanic stock , and 
is believed to have begun to settle in the peninsula before the 
birth of Christ (see below). With regard to their language, see the 

xlii X. HISTORY. 

grammars at the end of the volume. — The total population of 
Norway at the end of 1875 was 1,807,555; that of Sweden at the 
end of 1879 was 4,578,901. The annual increase, which is slow, 
owing to the frequency of emigration, now amounts in Norway to 
about 18,000, and in Sweden to 50,000 per annum. 

X. History of Sweden and Norway. 

Prehistoric Period. The earliest antiquities in Scandinavia 
belong to the Flint Period, during which the peninsula appears to 
have been inhabited by the same race as Denmark and N. Ger- 
many. Their rude implements indicate that they possessed fixed 
dwelling-places and cattle, and were acquainted with the art of 
fishing and probably of hunting also. They buried their dead in 
large stone tomb-chambers. This epoch was succeeded by the 
Bronze Period, when implements and ornaments in bronze and 
even in gold were first imported into the country and afterwards 
manufactured by the natives themselves. Agriculture was now 
regularly practised , and the same domestic animals were used as 
at the present day. The tombs of this period sometimes contain 
cinerary urns, and sometimes bones unconsumed. During this and 
the preceding period the population seems to have been confined 
to Skane and Vester-Gotland. Lastly, about the time of the birth 
of Christ, begins the Iron Period, when the use of that metal 
was introduced from Central Europe. At the same time silver 
and glass make their appearance, and Roman coins and 'bracteates' 
(ornamental discs of metal) are occasionally found. 

During this period also the contents of tombs prove that the 
dead were sometimes burned and sometimes buried in coffins. The 
cinerary urns are usually of terracotta, rarely of bronze. Among 
other curiosities which have been found in the tombs are trinkets 
and weapons, some of which appear to have been purposely broken. 
To this period also belong the earlier Runic Inscriptions, in a large 
character differing from that afterwards used. Quite distinct from 
the earlier part of this era is the Later Iron Period, which be- 
gan in Sweden about the year 500 or 600 and in Norway about 
the year 700 A. D. The Runic inscriptions of this period are in 
the smaller character, and the language had by this time attained 
to nearly the same development as that used by the later MSS., 
while the native workmanship exhibits evidence of a new and in- 
dependent, though still barbarous stage of culture. 

To what race the inhabitants of Scandinavia during the first 
and second of these periods belonged is uncertain, but it is sup- 
posed that they were of the aboriginal Finnish stock. That the 
relics of the following periods were left by a different race is most 
probable, as no antiquities have been found which show a gradual 
transition from the bronze to the early iron period, and it is well 

X. HISTORY. xliii 

ascertained that the inhabitants of the S. parts of the peninsula 
were of Germanic origin, both during the earlier and later iron 
periods. It has also been ascertained that the older Runic alpha- 
bet of 24 letters, common to Scandinavian, Anglo-Saxon, Bur- 
gundian, and Gothic inscriptions, was afterwards modified by the 
Scandinavians, who substituted for it the smaller character, con- 
sisting of 16 letters only. It therefore seems to be a well estab- 
lished fact that during the later iron period, if not earlier, the 
Scandinavians had developed into a nationality distinct from the 
ancient Goths or the Anglo-Saxons. 

Transition to the Historical Period. 

The earliest historical writers agree that Scandinavia was at 
an early period inhabited partly by a Germanic race, and partly 
by Finns or Lapps. The Germanic inhabitants, before whom the 
weaker race seems gradually to have retreated , were first settled 
in Skane (Skaney) in the S. of Sweden , whence the country was 
named Scandia, and the people Scandinavians. The name of 
'Swedes' is mentioned for the first time by Tacitus (Suiones), the 
'Goths' are spoken of by Ptolemy, and the Suethans and Suethidi 
(i. e. Svear and Svtihjod) by Jordanis. Jordanis also mentions 
the Ostrogothae and Finnaithae, or the inhabitants of Oster-Gotland 
and Finnveden in Sweden, the Dani or Danes, the Raumarieim 
and Eagnaricii, or natives of Romerike and Raurike in Norway, 
and lastly the Ethelrugi or Adalrygir, and the Vlmerugi or Holm- 
rygir. As far back, therefore, as the beginning of our era, the 
population in the S. of Sweden and Norway appears to have been 
of the Gothic stock. To this also points the fact that the names 
of Rugians , Burgundians , and Goths still occur frequently in 
Scandinavia; the Rygir were a Norwegian tribe, the name Bor- 
gund and Bornholm (Borgundarholm) recur more than once , and 
the district of Gotland and the island of Gotland or Gutland were 
doubtless so called by Goths or Jutes. It is therefore more than 
probable that the picturesque myth of the immigration of the ^Esir 
or ancient Scandinavians from Asia under the leadership of Odin 
entirely lacks foundation in fact. 

It is at least certain that the history of Scandinavia begins 
with the later iron period. At that time the southernmost part of 
Sweden seems to have belonged to the Danes. Farther N. was 
settled the tribe of the Obtar, to whom belonged the adjacent is- 
land of Oland, while Gotland appears to have been occupied by an 
independent tribe. Still farther N. were the Svear, who occupied 
Upland, Yestermanland, Sodermanland, and Nerike. The territories 
of the Gotar and the Svear were separated by dense forest, while 
the latter were also separated from the Norwegian tribes by forests 
and by Lake Venern and the Gotaelf. Beowulf, the famous Anglo- 
Saxon epic Boem. dating from about, the year 700, mentions Den- 

xliv X. HISTORY. 

mark as an already existing kingdom, and also speaks of the differ- 
ent states of the Gotar and Svear, which, however, by the 9th cent, 
had become united, the Svear, or Swedes, being dominant. 
The same poem refers to 'Norvegr' and 'Nordmenn', i.e. Norway 
and the Northmen , but throwns no light on their history. It 
is, however, certain that the consolidation of Norway took place 
much later than that of Denmark and Sweden, and doubtless after 
many severe struggles. To the mythical period must be relegated 
the picturesque stories of the early Ynglingar kings, beginning 
with Olaf Trcetelje, or the 'tree-hewer'; but they are probably not 
without some foundation in fact, and it is at any rate certain that the 
migrations and piratical expeditions of the Northmen, which soon 
affected the whole of the north of Europe, began about this time 
(7th-8th cent. A. D.). The predatory campaigns of the Danish King 
Hugleikr, which are mentioned both in the Beowulf and by Frankish 
chroniclers, are doubtless a type of the enterprises of the vikings 
(from Vik, 'creek), which continued down to the 11th century. The 
Swedes directed their attacks mainly against Finland , Kurland, 
Esthonia, and Russia, which last derived its name and its political 
organisation from Sweden ; the Danes undertook expeditions against 
France and England, and the Norwegians chiefly against the north 
of England, Scotland, the Orkney and Sketland Islands , and the 

Norway before the Union. 
From the semi-mythical Ynglingar and Olaf Traetelje, who is 
said to have flourished about the middle of the 7th cent., Halfdan 
Svarte, King of a part of Norway corresponding with the present 
Stift of Ohristiania, professed to trace his descent. His son Harald 
Haarfagre ('fair-haired'), after several severe conflicts, succeeded 
in uniting the whole of Norway under his sceptre after the deci- 
sive battle of the Hafrsfjord near Stavanger in 872. The final 
consolidation of the kingdom, however, was not effected until a 
century later. The kingdom was repeatedly attacked by the petty 
kings who had been banished , while great numbers of the pea- 
santry, to escape the burdens of taxation, emigrated to the Orkney 
and Shetland Islands, to Iceland, and even to the Hebrides. In 
this weakened condition Harald transmitted the crown to his fa- 
vourite son Eirikr Blddox. whose exploits as a viking had gained for 
him the sobriquet of 'bloody axe'. After having slain several of 
his brothers, Eric was expelled about the year 935 by Haakon the 
Good , who in his turn was defeated and slain by Eric's sons at 
the battle of Fitjar in 961. Among the sons of Eric, several of 
whom were put to death by their own subjects, the most disting- 
uished was Harald Graafeld, who was, however, at length defeated 
by the Jarl (earl) of Lade in the district of Throndhjem with the 
aid of Harald Gormsson, king of Denmark (970). At this period 
a number of petty kings still maintained themselves on the fiords 

X. HISTORY. xlv 

and in the interior of the country, trusting for support from the 
kings of Sweden and Denmark. The Jarls of Lade, who ruled 
over Throndhjem, Helgeland, Namdalen, and Nordmere, acknow- 
ledged the supremacy of the kings of Norway, until Haakon Jarl 
transferred his allegiance to the kings of Denmark. On the out- 
break of war between Denmark and Germany he succeeded in 
throwing off the Danish yoke, but did not assume the title of 
king. Haakon was at length slain by one of his own slaves during 
an insurrection of the peasantry (995) , whereupon Olaf Trygg- 
vasou, a descendant of Haarfagre , obtained possession of the 
kingdom, together with the fjords and inland territory which had 
belonged to Haakon. With the accession of Olaf begins a new 
era in the history of Norway. 

In the 10th century Paganism in the north was in a moribund 
condition. Based on the dual system of a world of gods (Asgardr, 
Godheimr) and a realm of giants (Utgardr, Jotunheimr), it regarded 
mankind (Midgardr, Mannheimr) as a kind of object of contention 
between the two. All alike partook equally of the joys and sorrows 
of life, of sin, and even of death. The period of the vikings, 
however, to the close of which we owe the Eddas, materially altered 
the tenets of the old religion. As victory was their great object, 
they elevated Odin, , the god of victory , to the highest rank in 
their pantheon, while Thor, the god of thunder, had hitherto 
Jeigned supreme. The bards depict in glowing colours the halls 
of Odin, which become the abode of heroes slain in war. But as 
the gods had been in many respects lowered to the rank of men, 
and were themselves believed to have their destinies swayed by 
fate , it necessarily followed that they were not themselves the 
Creators, but at most the intermediate artificers and administrators 
of earth. They therefore failed to satisfy the religious wants of 
men, who began to speculate as to the true and ultimate Creator 
of the universe , and it was about this period that Christianity 
began to dawn on the benighted north. The vikings came into 
frequent contact with Christian nations, and Christian slaves were 
frequently brought to Norway and Sweden. Many of the Northmen 
professed to be converted , but either retained many of their old 
superstitions or speedily relapsed into them. A few , however, 
embraced the new religion zealously , and it is to them that the 
final conversion of the peninsula was due. The first Christian 
monarch was Haakon the Good, who had been brought up by King 
Athelstane in England, and been baptised there ; but his attempts 
to convert his people were violently opposed and met with no success. 
The sons of Eric, who had also been converted in England, showed 
little zeal for Christianity, and under Haakon Jarl heathenism 
was again in the ascendant. At length when Olaf Tryggvason, 
who had also become a Christian, ascended the throne, he brought 
missionaries from England and Germany to Norway and succeed- 

xlvi X. HISTORY. 

ed in evangelising Norway , Iceland , the Orkney and Shetland 
Islands and the Faroes , partly by persuasion , and partly by inti- 
midation or by bribery. Iceland, however, had already been partly 
converted by Thorvaldr Vidforli , a native missionary , aided by 
the German bishop Friedrich. 

King Svejn Tveskag ('double beard') of Denmark now attempt- 
ed to re-establish the Danish supremacy over Norway, and for 
this purpose allied himself with his stepson King Olaf, Skot- 
konung or tributary king of Sweden , and with Eric, the son of 
Haakon, by whose allied fleets Olaf Tryggvessen was defeated and 
slain in the great naval battle of Svold, on the coast of Pomerania, 
about the year 1000. Norway was now partitioned between the 
kings of Denmark and Sweden, who ceded most of their rights to 
the Jarls Eric and Svejn, sons of Haakon Ladejarl. The kingdom, 
however, was soon permanently re-united by St. Olaf , son of 
Harold Orenski , and a descendant of Harald Haarfagre. After 
having been engaged in several warlike expeditions, and having 
been baptised either in England or in Normandy , he returned 
to Norway in 1014 to assert his claim to the crown. Aided by 
his stepfather Sigud Syr, king of Ringerike, and by others of the 
minor inland kings, he succeeded in establishing his authority 
throughout the whole country , and thereupon went to work 
energetically to consolidate and evangelise his kingdom. His 
severity, however, caused much discontent, and his adversaries were 
supported by Canute , king of England and Denmark, who still 
asserted his claim to Norway. Canute at length invaded Nor- 
way and was proclaimed king, while Olaf was compelled to seek an 
asylum in Russia (1028). Having returned with a few followers to 
regain his crown , he was defeated and slain at Stiklestad near 
Levanger on 29th July, 1030. Canute's triumph , however, was 
of brief duration. He ceded the reins of government to Haakon 
Jarl Erikssen, and after the death of the jarl to his son Svejn and 
the English princess Aelgifu , the mother of the latter ; but a 
reaction speedily set in, stimulated chiefly by the rumour of Olaf's 
sanctity , which found ready credence and was formally declared 
by a national assembly. Olaf's son Magnus, who had been left by 
his father in Russia, was now called to the throne , and Svejn was 
obliged to flee to Denmark (1035). The sway of Magnus was at 
first harsh, but he afterwards succeeded in earning for himself the 
title of 'the good'. In accordance with a treaty with Hardicanute 
in 1038, he ascended the throne of Denmark after the Danish 
monarch's death in 1042, but his right was disputed by Svend 
Estridssen. In 1046 he assumed as co-regent the turbulent Harald 
Sigurdssen, step-brother of St. Olaf, who succeeded him on his 
death in 1047. After a series of violent conflicts with Svend, 
Harald was obliged to renounce his pretensions to the crown of 
Denmark, but on Haralds death at the Battle of Hastings (1066) 

X. HISTORY. xlvii 

the hostilities between Norway and Denmark broke out anew. 
Harald was succeeded by Olaf Haraldss«n, who in 1068 entered 
into a new treaty with Svend of Denmark at Kongshelle, whereby 
the independence of Norway was finally established. 

Olaf, who was surnamed Hinn Kyrri, or 'the peaceful', now 
devoted his attention to the internal organisation of his kingdom, 
and several of the Norwegian towns began to attain importance. 
Skfringssalr (near Laurvik) and the neighbouring Tensberg already 
existed; Nidaros (afterwards Throndhjem) is said to have been 
founded by Olaf Tryggvason, Sarpsborg by St. Olaf, and Oslo by 
Ilarald Hardraade ; but the foundation of Bergen and several other 
towns, probably including Stavanger, is attributed to Olaf Kyrri. 
His court was famed for its magnificence and the number of its 
dignitaries , and at the same time he zealously promoted the in- 
terests of the church. "While Olaf s predecessors had employed 
missionaries, chiefly English, for the conversion of their subjects, 
he proceeded to establish three native bishoprics and to erect 
cathedrals at Nidaros, Bergen, and Oslo, making the dioceses as 
far as possible coextensive with the three provinces in which 
national diets (Thing) were held. His warlike son Magnus Barfod 
(1093-1103), so surnamed from the dress of the Scotch Highland- 
ers which he had adopted , did not reign long enough seriously 
to interrupt the peaceful progress of his country , and the three 
sons of. Magnus, 0ystein (d. 1122), Sigurd '(d. 1130), and Olaf 
(d. 1115), thereafter proceeded to carry out the plans of their 
grandfather. Sigurd was surnamed Jorsalafarer ('Jerusalem farer 1 ) 
from his participation in one of the Crusades (1107-11). The 
same devotion to the church also led about this period to the 
foundation of the bishopric of Stavanger, and of several mon- 
asteries (those of Saele in the Nordfjord, Nidarholm near Thrond- 
hjem, Munkelif at Bergen, and Gims* near Skien), and to the in- 
troduction of the compulsory payment of tithes (Tiende, 'tenths', 
known in Scotland as 'teinds'), a measure which secured indepen- 
dence to the church. King 0ystein is said to have been versed 
in law , and both he and several of his predecessors have been 
extolled as lawgivers, but no distinct trace of legislation in Nor- 
way of a period earlier than the beginning of the 12th cent, has 
been handed down to us. 

After Sigurd's death the succession to the throne was disputed 
by several claimants , as , in accordance with the custom of the 
country, all relations in equal propinquity to the deceased, 
whether legitimate or not, enjoyed equal rights. The confusion 
was farther aggravated by the introduction (in 1129) of the custom 
of compelling claimants whose legitimacy was challenged to un- 
dergo the 'iron ordeal', the practical result of which was to pave 
the way for the pretensions of adventurers of all kinds. Conflicts 
thus arose between Harald Oilli, a natural son of Magnus Barefoot, 

xlviii X. HISTORY. 

and Magnus Sigurdssen ; between Sigurd Slembedegn, who claimed 
to be a brother of Harald , and Ingi and Sigurd Munn, sons of 
Harald; and afterwards between Ingi and Haakon Herdebred, a 
son of Sigurd Munn. All these pretenders to the throne perished 
in the course of this civil war. Ingi was defeated and slain by 
Haakon in 1161 , whereupon his partisans elected as their king 
Magnus Erlingssenj-who was the son of a daughter of Sigurd Jorsala- 
farer. Haakon in his turn having fallen in battle, his adherents 
endeavoured to rind a successor, but Brling, the father of Magnus, 
whose title was defective, succeeded in obtaining the support of 
Denmark by the cession of Vigen, and also that of the church. 

Meanwhile the church had firmly established her power in the 
north. At first the sees of Sweden and Norway had been under 
the jurisdiction of the archbishops of Hamburg and Bremen , but 
in 1103 an archiepiscopal see was erected at Lund in Skane. The 
Norwegians, however, desiring an archbishop of their own, Pope 
Eugene II. sent Cardinal Nicholas Breakespeare to Norway for the 
purpose of erecting a new archbishopric there , and at the same 
time a fifth bishopric was erected at Hamar. The new archbis- 
hop's jurisdiction also extended over the sees of Iceland , Green- 
land, the Faroes, the Orkneys, the Hebrides, and the Isle of Man, 
and his headquarters were established at Throndhjem. In 1164 
Erling Jarl induced Archbishop Eystein to crown his son Magnus, 
a ceremony which had never yet taken place in Norway , and at 
the same time he engaged to make large concessions to the church, 
including a right to a voice in the election of future kings. 

Supported by the church, personally popular, and a meritorious 
administrator , Magnus had at first no difficulty in maintaining 
his position, but his title and the high privileges he had accorded 
to the church did not long remain unchallenged. 

After several insurrections against Magnus had been quelled, 
there arose the formidable party of the Birkebeiner ('birch-legs', so 
called from the bark of the birch which they used to protect their 
feet), who in 1177 chose as their chief Sverre, a natural son of 
Sigurd Munn, who had been brought up as a priest, and who soon 
distinguished himself by his energy and prudence. In 1179 Erling 
was defeated and slain by Sverre at Nidaros, and in 1184 his son 
Magnus met the same fate in the naval battle of Fimreite in the Sogn 
district. Sverre's right to the crown , however, was immediately 
challenged by new pretenders, and he incurred the bitter hostility 
of the church by ignoring the concessions granted to it by Magnus. 
In 1190 Archbishop Eric, Eystein's successor fled the country, and 
the king and his followers were excommunicated ; but though 
severely harassed by several hostile parties, particularly the Bagler 
(the episcopal party, from Bagall, 'baculus', a pastoral staff), Sverre 
died unconquered in 1202. He was succeeded by his son Haakon 
(d. 1204), by (ruttorm Sigurdssen (d. 1204), and by Inge Baardssen 

X. HISTORY. xlix 

(d. 1217), under whom the hostilities with the church still con- 
tinued. For a time, however, peace was re-established by Haakon 
Haakonssen (1217-63), a grandson of Sverre, under whom Norway 
attained a high degree of prosperity. His father-in-law Skule Jarl, 
brother of King Inge, on whom he conferred the title of duke, proved 
his most serious opponent, but on the death of the duke in 1240 the 
civil wars at length terminated. New rights were soon afterwards 
conferred on the church, but of a less important character than those 
bestowed by Magnus Erlingssan, the clergy being now excluded 
from a share in the election of kings. The king also amended the 
laws and sought to extend his territory. Since the first colonisa- 
tion of Iceland (874-930) the island had been independent , but 
shortly before his death Haakon persuaded the natives to acknow- 
ledge his supremacy. In 1261 he also annexed Greenland , which 
had been colonised by Icelanders in the 10th cent, and previous- 
ly enjoyed independence , so that , nominally at least , his sway 
now extended over all the dioceses subject to the see of Thrond- 
hjem, including the Orkney and Shetland Islands, the Faroes, the 
Hebrides, and the Isle of Man. His claim to the Hebrides being 
disputed by Alexander III. of Scotland, he assembled a fleet for the 
purpose of asserting it, and set sail for the Orkney Islands, where 
he died in 1263. He was succeeded by his son Magnus Lagabeter 
('betterer of laws'), who by the treaty of Perth in 1268 renounced 
his claims to the Hebrides and Man in return for a small payment 
from Alexander. In his reign, too, the Swedish frontier, long a 
subject of dispute, was clearly defined, and the relations between 
church and state were placed on a more satisfactory footing. 

Constitution. From an early period Norway was divided into 
four large districts , each presided over by a Thing or Lagthing 
(Legthing), a diet with judicial and legislative functions. The 
eight Fylker or provinces of Throndhjem sent representatives to 
the Frostuthing, so named from Frosten, the meeting-place of the 
diet , and to these were afterwards added Helgeland , Namdalen, 
Nordmere, and Romsdalen. The Oulathing, in the Fylke of Gulen, 
embraced the Fylker of Firda, Sygna, and Herda, to which Roga- 
land, Agder, and Sondmere were afterwards added. The district 
of Vigen appears to have had a Thing of its own , which after the 
time of St. Olaf met at Sarpsborg and was called the Borgarthing ; 
but from the 12th cent, onwards representatives were sent to this 
diet by Ranrflci, Vingulmerk, Vestvold, and Grenafylke also. 
Lastly the mountain districts of Heina, Hada, and Rauma, held a 
diet called the Heidsavisthing, afterwards named the Eidsifathing 
from Bidsvold where it assembled. This diet, though separate 
from that of Vigen, was under the same law, which had been de- 
clared common to both by St. Olaf. A committee of each diet, 
called the Legretta, chosen by the king's officers , performed the 
judicial duties of the diet, while the Legthing itself exercised 

Baedeker's Norway and Sweden. 3rd Edit. ,\ 


jurisdiction over the diets held at irregular intervals in the diffe- 
rent Fylker. Resolutions were passed by a majority of the peas- 
antry at the diet. The four cities of Throndhjem, Bergen, Tens- 
berg, and Oslo each possessed a distinct Lflgthing , the law ad- 
ministered by which was called 'Bjarkeyjarrettr'. 

King Magnus proceeded to abolish these diets (in 1267 and 
1268), but was prevented from Anally accomplishing his object 
by the protest of Archbishop Jon Raudi at the diet of Frosten 
(1269). He then directed his attention to the amendment of the 
laws. In 1271 a code called Jdrnsida ('iron side') was completed, 
and in 1272-4 a new code was promulgated at the Frostuthing, 
which seems to have been immediately adopted by the other 
districts. In 1276 a new municipal law was introduced at Bergen 
and soon afterwards into the other towns also ; and lastly the 
J6nsbok, a collection of the laws of the mainland, was compiled 
in 1280 and promulgated in Iceland. From these codes ecclesias- 
tical law was excluded. Though each of them bears a distinctive 
name, such as 'Law of the Frostuthing', 'Town Laws of Bergen', 
etc., and is somewhat modified to suit the requirements of the 
district or town which adopted it , they substantially formed a 
single code for the whole kingdom. The whole country was now 
subject to the jurisdiction of the four diets, with the exception of 
Helgeland, Jemtland, and Herjedalen , which still formed inde- 
pendent districts. Meanwhile King Magnus concluded a Concordat 
with the church at Bergen in 1273 and another at Tflnsberg in 
1277, and at the same time sanctioned an ecclesiastical code 
drawn up by Archbishop Jon , wherein he renounced all control 
over ecclesiastical causes and over the election of prelates. An- 
other interesting code of this period was the Hirdskraa ('law of 
servants', probably 1274-77), which affords an insight into the 
early condition of Norway. 

Magnus Lagabater died in 1280 and was followed by his son 
Eric Magnuss#n (d. 1299), who was succeeded by his brother 
Haakon Magnussam (d. 1319). Under these monarchs the con- 
cessions of Magnus to the church formed the subject of constant 
dispute, and it was not till 1458 that they were finally secured 
to the hierarchy by Christian IV. In their secular administration, 
however, the sons of Magnus experienced less difficulty. At first 
the functions of the Legthing or diets had been deliberative, judi- 
cial and legislative, and those of the king executive only but the 
constitution gradually assumed a more monarchical form. The 
first step was to transfer the judicial powers of the diets to offi- 
cials appointed by the king himself. The L»gmenn ('lawyers') 
had originally been skilled assessors at the diets, elected and 
paid by the peasantry, but from the beginning of the 13th cent, 
onwards it was customary for the king to appoint them and they 
became the sole judges of all suits i,n the first instance. In the 


second or higher instance the diet was still nominally the 
judge, but it was presided over by the Legmann and attended by 
others of the king's officials. The king himself also asserted a right 
to decide cases in the last instance , with the aid of a 'council of 
the wisest men'. The four ancient diets were thus in the course 
of time transformed into ten or twelve minor diets, presided over 
by L«gmenn. 

At the same time great changes in the social and political 
system were effected. In accordance with the old feudal system, 
it had been customary for the kings to bestow temporary and re- 
vocable grants of land ('Veitsla', probably from veitla, 'to bestow') 
on their retainers and courtiers ('Hird'j, on the understanding 
that the tenants ('Huskarlar') would administer justice , collect 
the taxes, and render military and other services. In some cases, 
too, a Jarl was appointed governor of a considerable district and 
invested with extensive powers and practical independence , and 
it was usual for the king to confirm the heirs of these officials and 
dignitaries in their respective lands and offices. All these minor 
jurisdictions, however, were abolished by Haakon Magnussan 
(1308), who directed that all his officials should in future be 
under his own immediate control. Thus, by the beginning of the 
14th cent. , the Norwegian monarchs had attained a position of 
great independence, and had emancipated themselves alike from 
democratic and from aristocratic interference. The peasantry, 
however, always enjoyed greater freedom than in most other Euro- 
pean countries, and possessed their lands in freehold, being them- 
selves lords of a great part of their native soil ; but they never 
attained to much wealth or importance, as the trade of the country 
from a very early period was monopolised by Germans and other 
foreigners. Of scarcely greater importance was the nobility of the 
country, their lack of influence being due to want of organisation 
and political coherence. 

The Intellectual Culture of Norway during this period, as may 
be supposed, made no great progress. The Runic character had 
indeed been in use from the early Iron Period downwards , but it 
was merely employed for short inscriptions and rude registers of 
various kinds, and not for literary purposes. On the foundation 
of the archbishopric of Land , the Latin character was at length 
introduced, but before that period all traditions and communica- 
tions were verbal , and it is mainly to the bards or minstrels 
('Skaldskapr') that we owe the preservation of the ancient mythi- 
cal and historical sagas or 'sayings'. About the year 1190 the 
Latin character began to be applied to the native tongue, both for 
secular and religious purposes. Of the exceedingly rich 'Old 
Northern' literature which now sprang up , it is a singular fact 
that by far the greater part was written by Icelanders. Among 
the most famous of these were Art Frridi (d. 1148), the father of 



northern history; Oddr Snormson and Ounnlaugr Leifsson 
(A. 1218), the biographers of King Olaf Tryggvessra ; the prior 
Styrmir Kdrason fd. 1245). the biographer of St. Olat ; the abbot 
Karl Jtnsson (d. 1212), the biographer of King Sverre ; and lastly 
Eirikr Oddsson, Snorri Sturluson (d. 1241 j, and Slurla Ihordarson 
Id 1284) who were both historians of the kings of Norway and 
zealous collectors of their own island lore. The bards attached to 
the Scandinavian courts were also generally Icelanders. To Nor- 
wegian authorship are traceable comparatively few literary works, 
the most important being juridical compilations, the King's 
Mirror' which affords an insight into the court-life and commer- 
cial transactions of the 13th cent., the 'Anekdoton Sverreri', a 
polemic in favour of the crown against the church, several ballads 
of the earlier Edda, and a number of romances translated from 
English and French. This poverty of the literature of the main- 
land is doubtless to be accounted for by the fact that it was con- 
stantly harassed by wars and intestine troubles at this period, 
while Iceland was in the enjoyment of peace. While, moreover, 
in Norway the clergy held themselves aloof from the people and 
from secular pursuits , and the nobles were busily engaged in 
fashioning their titles, their manners, and their costumes on the 
model of those of their more civilised neighbours , the Icelanders 
of all classes retained their national coherence in a far higher 
degree , all contributing with equal zeal to the patriotic task of 
extolling their island and preserving its ancient traditions. 

Sweden before the Union. 

With regard to the early history of Sweden there exist no 
chronicles similar to those of the Icelanders and Norwegians. It 
is ascertained, however, that the country was partly evangelised 
in the 9th cent, by Anskar (d. 865) and other German missionaries, 
and by his successor Rimbert (d. 8S8). Archbishop Unni after- 
wards preached the Gospel in Sweden, where he died in 936, and 
after the foundation of several bishoprics in Denmark about the 
middle of the 10th cent., Sweden was visited by several other 
German and Danish missionaries. The secular history of the 
country is involved in much obscurity , from which, however, it 
to some extent emerges when it comes into contact with that of 
Norway. About the end of the 10th century Olaf Skotkonung 
('tributary king') took part in the battle of Svold against Olaf of 
Norway and in the subsequent dismemberment of that country. 
He was afterwards compelled by his own peasantry to promise to 
come to terms with St. Olaf, and on his failure was threatened 
with deposition. He was then obliged to assume his son Onund 
as co-regent, and had to make peace with Norway about the 
year 1019. Olaf and Onund are said to have been the first Chris- 
tian kings of Sweden. Onund was succeeded by his brother 

X. HISTORY, liii 

Emund (A. 1056), the last of his royal house , on whose death 
hostilities broke out between the Gotar, who were now inclined 
in favour of Christianity and the more northern and less civilised 
Svear, who were still sunk in paganism. Emund had been in- 
different about religion . but his successor Stenkil Ragnvaldsson 
was a zealous Christian and was keenly opposed by the Svear. On 
the death of Stenkil about 1066 open war broke out between the 
Christian and the pagan parties. When his successor Inge Sten- 
kilsson (A. 1112), in whose reign the archbishopric of Lund was 
erected (1103), forbade heathen sacrifices, the Svear set up his 
brother-in-law Blot-Sven as a rival king, but Inge and Ms nephews 
and successors, Inge II. (d. about 1120) and Philip(A. about 1130), 
succeeded in maintaining their independence. These dissensions 
greatly weakened the resources of the kingdom. Stenkilsson fought 
successfully against Magnus Barfod of Norway and acquitted himself 
honourably at Kongshelle (1101), but his successors often allowed 
the Norwegians to invade their territory with impunity. 

On the death of Philip, Magnus, a Danish prince , and grand- 
sou of Stenkilsson , assumed the title of king in Gotaland, but 
was defeated and slain in 1134 by Sverker I., who had been elected 
king two years previously. Sverker was next opposed by Erik 
Jedvardsson, who was proclaimed king by the Svear, and on Sver- 
ker's death in 1156 this Erik, commonly called the 'Ninth' and 
surnamed the 'Saint', obtained undivided possession of the throne. 
Eric, a zealous churchman, converted the temple of Upsala into a 
Christian place of worship , and conquered and Christianised 
the S.W. part of Finland. In 1160 he was attacked and slain by 
Magnus Henriksson, a Danish prince, who laid claim to the throne, 
and who in the following year was defeated and slain by Karl 
Sverkersson. The latter in his turn was slain by Erik Knutsson in 
1167, and the contest between the rival houses of Sverker and 
Eric lasted down to 1222. Eric died in 1195, his successor Sverker 
Karlsson in 1210, and Jon Sverkersson , the son of the latter and 
the last of his family , in 1222 , whereupon Erik Leespe ('the lis- 
ping'), a son of Eric Knutsson , ascended the throne unopposed. 
Meanwhile the Svear, or Swedes in the narrower sense , had been 
converted to Christianity. The church was at first presided over 
by missionary bishops only, but in the reign of Olaf Eriksson a 
bishopric was erected at Skara , and under Stenkil another at 
Sigtuna. Under King Sverker a bishop of Oster-Gcitland was ap- 
pointed, with his residence at Linkoping , one for the diocese of 
Upper Sweden at Upsala, and others for Sodermanland and Vester- 
manland at Strongnas and Vesteras , while several monasteries 
were also founded. The primacy of Sweden was granted to Arch- 
bishop Eskil of Lund by Hadrian IV. (Nicholas Breakespeare) about 
the year llo-i, but in 1163 was transferred to Stephanus, the newly 
created Archbishop of Upsala. 

liv X. HISTORY. 

Eric L;espe , though respected by his subjects , was a weak 
prince. Long before his time the Tolkungar, a wealthy family of 
Ostef-Gotland, had gradually attained to great power, and Birger 
Brosa (d. 1202), a member of the family , had obtained the title 
of Jarl or Duke of the Swedes and Gotlanders. From an early 
period , moreover , intermarriages had taken place between the 
Folkungar and the royal families of Sweden , Norway , and Den- 
mark. In 1230 an attempt to dethrone Eric was made by Knut 
Jonsson, a distant cousin of Birger , but Knut was defeated and 
slain in 1234, and his son was executed as a rebel in 1248. The 
position of the family, however, remained unaffected. Birger Jarl, 
a nephew of Birger Brosa , married Ingeborg, the king's sister, 
while Eric himself married a member of the Folkungar family 
(1243). Birger now became the real ruler of Sweden, the terri- 
tory of which he extended by new conquests in Finland. On the 
death of Eric, the last scion of the house of St. Eric, without 
issue in 1250, Valdemar, Birger's son, was proclaimed the succes- 
sor of his uncle. During Birger's regency the country prospered, 
but on his death in 1266 hostilities broke out between his sons. 
The weak and incapable "Valdemar was dethroned by his brother 
Magnus (1275), whose vigorous administration resembled that of 
his father, and who maintained friendly relations with the Hanse- 
atic League. He also distinguished himself as a lawgiver and an 
upholder of order and justice, and earned for himself the surname 
of Ladulas ('barn-lock', i. e. vindicator of the rights of the 

In 1290 Magnus was succeeded by his son Birger Magnusson, 
during whose minority the government was ably conducted by 
Marshal Thorgils Knutsson , but serious quarrels afterwards broke 
out between Magnus and his brothers, the dukes Eric and Valde- 
mar. In 1304 the dukes were banished, and in 1306 the faithful 
marshal was executed by the king's order. Soon afterwards, 
however, the dukes returned and obtained possession of the king's 
person. After several vicissitudes, peace was declared and the 
kingdom divided among the brothers in 1310 and again in 1313. In 
1318, however, the dukes were arrested, imprisoned, and cruelly 
put to death by their brother's order, whereupon Birger himself 
was dethroned and banished to Denmark (d. 1321). The following 
year Magnus , the infant son of Duke Eric , was elected king 
at the Mora Stones of Upsala (p. 351), while Magnus, Birger's 
son, was taken prisoner and executed. The first attempts to unite 
the Scandinavian kingdoms were made in the reign of Magnus 

The Constitution of Sweden at first resembled that of Norway. 
The country was divided into districts, called Land, Folkland , or 
Landskap , each of which was subdivided into Hundari ('hun- 
dreds'), called in Gotland Harath. Each 'Land' had its diet or 


Thirty, presided over by a Lagman, and eacli hundred had its 
Harathsthing , whose president was called a Domar ('pronouncer 
of dooms') or Harathshof thing . The Landsthing exercised delib- 
erative and judicial functions, and each had its own code of laws. 
Precedence among these diets was enjoyed by the Svea Thing or 
that of Upper Sweden , at which , although the monarchy was 
nominally hereditary, kings were first elected. After his election 
each new king had to swear to observe the laws, and to proceed 
on the 'Eriksgata', or a journey to the other diets , in order to 
procure confirmation of his title. Resolutions of the Svea Thing 
were even binding on the king himself. As the provincial laws 
differed , attempts to codify them were made in the 13th and at 
the beginning of the 14th cent., but with the consolidation of 
the kingdom these differences were gradually obliterated. The 
chief difference between Sweden and Norway was the prepon- 
derance of the aristocratic element in the former. From an early 
period, moreover, it had been usual to hold diets composed of the 
higher officials, the barons, prelates, and large landed proprietors, 
and to these after the close of the 13th cent, were added the Lag- 
menn. This aristocratic diet was farther enlarged by Magnus 
Ladulas (1280), who admitted to it all knights willing to serve 
him in the field , according to them the same exemption from 
taxation as that enjoyed by his courtiers and by the clergy. As 
no one, however, in accordance with a law of 1285, could attend 
these diets without a summons from the king himself, he retained 
the real power in his own hands and reserved a right to alter the 
laws with the advice of the diet. From an early period the Lag- 
man and the Harathshofthinghad been the sole judges in lawsuits, 
and from the first half of the 14th cent, downwards they were 
proposed by the people, but appointed by the king. At the same 
time the king possessed a right of reviewing all judgments in the 
last instance. No taxes could be exacted or troops levied without 
the consent of the popular diets, and it therefore became custom- 
ary as early as the 13th cent, for the kings to employ mercenary 
troops. — The privileges of the church were well defined, but 
less extensive than in Norway. The payment of tithes was com- 
pulsory, and in 1248 and 1250 the right to elect bishops was 
vested in the chapters, while all the clergy were prohibited from 
taking oaths of secular allegiance. At the same period the celibacy 
of the clergy was declared compulsory. As early as 1200 the 
clergy was declared amenable to the ecclesiastical jurisdiction 
only , and in some cases the church-courts could even summon 
laymen before them. On the other hand the supreme legislative 
power in church matters still belonged to the state, and parishes 
enjoyed the right of electing their pastor when no express right of 
patronage existed. — In the latter half of the 13th cent, the dig- 
nity of Jarlor earl was abolished, and the Drotscete ('high steward'), 

lvi X. HISTORY. 

Marsker ('marshal'), and Kanccler ('chancellor') now became the 
chief officials of the crown. The rest of the aristocracy consisted 
of the courtiers and royal vassals, the barons and knights (Biddare), 
the esquires (Sven af vapen, Vcepnare), and even simple freemen 
who were willing to render military service whenever required. 
Between all these and the peasantry there was a wide social gap. 
The history of early Swedish Literature is well-nigh an ab- 
solute blank. The oldest work handed down to us is a com- 
pilation of the laws of West Gotland, dating from the beginning 
of the 12th century. A few meagre historical writings in Latin, 
a work concerning the 'Styrilse kununga ok hofdinga' (the rule of 
kings and governors), and several translations of foreign romances 
also belong to this period. 

Transition to the Union. 

On the death of Haakon Magnussen of Norway in 1319 without 
male issue, he was succeeded by Magnus Eriksson, afterwards 
called Magnus Smek ('the luxurious'), the son of his daughter 
Ingeborg and the Swedish Duke Erik , and at that time a child of 
three years. On the banishment of King Birger in 1319 Magnus 
was also elected King of Sweden , so that the two crowns were 
now united, but it was arranged that each country should retain 
its own administration. The union, however, was not attended 
with happy results. At first Sweden was prudently governed by 
the regent Mats Ketilmundsson , and in 1332 the province of 
Skane, which had been pledged to the Swedish Marshal von Eber- 
stein by Erik Menved and Christopher II. of Denmark (1318), 
declared itself in favour of Magnus. The king, however, who 
soon afterwards assumed the reins of government, and his queen 
Blanche of Namur , were ruled by unworthy favourites and soon 
forfeited the respect of their people. A disastrous fire at Thrond- 
hjem (1343), great inundations in the Guldal and Orkedal (1345), 
and above all the plague which swept away about two-thirds of 
the population (1349-50) aggravated the discontent of the Nor- 
wegians, who in 1350 elected Haakon Magnusson, the minor son 
of Magnus , regent of Norway, and in 1355 Haakon entered upon 
his functions, the province of Vigen and Iceland alone being 
reserved to his father. In Sweden Magnus consolidated the pro- 
vincial laws and drew up a new municipal code in 1347, but here 
too he was overtaken by many troubles. The aristocracy resented 
his endeavours to restrain their excesses, the people were exas- 
perated by the unsuccessful issue of his Russian campaigns (1348- 
49, 1350-51), the plague intensified their dissatisfaction in 1350, 
and lastly the king was exsommunicated in 1358 on account of 
his failure to pay debts due to the pope. Eric, the king's son, 
took advantage of these troubles and assumed the title of king in 
1356, but died in 1359. New disasters, however, soon followed. 

X. HISTORY. lvii 

In 1360 the Danes regained Skane and in 1361 tliey took posses- 
sion of the islands of Oland and Gotland. In 1363 Haakon married 
the princess Margaret, daughter of King Valdemar of Denmark, 
then eleven years old , a union which gave great offence to the 
Swedish nobles , who were farther exasperated by the reconcilia- 
tion of Haakon with his father. Magnus now banished twenty- 
four of his most obnoxious opponents, who proceeded to Mecklen- 
burg and offered the crown to Albert, second son of the duke and 
of Euphemia, a daughter of Duke Eric of Sweden. 

Albert accordingly came to Sweden in 1363, and in 1365 Mag- 
nus and Haakon were defeated at Gata, near Enkoping, where the 
former was taken prisoner. In 1370-71 a rebellion in favour of 
Magnus took place in Upper Sweden, and in 1471 Haakon invaded 
the country with a Norwegian army, but peace was shortly after- 
wards concluded, and Magnus set at liberty on payment of a heavy 
ransom and on condition that he would not again lay claim to the 
Swedish crown. The death of Magnus in 1374 finally extinguished 
the hopes of those in favour of union. Albert was now compelled 
to place himself under the guidance of the powerful aristocratic 
party. In 1375 Bo Jonsson, the most powerful noble in Sweden, 
was appointed Brost or regent. Meanwhile the Norwegian nobil- 
ity under King Haakon had attained to considerable indepen- 
dence, while in the towns the dominant party consisted entirely 
of Germans, whose proceedings were often most oppressive and 
tyrannical. Even in Sweden, in accordance with the municipal 
code of Magnus Smek , one-half of the burgomasters and civic 
authorities in every town was required to consist of Germans ; 
and it may be here added that Albert chiefly owed his unpopularity 
to his partiality for German favourites. 

In 1375 Valdemar IV. of Denmark died without male issue, and 
in the following year he was succeeded by Olaf, son of his daughter 
Margaret and Haakon, king of Norway. On the death of Haakon 
in 1380, Olaf Haakonssen, his only son, acceded to the throne of 
Norway also, thus uniting the crowns of Denmark and Norway. 

Olaf's early death in 1387 dissolved this brief union, but 
within a few weeks his mother Margaret was proclaimed regent 
of Denmark, pending the election of a new king, while in Norway 
she was nominated regent in 1388 without any such limitation. 
At the same time, as it was deemed necessary to elect a successor 
to the throne from among the different competitors, the Norwegians 
appointed Erik of Pomerania, Margaret's nephew, heir to the 
crown, but under the condition that he should not ascend the throne 
during Margaret's lifetime. On the death of Bo Jonsson (1386), 
who had held two-thirds of Sweden in fief or in pledge, Albert's 
quarrels with his magnates broke out afresh, whereupon the mal- 
contents proclaimed Margaret regent of Sweden also (1388), 
agreeing to accept the king whom she should nominate. Margaret 

lviii X. HISTORY. 

thereupon invaded Sweden and defeated Albert at Falkoping 
[1389), taking him and his son prisoners. The war, however, 
still continued , and it was at this period that the Vitalien 
Brotherhood (1392) came into existence, originally deriving their 
name ('victuallers') from their duty of supplying Stockholm with 
provisions during the war. The city was at that time occupied 
by the German adherents of Albert, and these German 'victuallers' 
were in truth a band of lawless marauders and pirates. Peace 
was at length declared in 1395, and King Albert set at liberty on 
condition of his leaving the country. During the same year Erik 
was elected king of Denmark, and in 1396 of Sweden also, so that 
the three crowns were now united, and the three kingdoms ruled by 
the same regent. The following year Erik was solemnly crowned 
at Kalmar by a diet of the three nations. Lastly, in 1398, Mar- 
garet gained possession of Stockholm , the last stronghold of the 
German partisans of Albert. The union of the three kingdoms 
thus effected by Margaret, who is sometimes called the 'Northern 
Semiramis', lasted till the beginning of the 16th cent., when it 
was dissolved by the secession of Sweden, but Norway and Den- 
mark remained united down to the year 1814. 

The Union. 

Though nominally united and bound to make common cause 
against all enemies, the three kingdoms jealously maintained their 
respective forms of government. Margaret ruled over the three 
countries with wisdom and moderation, though harassed by many 
difficulties, and on her death in 1412 King Erik assumed the reins 
of government. Erik , whose queen was Philippa , daughter of 
Henry IV. of England, was a weak, incompetent, and at the same 
time a cruel prince. He wasted large sums of money in an at- 
tempt to recover Slesvig from the Counts of Holstein, who held it 
as a Danish fief, and who were supported by the Hanseatic League. 
Meanwhile Bergen was twice plundered by the Germans (1428 
and 1429), who now became masters of that city, and in Sweden 
the people were most oppressively treated by Erik's German and 
Danish officials. In 1435, after a disastrous quarrel of twenty- 
three years, Eric was at length compelled to confirm the privileges 
of the Hanseatic League and to leave the Counts of Holstein in 
undisturbed possession of Slesvig. Exasperated by Erik's malad- 
ministration, by the debasement of the coinage, and other griev- 
ances, the Swedish peasantry, headed by Engelbrekt Engel- 
brektsson, a wealthy proprietor of mines, rebelled in 1433 and 
compelled Erik and his council to appoint Karl Knutsson regent 
of the kingdom (1436), shortly after which Engelbrekt was assas- 
sinated. In Norway also the oppressive sway of foreign officials 
caused great discontent and gave rise to a rebellion in 1436. Erik 
in despair retired to the island of Gotland, and in 1438 a number 

X. HISTORY. lix 

of Danish and Swedish magnates assembled at Kaluiar, where 
they drew up a new treaty of union, but without affirming that 
the three kingdoms were thenceforward to be ruled by one 
monarch. Lastly, in Denmark also a rebellion broke out, chiefly, 
however, against the nobility and the clergy , and the Danes were 
therefore compelled to seek for a new king. 

In 1439 Denmark and Sweden formally withdrew their alle- 
giance from Erik, and Christopher of Bavaria was elected in his 
stead, being afterwards proclaimed king of Norway also (1442). 
Erik spent ten years in Gotland where he supported himself by 
piracy, and ten years more in Pomerania, where he died in 1459. 

The separate election and coronation of Christopher in the 
three countries shows that their union had ceased to exist in more 
than the name. The new king succeeded, however, in asserting 
his authority in every part of his dominions, although not without 
many sacrifices. In his Teign Copenhagen was raised to the rank 
of the capital of Denmark. His plans for the consolidation of his 
power were cut short by his death in 1448, and the union was 
again practically dissolved. The Swedes now proclaimed Karl 
Knutsson king, while the Danes elected Christian of Oldenburg, 
a nephew of the Duke of Holstein and Slesvig. In 1449 Christian 
also succeeded by stratagem in procuring his election in Norway, 
but Karl Knutsson was proclaimed king and crowned by the pea- 
santry. The following year, however, Karl renounced his second 
crown, and Christian was thereupon crowned at Throndhjem. 
Karl having rendered himself obnoxious to the clergy and others 
of his subjects in Sweden, Christian succeeded in supplanting him 
here also, and he was crowned king of Sweden in 1457. In 1460 
Christian next inherited the duchies of Holstein and Slesvig from 
his uncle, but he was compelled to sign a charter declaring that 
he would govern them by their own laws and not as part of Den- 
mark. The government of this vast empire was a task to which 
Christian proved unequal. Norway was plundered by Russians 
and Karelians and grievously oppressed by the Hartseatic mer- 
chants, who in 1455 slew Olaf Nilsson , governor of Bergen , and 
the bishop of the town, and burned the monastery of Munkeliv 
with impunity. In 1468 and 1469 he pledged the Orkney and 
Shetland Islands to Scotland, and caused great discontent by the 
introduction into Norway of Danish and German nobles, to whom 
he granted extensive privileges. Sweden, too, groaned under heavy 
taxation, and in 1464 recalled Karl Knutsson to the throne. He 
was soon banished, but in 1467 recalled a third time, and in 1470 
he died as king of Sweden. In 1471 Sten Sture, the Elder, a 
nephew of Knutsson, and the guardian of his son, was appointed 
administrator, and the same year Christian was defeated at Stock- 
holm, after which he made no farther attempt to regain his autho- 
rity in Sweden. He died in 1481 and was succeeded in Denmark 


by his son Hans, who "was not recognised in Norway till 1483. 
Sten Sture sought to delay his election in Sweden, but as he had 
rendered himself unpopular by an unsuccessful campaign against 
the Russians in Finland, Hans took the opportunity of invading 
Sweden with a large army and succeeded in establishing his au- 
thority (1497). The king having been signally defeated at Hem- 
mingstadt in 1500 in the course of his attempt to subdue the 
Ditmarschers, Sture was recalled, but Hans still retained Norway. 
Sture died in 1503 and was succeeded by Svante Nielsson Sture 
(d. 1512), whose successor was his son Sten Sture the Younger 
(d. 1520). 

King Hans died in 1513, and was succeeded in Denmark and 
Norway by his son Christian II., whom the Swedes declined to 
recognise. He was a man of considerable ability and learning, 
but self-willed, passionate, and cruel. In Norway and Denmark 
he effected several social reforms, protected the commercial, min- 
ing, and fishing interests, and sought to restrict the privileges of 
the Hanseatic merchants. Notwithstanding his strength of will, 
Christian was ruled by Sigbritt, a Dutchwoman, the mother of his 
mistress Duweke (d. 1517), even after the death of the latter, and 
the hatred of the aristocracy for this woman, who treated them 
with studied contempt, proved disastrous to Christian. In Swe- 
den the family of Trolle had long been hostile to the Sture family, 
and when Gustaf Trolle was created archbishop of Upsala in 1515 
he invited the Danes to aid him in deposing the administrator. 
Christian sent troops to the aid of the prelate, who was besieged 
in his castle of Staket (p. 351), but the castle was taken and Trolle 
deprived of his dignities and confined in a monastery. In 1518 
Crhistian himself undertook a campaign against Sweden without 
success , and perfidiously imprisoned Gustaf Eriksson Vasa and 
other Swedish hostages who had been sent to him. A third cam- 
paign in 1519 was more successful, and Sten Sture was defeated 
and mortally wounded at Bogesund. in West Gotland. The same 
year Christian gained possession of Stockholm, but his atrocious 
cruelty and injustice proved his ruin. After his coronation by 
Trolle he permitted that prelate and two others to prosecute their 
enemies before an arbitrarily formed ecclesiastical tribunal. They 
were found guilty of heresy, and on 8th Nov., 1520, executed 
along with several other persons. The 82 victims included two 
bishops, 13 royal counsellors and knights, and Erik Johansson, 
the father of Vasa. On the following day many similar executions 
of so-called rebels and heretics took place in other parts of Sweden, 
though on a smaller scale than the 'Blood-bath of Stockholm'. 

The exasperation of the Swedes was aggravated by the impo- 
sition of a new tax and an attempt to disarm the peasantry and 
the discontented populace soon found an able leader. This was 
the famous Gustaf Vasa (probably so surnamed from vase 'a beam', 

X. HISTORY. lxi 

which the fascine in his armorial bearings resembled), who had 
been unjustly imprisoned by Christian, but escaped to Liibeck in 
1519. In May, 1520, he returned to Sweden, and on hearing of 
the death of his father at the Stockholm Blood-bath he betook 
himself to Dalecarlia, where on former occasions Engelbrekt and 
the Stures had been supported by the peasantry. The rising began 
in 1521 and soon extended over the whole of Sweden. In August 
of that year Gustavus was appointed administrator at Vadstena, 
and in June 1523 he was proclaimed king at Strengnas. 

Sweden thus finally withdrew from the union, and Christian 
soon afterwards lost his two other kingdoms. His favour to the 
Reformation aroused the enmity of the church , and at the same 
time he attacked the privileges of the nobility. From the tenor 
of several provincial and municipal laws framed by the king in 
1521-22 it is obvious that he proposed to counteract the influence 
of the clergy and aristocracy by improving the condition of the 
lower classes. Among several excellent provisions were the abol- 
ition of compulsory celibacy in the church and a prohibition 
against the sale of serfs. A war with the Liibeckers , who even 
threatened Copenhagen (1522), next added to Christian's difficul- 
ties, soon after which the Danes elected his uncle Frederick, Duke 
of Slesvig-Holstein, as his successor and renounced their allegiance 
to Christian. At length, after fruitless negociations , Christian 
quitted Copenhagen in 1523 and sought an asylum in Holland. 
Nine years later, after an unsuccessful attempt to regain his throne, 
he was thrown into prison, where he languished for 27 years. 

The condition of the Constitution during the union was far 
from satisfactory. The union existed in little more than the name. 
Each nation continued to be governed by its own laws, neither 
the troops nor the revenue of one could be employed for the pur- 
poses of either of the others, and no one could be summoned be- 
fore any tribunal out of his own country. The supreme authority, 
next to that of the king, was vested in his council, which con- 
sisted of the prelates , a number of the superior clergy, and a 
fluctuating number of nobles nominated by the king , but not 
removable at his pleasure. In matters of importance the king 
could only act with the consent of his counsellors, and they were 
even entitled to use violence in opposing unauthorised measures. 
Nominally the church continued to enjoy all its early privileges, 
and the concessions made at Tensberg in 1277 were expressly 
confirmed by Christian I. in 1458, but invasions of its rights were 
not infrequent, and with its increasing solicitude for temporal 
pjwer its hold over the people decreased. The church was most 
powerful in Norway and least so in Sweden, while with the in- 
fluence of the nobility the reverse was the case. In Sweden the 
estates of the nobility enjoyed immunity from taxation, but Chris- 
tian I. and his successors were obliged to relax this privilege. 

lxii X. HISTORY. 

The nobles also enjoyed jurisdiction over their peasantry, levying 
fines and imposing punishments at discretion (1483). The Nor- 
wegian nobles were less favoured ; they had no power of levying 
fines from their tenantry, and their manor houses (Sadegaarde) 
alone were exempt from taxation. The position of the townspeople 
and the peasantry in Sweden gradually improved , and in 1471 
Sten Sture ordained that the municipal authorities should thence- 
forward consist of natives of the country instead of Germans. In 
Norway, notwithstanding the opposition of several of the kings, 
the Hanse merchants still held oppressive sway in the chief towns ; 
but the peasantry were never, as in Denmark, subjected to serf- 
dom and compulsory services. They were generally owners of the 
soil they cultivated, while those who were merely tenants enjoyed 
entire liberty and were not ascripti glebae as in many other coun- 
tries. In Sweden the compulsory services exigible from the pea- 
santry by the lord of the soil were limited in the 15th cent, to 
8-12 days, and those exigible by the king to 8 days. While this 
class enjoyed less independence than in Norway, it attained polit- 
ical importance and even admission to the supreme council at an 
earlier period, owing to the influence of Engelbrekt , the Stures, 
and other popular chiefs. 

During the union Literature made considerable progress in 
Sweden, while in Norway it languished and became well-nigh ex- 
tinct. In both countries the education of the clergy continued to 
be carried on in the monasteries and cathedral schools, but towards 
the close of this period universities were founded at Upsala (1477) 
and Copenhagen (1479), and gave rise to the publication of various 
learned treatises in Latin. Among the religious works of this per- 
iod may be mentioned the revelations of St. Birgitta (d. 1373) 
and the -Cronica Regni Gothorum' of Ericus Olai (d. 1486), both 
showing a tendency towards the principles of the Reformation. 
Whilst about the beginning of the 14th cent, the native literature 
of Norway became extinct, that of Sweden began to increase, 
consisting chiefly of religious writings, rhyming chronicles, ballads 
and compilations of laws. In Sweden, moreover, the national lan- 
guage, though not without difficulty, held its own against the 
Danish, while in Norway the 'Old Norsk' was gradually displaced 
by the tongue of the dominant race, and continued to be spoken 
in several impure and uncultured dialects by the peasantry alone. 

Sweden after the Dissolution of the Kalmar Union. 

The necessity of making common cause against Christian II., 
the deposed monarch of the three kingdoms, led to an alliance be- 
tween Oustavus Vasa and Frederick I. of Denmark. Christian at- 
tempted an invasion of Norway in 1531-32, but was taken pri- 
soner, and after Frederick's death (1533) the Liibeckers made an 
ineffectual attempt to restore the deposed king (1534-36). At 

X. HISTORY. lxiii 

home Gustavus also succeeded in consolidating his power. The 
nobility had been much weakened by the cruel proceedings of 
Christian, while the Reformation deprived the church both of its 
power and its temporal possessions , most of which fell to the 
crown. By the diet of Vesteras (1527) and the synod of Orebro 
(1529) great changes in the tenure of church property and in eccle- 
siastical dogmas and ritual were introduced, and in 1531 Lau- 
rentius Petri became the first Protestant archbishop of Upsala. 
Lastly, at another diet held at Vesteras (1544), the Roman Catho- 
lic Church was declared abolished. At the same diet the succes- 
sion to the throne was declared hereditary. Gustavus effected 
many other wise reforms, but had to contend against several in- 
surrections of the peasantry, caused partly by his ecclesiastical 
innovations, and partly by the heaviness of the taxation imposed 
for the support of his army and fleet. Shortly before his death (in 
1560), he unwisely bestowed dukedoms on his younger sons, a 
step which laid the foundation for future troubles. 

His eldest son Erik XIV. (the number being in accordance 
with the computation of Johannes Magnus, but without the slight- 
est historical foundation) soon quarrelled with his younger brother 
John, Duke of Finland, whom he kept imprisoned for four years. 
He was ruled by an unworthy favourite, named Goran Perssov, 
and committed many acts of violence and cruelty. He persuaded 
his brother Duke Magnus to sign John's death-warrant, whereupon 
Magnus became insane. After the failure of several matrimonial 
schemes, of one of which Queen Elizabeth of England was the 
object, and after several outbursts of insanity, Eric married his 
mistress Katharine Mansdatter (1567). The following year he was 
deposed by his brother, who ascended the throne as John III., 
and after a cruel captivity of nine years was poisoned by his order 
in 1577 (see p. 358). John ingratiated himself with the nobility 
by rich grants of hereditary fiefs, and he concluded the peace at 
Stettin which terminated a seven years' war in the north (1563-70) 
and definitively severed Sweden from Denmark and Norway. Less 
successful was his war against Russia for the purpose of securing 
to Sweden the province of Esthland, but the province was after- 
wards secured to his successor by the Peace of Tensina (1595 ). 
John was married to a Polish princess and betrayed a leaning to- 
wards the Romish church which much displeased his subjects. 
After his death (1592) the religious difficulty became more serious, 
as his son and successor Sigismund had been brought up as a Ro- 
man Catholic in Poland, where he had been proclaimed king in 
1587. Duke Charles of Stidermanland, the youngest son of Gus- 
tavus Vasa , thereupon assumed the regency on behalf of the ab- 
sent Sigismund, caused the Augsburg Confession to be pro- 
claimed anew by a synod at Upsala (1593), and abolished Romish 
practices introduced by John. After confirming these proceedings, 

lxiv X. HISTORY. 

Sigismund was crowned in 1594 ; but on his failure to keep his 
promises, his uncle was recalled to the regency (1595), and when 
Sigismund invaded Sweden in 1598 he was defeated by Charles 
and compelled to enter into a compromise at Linkoping. Again 
breaking faith , he was formally deposed (1599), while Charles 
was appointed regent for life. After having prosecuted Sigis- 
mund's adherents with great harshness, and succeeded in prevent- 
ing the recognition of Ladislaus, Sigismund's son, Charles IX., 
assumed the title of king in 1604. His administration was bene- 
ficial to the country, and he was a zealous promoter of commerce, 
mining, and agriculture, but his wars with Russia and Denmark, 
which were unfinished at his death (1611), caused much misery. 
His son and successor was Gustavus II. , better known as 
Gustavus Adolphus, the most able and famous of the Swedish 
kings. Though seventeen years of age only , he was at once de- 
clared major by the Estates. In 1613 he terminated the 'Kalmar 
War' with Denmark by the Peace of Knarod , and in 1617 that 
with Russia by the Peace of Stolbova , which secured Kexholm, 
Karelen, and lngermanland to Sweden. By the Treaty of Altmark 
in 1629 he obtained from Poland the cession of Livonia and four 
Prussian seaports for six years. At the same time he bestowed 
much attention on his home affairs. With the aid of his chancellor 
and friend Axel Oxenstjerna he passed codes of judicial procedure 
and founded a supreme court atStockholm (1614-15), and afterwards 
erected appeal courts at Abo, Dorpat, and Jtinkoping. In 1617 he 
reorganised the national assembly, dividing it into the four estates 
of Nobles, Clergy, Burghers, and Peasants, and giving it the sole 
power of passing laws and levying taxes. He founded several new 
towns, favoured the mining and commercial industries, extended 
the university of Upsala, and established another at Dorpat. At 
the same time he strengthened his army and navy, which he soon 
had occasion to use. In 1630 he went to Germany to support the 
Protestant cause in the Thirty Years' War, and after several bril- 
liant victories and a glorious career, which raised Sweden to the 
proudest position she has ever occupied in history, he fell on 6th 
Nov., 1632, at the Battle of Liitzen. The war was continued under 
his daughter and successor Christina, under the able regency of 
Oxenstjerna. In 1635, by another treaty with Poland, Livonia 
was secured to Sweden for 26 years more. War broke outwithDen- 
mark in 1643, but was terminated by the Peace of Bromsebro 
in 1645. At length, in 1648, the Thirty Years' War was ended by 
the Peace of Westphalia. These treaties secured to Sweden Jemt- 
land and Herjedalen, the island of Gotland, the principalities of 
Bremen and Verden , part of Pomerania with Stettin and the is- 
lands of Riigen, Usedom, and Wollin , and the town of Wismar, 
besides a considerable war indemnity and other advantages. Dur- 
ing the regency it was arranged that the royal council or cabinet 

X. HISTORY. lxv 

should consist of representatives of the supreme court of appeal, 
the council of war , the admiralty , the ministry of the interior, 
and the exchequer , presided over by the chief ministers of each 
department. The country was divided into 23 Lane and 14 Lag- 
sagor, governed by Landshofdinge and Lagman respectively, which 
officials were to be appointed from the nobility. For these and many 
other reforms and useful institutions the country was indebted 
to the energy and enlightenment of Oxenstjerna. On the other 
hand , in order to fill the empty coffers of the state , it was found 
necessary to sell many of the crown domains , and. to levy new 
taxes , and the evil was aggravated by the lavish extravagance 
of Christina and her favourites. Refusing to marry, and being 
unable to redress the grievances of her justly disaffected sub- 
jects, the queen in 1649 procured the election of Charles Gustavus 
or Charles X., son of the Count Palatine John Casimir of Zwei- 
briicken and a sister of Gustavus Adolphus, as her successor. By 
her desire he was crowned in 1654, whereupon she abdicated, 
quitted Sweden, and embraced the Romish faith. She terminated 
her eccentric career at Rome in 1689. Her successor endeavoured 
to practise economy , and in 1655 obtained the sanction of the 
Estates to revoke her alienations of crown property. War, however, 
interfered with his plans. John Casimir, king of Poland , son of 
Sigismund , now claimed the throne of Sweden , and compelled 
Charles to declare war against him (1655). After a time Russia, 
Austria, and Denmark espoused the cause of Poland, but Charles 
succeeded in gaining possession of Jutland and the Danish islands, 
and the Peace of Roeskilde (1658) secured to him Skane, Halland, 
and Blekinge , but obliged him to cede the districts of Bohus 
and Throndhjem to Norway. On a renewal of the war with Den- 
mark , the Danes were aided by the Dutch, the Brandenburgers, 
the Poles, and the Austrians , who compelled Charles to raise the 
siege of Copenhagen , and on his sudden death in 1662 the Peace 
of Copenhagen was concluded , whereby the island of Bornholm 
was lost to Sweden. 

Charles X. was succeeded by his son Charles XI. , a boy of 
four years, whose guardians endeavoured to make peace with 
foreign enemies. By the Peace of Oliva with Poland , Branden- 
burg, and Austria in 1660 the king of Poland finally ceded Li- 
vonia to Sweden and renounced his claim to the throne of Sweden, 
and by the Peace of Kardis with Russia in 1661 the Swedish con- 
quests in Esthonia and Livonia were restored to Sweden ; but 
little was done to remedy the internal disorders of the country. 
One of the few events worthy of record at this period was the 
foundation of the university of Lund in 1668. Meanwhile the 
excesses and arrogance of the nobility , the squandering of the 
crown revenues , and the imposition of heavy taxes threatened to 
ruin the country , and the regency even accepted subsidies from 

Baedekeb's Norw»K_aM Sweden. 3rd Edit. P 

lxvi X. HISTORY. 

foreign countries and hired out troops to serve abroad. At the 
age of seventeen Charles assumed the reins of government (1672). 
In 1674 he was called upon as the ally of France to take part in 
the war against Holland , Spain , and Germany, but the Swedish 
army was signally defeated at Fehrbellin by the Elector of Bran- 
denburg. Hereupon the Danes declared war against Sweden, 
causing new disasters, but by the intervention of the French 
peace was again declared at Lund in 1679. The distress occasioned 
by these defeats and popular indignation against the nobility, 
who were now in possession of five-sevenths of the land in Swe- 
den, and who did their utmost to reduce the peasantry to the con- 
dition of mere serfs , eventually served greatly to strengthen the 
king's position. At the diet of Stockholm in 1680, after stormy 
debates, it was determined to call the regency to account for their 
gross mismanagement of affairs , and the king was empowered to 
revoke the alienations made during his minority. The king was 
told that he was not bound to consult his cabinet, but to obey the 
laws, and that he was responsible to God alone. Another diet 
(161S'2) entrusted the king with the sole legislative power, merely 
expressing a hope that he would graciously consult the Estates. 
Charles was thus declared an absolute monarch , the sole right 
reserved to the diet being that of levying taxes. The king there- 
upon exacted large payments from his former guardians and exer- 
cised his right of revocation so rigidly that he obtained possession 
of about one-third of the landed estates in Sweden. The money 
thus acquired he employed in paying the debts of the crown , in 
re-organising his army and fleet , and for other useful purposes, 
while he proceeded to amend the law and to remedy ecclesiastical 
abuses. On his death in 1697 he left his kingdom in a strong and 
prosperous condition, and highly respected among nations. 

Under Charles XII., the son and successor of Charles XI., this 
absolutism was fraught with disastrous consequences. Able, care- 
fully educated, energetic, and conscientious , but self-willed and 
eccentric , Charles was called to the throne at the age of fifteen 
and at once declared major. In 1699 Denmark, Russia, and Poland 
concluded an alliance against Sweden , which led to the great 
northern war. Aided by England, Holland, and the Duke of 
Gottorp and Hanover , Charles speedily compelled the Danes to 
conclude the Peace of Travendal (1700), defeated the Russians 
at Narva, took Curland from the Poles (1701), and forced Elector 
Augustus of Saxony to make peace at Altranst'adt , whereby the 
elector was obliged to renounce the Polish crown. Meanwhile 
Peter the Great of Russia had gained possession of Kexholm, 
Ingermanland , and Esthonia. Instead of attempting to regain 
these provinces, Charles , tempted by a promise of help from Ma- 
zeppa , a Cossack chief , determined to attack the enemy in an- 
other quarter and marched into the Ukraine, but was signally 

X. HISTORY. lxvii 

defeated by the Russians at Pultava (1709), and lost nearly the 
■whole of his army. He escaped into Turkey, where he was hospi- 
tably received by the Sultan Achmed III. and supplied with 
money. Here he resided at Bender, and induced the Sultan to 
make war against Russia ; but when the grand vizier had defeated 
the Czar he was bribed by Katherine, the courageous wife of Peter, 
to allow him to escape. This exasperated Charles and led to a 
quarrel with the Sultan , who placed him in confinement. Mean- 
while Denmark and Saxony again declared war against Sweden. 
Skane was successfully defended against the Danes , but Elector 
Augustus reconquered Poland , and the Czar took possession of 
Finland. The resources of Sweden were now exhausted , and the 
higher nobility began to plot against the king. At length Charles 
effected his escape and returned to Sweden (1715), to find that 
England, Hanover, and Prussia had also declared war against him 
owing to differences regarding Stettin and the principalities of 
Bremen and Verden. Having succeeded with the utmost difficulty 
in raising money , Charles now invaded Norway with an army of 
raw recruits and laid siege to Fredrikshald , where he fell at the 
early age of thirty-six (1718), just at the time when his favourite 
minister Gortz was about to conclude a favourable peace with 
Russia. Brave, chivalrous, and at the same time simple in his 
manners and irreproachable in conduct , the memory of Charles 
is still fondly cherished by the Swedes. The short reign of abso- 
lutism (Envaldstiden) was now at an end , and we reach a period 
of greater independence (Frihetstiden ; 1719-92). 

Charles XII. was succeeded by his sister Ulrika Eleonora, who 
with the consent of the Estates resigned in favour of her husband 
Frederick I. , crown-prince of Hessen-Cassel. At the same time 
(1720) a new constitution was framed by the Estates. The supreme 
power was vested in the Estates , a secret committee consisting 
of members of the three upper chambers, and a council or cabinet 
of nine members of the committee , three from each estate, to be 
nominated by the king himself. The king's authority was limited 
to two votes at the diet and a casting vote in case of an equally 
divided assembly, and the cabinet was declared responsible to 
the diet. In 1719 peace was concluded with England , upon the 
abandonment of Bremen and Verden, and in 1720 with Prussia, 
to which Stettin and part of Pomerania were ceded ; then with 
Poland and Denmark ; and in 1721 with Russia , to which Li- 
vonia, Esthonia, Ingermanland, and the districts of Kexholm and 
Viborg in Finland had to be made over. The kingdom now enjoyed 
an interval of repose , a new code of laws was drawn up (1734), 
and efforts were made to revive commerce. The peace party was 
derisively called 'Nightcaps' (nattmossor), or simply 'Caps', while 
a warlike party which now arose was known as 'Hats' (hattar). In 
accordance with the counsels of the latter, war was proclaimed 

lxviii X. HISTORY. 

with Russia, which soon led to the loss of Finland (1741). On the 
death of the queen without issue, Adolphus Frederick of Holstein- 
Gottorp , a relation of the crown-prince of Russia, was elected as 
Frederick's successor, on condition (Peace of Abo; 1743) that the 
greater part of Finland should be restored. The remainder of 
Frederick's reign was tranquil, and he died in 1751. 

The prerogatives of his successor , Adolphus Frederick, were 
farther limited by the Estates. An attempt on the part of the 
king to emancipate himself led to a confirmation of the existing 
constitution , and to a resolution that a stamp bearing the king's 
name should be impressed without his consent on documents ap- 
proved by the Estates (1756). The court vainly attempted to 
rebel, and the king was bluntly reminded that the Estates had 
power to depose him. In 1757 the 'Hats' recklessly plunged into 
the Seven Years' War, and after an ignoble campaign peace was 
concluded at Hamburg in 1762. The 'Caps' were next in the 
ascendant , but the party disputes of this period were not con- 
ducive to national progress. 

In 1771 Adolphus was succeeded by his son Gustavus III., 
who by means of a preconcerted military revolution or coup-d'etat 
(1772) succeeded in regaining several of the most valuable prero- 
gatives of the crown, including the sole executive power, whereby 
the government was converted from a mere republic into a limited 
monarchy. The king used his victory with moderation, abolished 
torture , introduced liberty of the press , promoted commerce, 
science , and art, and strengthened the army. On the other hand 
he was extravagant and injudicious, and in 178S committed the 
error of declaring war against Russia without the consent of the 
Estates. His officers refused to obey him , and his difficulties 
were aggravated by a declaration of war and invasion of Sweden 
by the Danes. Gustavus now succeeded, with the aid of the 
middle and lower classes, in effecting a farther change in the 
constitution (1798), which gave him the sole prerogative of mak- 
ing war and concluding peace, while the right of acquiring pri- 
vileged landed estates (frdlsegods) was bestowed on the peasantry. 
An armistice was concluded with Denmark, and the not unsuc- 
cessful hostilities with Russia led to the Peace of Varala (1790), 
which precluded Russia from future interference with SwediBh 
affairs. Shortly afterwards, on the outbreak of the French Revo- 
lution, the king proposed to intervene , together with Russia and 
Austria, in favour of Louis XVI. and proceeded to levy new taxes, 
whereupon the disaffected nobles entered into a new conspiracy 
against him, and in 1792 this chivalrous and enlightened, though 
sometimes ill-advised monarch, fell by the dagger of Captain 

His son Oustavus Adolphus succeeded him as Gustavus IV., 
under the regency of his uncle Duke Charles of Sodermanland, 


who avoided all participation in the wars of the Revolution. In 
1800 Gustavus , in accordance with a scheme of his father, and 
in conjunction with Russia and Denmark , took up a position of 
armed neutrality, but Denmark having been coerced by England 
to abandon this position, and Russiahaving dissolved the alliance, 
Sweden was also obliged to yield to the demands of England. The 
king's futile dreams of the restoration of absolutism and his ill- 
judged and disastrous participation in the Napoleonic wars led to 
the loss of Wismar, Pomerania, and Finland, and to his defeat in 
Norway (1803-8). The country being now on the brink of ruin, 
the Estates caused Gustavus to be arrested, and formally deposed 
him and his heirs (1809). He died in poverty at St. Gallen in 
1837. His uncle was now elected king as Charles XIII., and a 
new constitution framed, mainly on the basis of that of 1772. 
Peace was now concluded at Frederikshamn with Russia (1809), 
to which the whole of Finland and the Aland Islands were ceded, 
with Denmark, and with France (1810), whereby Sweden recovered 
part of Pomerania. The king being old and childless, Prince 
Christian Augustus of Augustenburg, stadtholder of Norway, was 
elected crown-prince, but on his sudden death in 1810 the Estates 
elected Marshal Bernadotte, one of Napoleon's generals, who was 
adopted by Charles, assumed the name of Charles John, and em- 
braced the Protestant faith. The crown-prince's influence was 
directed to military organisation. The lukewarmness of Sweden 
in maintaining the continental blockade led to a rupture with 
France, and during the war with Napoleon the Swedes concluded 
a treaty with the Russians at Abo on the footing that the crown 
of Norway should be secured to Sweden (1812). England and 
Prussia having given the same assurance, Charles John marched 
with a Swedish contingent into Germany and assumed the com- 
mand of the combined northern army which took part in the de- 
cisive struggle against Napoleon (1813). The crown prince's par- 
ticipation in the war was a somewhat reluctant one , but by the 
Peace of Kiel (1814) he succeeded in compelling Denmark to cede 
Norway to Sweden, while Denmark obtained possession of Swedish 
Pomerania and retained Iceland, Greenland, and the Faroes. 

The frequent changes which took place during this period in 
the Constitution of Sweden have already been mentioned. 

The Intellectual Progress of the country was greatly furthered 
by the Reformation. Peder Mansson (d. 1534), bishop of Vesteras, 
wrote works on the army, the navy, medicine, and other subjects 
in the medieval style, while Laurentius Petri (d. 1573), Lauren- 
tius Andrea (d. 1552), and others translated the Bible into Swedish 
and wrote Protestant theological works in their native tongue. 
L. Petri and his brother Olaus (d. 1552) also wrote Swedish chron- 
icles; Archbishop Johannes Magni was the author of a history of 
the kings in Latin, with a large admixture of the fabulous ele- 

lxx X. HISTORY. 

ment; and his brother Olaus wrote the often quoted 'Historia de 
Gentibus Septentrionalibus'. An equally indiscriminate writer of 
history, and an author of dramatic and other works, was Johan 
Messenius (d. 1637). Even Gustavus Vasa had been anxious to 
preserve the purity of his native language, but it was not till the 
17th cent, that scholars interested themselves in it. Queen Chris- 
tina, a talented and learned princess, was a great patroness of 
literature. She invited foreign savants to her court (Descartes, 
Orotius, and others), as well as native authors, including Johan 
Bureus (d. 1652) and the versatile and distinguished Goran Lilje 
(ennobled as George Stjernhjelm; d. 1672). At this period, too 
(1658), Jon Rugman first called attention to the treasures of 
Icelandic literature, and antiquarian and historical research now 
came into vogue. Stjernhbok, the jurist (d. 1675), and Widekindi 
(d.1678), Verelius (d. 1682), Verv ing(_i. 1697), Rudbeck{&. 1702), 
and Peringskibld (d. 1720), the historians, were meritorious writers 
of this school. Hitherto German influence had preponderated in 
Sweden, but about the middle of the 18th cent, a preference 
began to be shown for the French style. To this school belong 
Olof von Dalin(&. 1763), the poet and historian, and Count Tessin 
(d. 1770), a meritorious art- collector, and among the scholars of 
the same period were Lagerbring , the historian (d. 1787), Johan 
Dire, the philologist (d. 1780), and above all Karl von Linne (d. 
1778), the famous botanist. The 'Vitterhets Akademi' or 'acad- 
emy of belles lettres' founded in 1753 was extended by Gusta- 
vus III. so as to embrace history and antiquities , and he also 
founded the Swedish Academy. To the academic school belonged 
Kellgren (d. 1795) and Leopold (d. 1829), but a far more popu- 
lar poet, and one who repudiated all the traditions of French taste, 
was Bellman (d. 1795), the singer of sweet and simple ballads, 
whose 'Fredmans Epistlar' was deemed worthy of a prize even by 
the Academy, and whose memory is still fondly cherished. 

The Continued Union of Norway with Denmark. 

When Sweden withdrew from the Kalmar Union (1523) Nor- 
way at first remained faithful to Christian II., but Vincentius 
Lunge procured the election of Frederick I. (1524). This king's 
Protestant tendencies induced the Norwegians to re-elect Chris- 
tian II. in 1531 , when the deposed king appeared in Norway 
with an army, but he was treacherously arrested the following 
year and ended his life in captivity (see p. lxi). Frederick thus 
regained Norway and continued to prosecute the objects of the 
Reformation till his death (1533). The nobility and the Pro- 
testant party in Denmark elected his eldest son Christian III. 
as his successor, and the southern half of Norway under Lunge 
acquiesced. A rebellion of the northern provinces which cost 
Lunge his life, was quelled, and the archbishop who had headed 

X. HISTORY. lxxi 

it was obliged to quit the country. In 1536 Christian III. had 
promised the Danes to convert Norway into a Danish province, 
and he now abolished the council of state and otherwise partially 
kept his word. The doctrines of the Reformation permeated the 
country very slowly, but the dissolution of the monasteries and 
confiscation of church property were prosecuted with great zeal. 
The Norwegian towns now began to prosper and the trade of the 
country to improve , while the tyranny of the Hanse merchants at 
Bergen was checked by Christopher Valkendorff (1536). In 1559 
Christian was succeeded by his son Frederick II., in whose reign 
occurred the calamitous seven years' war with Sweden (1563-70), 
which sowed the seeds of national hatred between the countries, 
and caused the destruction of Oslo , Sarpsborg, and Hamar, the 
devastation of several agricultural districts, and the military oc- 
cupation of others. At the same time the country was terribly 
oppressed by Frederick's officials , and he himself visited it once 
only. The sole benefit conferred by him on Norway was the foun- 
dation of Fredrikstad near the ruined town of Sarpsborg. 

His son Christian IV. (1588-1648), on the other hand, visited 
Norway very frequently and was indefatigable in his reforms. He 
refused to grant fiefs in future to nobles who were not natives of 
Norway (1596), and he promulgated a Norwegian code (1604), 
which was a revised edition of the laws of 1274 translated into 
Danish. He also published an ecclesiastical code (1607), and took 
energetic measures to exclude Jesuits from the country. At the 
same time the army was improved, trade was favoured, the silver- 
mines at Kongsberg (1624) and the copper-mines of Rotos (1645) 
were established, the towns of Christiania (1624) and Christian- 
sand (1641) founded anew, and the Hanse factory at Bergen strictly 
controlled. All these benefits were outweighed by the disasters of 
the Kalmar War with Sweden (1611-13), during which the peas- 
antry gained their famous victory over the Scottish auxiliaries 
under Col. Sinclair at Kringelen (p. 120), and particularly those 
of the Thirty Years' War in which Christian participated (1625- 
1629). A second war with Sweden (1643-45) terminated with the 
severance of Jemtland and Herjedalen from Norway. 

New disasters befell Norway in the reign of his son Frede- 
rick II. (1648-70). The result of the participation of Denmark 
and Norway in the Swedish-Polish war was that Norway finally 
lost Bahus-Lan, Idre, and Sarna. During this war Halden earned, 
for itself the new name of Fredrikshald by the bravery of its de- 
fenders. These misfortunes, however, led to a rupture with the 
existing system of government. On ascending the throne Fred- 
erick had signed a pledge which placed him in the power of the 
nobility, but during the wars the incompetency of the council of 
state, and the energy of the king and citizens in defending Copen- 
hagen, had greatly raised him in the public estimation. At a diet 

lxxii X. HISTORY. 

held at Copenhagen in 1660 the indignation of the clergy and 
burghers against the nobility burst forth , and they demanded the 
abolition of its oppressive privileges. It was next dicovered that 
the pledge given by the king was subversive of all liberty and 
progress , the king and the lower Estates proceeded to declare the 
succession to the throne hereditary, and Frederick was empowered 
to revise the constitution. The result was that he declared the 
king alone to be invested with sovereign and absolute power, and 
to this document he succeeded privately in procuring the signa- 
tures of most of the members of the diet. This declaration became 
law in 1661, but was not actually promulgated till 1709. These 
great changes were on the whole beneficial to Norway. The 
country was at least now placed on an equality with Denmark, and 
the strict bureaucratic administration was preferable to the old 
evils of local tyranny and individual caprice. The supreme 
authority now consisted of the heads of the Ave government de- 
partments , presided over by the king , and the feudal lords with 
their local jurisdictions were replaced by crown officials. 

Frederick's son Christian V. (1670-99) was not unsuccessful 
in the Skane war against Sweden (1675-79), but his chief merit 
as regards Norway was the promulgation of a code (1687), based 
on the Danish code of 1683, and of a church ritual for both coun- 
tries. The erection of the new counties or earldoms of Laurvig and 
Tensberg, afterwards called Jarlsberg, and of the barony of Rosen- 
dal were unproductive of benefit to Norway. The unjust treat- 
ment of his minister Oriffenfeld, who for a trivial offence suffered 
a cruel imprisonment for 22 years , forms a blot on this king's 

Christian V. was succeeded by his son Frederick IV. (1699- 
1730), in whose reign was waged the great northern war in which 
the Norwegian naval hero Peter Vessel (ennobled under the name 
of Tordenskjold) took a prominent part. The sole gain to Den- 
mark by the Peace of Fredriksborg (1720) was the renunciation 
by Sweden of its immunity from Sound dues. The King husbanded 
his finances , but often procured money by discreditable means. 
He hired out mercenary troops , sold most of the crown-property 
in Norway , and granted a monopoly of the trade of Finmarken. 
These abuses, maladministration, and an attempt to alter the land 
laws so embittered the Norwegians that a union with Russia was 
actually proposed. In this reign a mission to Lapland was organised 
(1714), Th. v. Vesten being one of its chief promoters , and Hans 
Egede went as a missionary to Greenland (1721). 

Under Frederick's son Christian VI. (1730-46) Norway was 
injuriously infected with German Puritanism, which enjoined the 
utmost rigidity of church observances and abstention from all 
worldly amusements. Among the expedients used for reviving 
trade in Denmark was an oppressive enactment that S. Norway 

X. HISTORY. lxxiii 

should draw its sole corn supplies from that country. The fleet, 
however, was strengthened , an efficient militia organised , and 
education promoted. A long peace favoured the growth of com- 
merce and navigation, and the 'Black Company' formed in 1739 
furthered manufacturing industry. 

In the reign of Frederick V. (1746-66) the grievous sway of 
Puritanism came to an end , and art and science were zealously 
cultivated. A mining school was founded at Kongsherg , and a 
mathematical school at Christiania, and at Throndhjem a useful 
scientific society was established by Ounnerus, Schening , and 
Suhm, a learned Dane (1760-67). The frontier between Norway 
and Sweden was measured and defined (1759), facilities were 
afforded to commerce , and skilled miners introduced from Ger- 
many. Complications with Russia connected with the affairs of 
Slesvig caused severe financial losses to Denmark and Norway, 
and the increased taxation provoked a revolt at Bergen , which, 
however, was soon quelled (1763). Notwithstanding these draw- 
backs, Norway prospered under the absolute monarchy, while Den- 
mark languished. The king in Denmark , being separated from 
the lower classes by a wealthy and influential aristocracy, was 
unable effectually to redress their grievances, and they still groan- 
ed under the evils of serfdom and compulsory service. With the 
exception of Copenhagen, the towns were almost equally oppressed, 
and in 1769 the whole population of Denmark did not exceed 
800,000 souls. In Norway, on the other hand , the peasantry en- 
joyed freedom, the towns had thrown off the oppressive Hanseatic 
yoke, and feudal jurisdictions were abolished , while complaints 
against officials were addressed to the king in person. A class of 
native officials had also sprung up, affording an additional element 
of security. While the population had numbered 450,000 only in 
1664, it rose to 723,000 in 1769. Within the same period the 
number of Norwegian ships had increased from 50 to 1150. 
The peasantry had benefited greatly by the sale of the crown 
estates, and the trade of Norway now far surpassed that of Den- 
mark. At the same time frequent intercourse with England and 
other foreign countries served to expand the Norwegian mind 
and to prepare the way for a period of still greater enlightenment 
and prosperity. 

During the long reign of the imbecile Christian VII. (1766- 
1808) his authority was wielded by his ministers. Struensee, his 
German physician, was the first of these. His measures were those 
of an enlightened absolutism. He simplified judicial procedure, 
abolished torture, excluded the lackeys of noblemen from public 
offices, deprived the aristocracy of their privileges, bestowed lib- 
erty on the press, and husbanded the finances. The peremptory 
manneT in which these and other reforms were introduced gave 
great offence, particularly as Struensee took no pains to conceal 

lxxiv X. HISTORY. 

his contempt tor the Danes. Christian's stepmother accordingly 
organised a conspiracy against him, and he was executed in 1772. 
His successor was Ove Ouldberg, a Dane, who passed a law that 
Danes, Norwegians, and Holsteiners alone should be eligible for 
the government service, and rescinded Struensee's reforms (1776). 
In 1780 an attitude of armed neutrality introduced by the able 
Count Bernstorff gave a great impulse to the shipping trade , but 
the finances of the country were ruined. In 1784 the Crown- 
prince Frederick assumed the conduct of affairs with Bernstorff as 
his minister, whereupon a more liberal, and for Norway in partic- 
ular a more favourable era began. The corn-trade of S. Norway 
was relieved from its fetters, the trade of Finmarken was set free, 
and the towns of Tromstf, Hammerfest , and Vard» were founded. 
On a renewal of the armed neutrality (1800-1), England refused 
to recognise it, attacked Copenhagen, and compelled the Danes to 
abandon it. Six years later Napoleon's scheme of using Denmark's 
fleet against England led to a second attack on Copenhagen and 
its bombardment by the English fleet, which resulted in the sur- 
render of the whole Danish and Norwegian fleet to England (1807). 
Denmark, allied with France, then declared war both against 
England and Sweden (1808) , and almost at the same period 
Christian died. 

On the accession of Frederick VI. (1808-36) the affairs of the 
kingdom were in a desperate condition. The English did not 
attack the country, but contented themselves with capturing as 
many Danish and Norwegian vessels as possible and ruining the 
trade of the country by blockading all its seaports. Owing to an 
over-issue of paper money the government was soon unable to meet 
its liabilities and declared itself bankrupt (1813). Meanwhile 
Norway was governed by a separate commission, presided over by 
Prince Christian Augustus of Augustenburg (1807) , and was so 
well defended that it lost nothing by the peace of Jonkoping 
(1809). The independence of the peasantry, the wealth of the 
burghers, and the success of their country in the war against Swe- 
den naturally created in the minds of the Norwegians a proud 
sense of superiority over the unhappy Danes, while the liberality 
of their views widened the breach with a country still groaning 
under absolutism. A 'Society for the Welfare of Norway' was 
founded in 1810, and a Union with Sweden was warmly advocated, 
particularly by the talented Count Herman Wedel-Jarlsberg. The 
Danish government made some vain attempts to conciliate the 
Norwegians, as for example by the foundation of a university at 
Christiania (1811), which had been proposed so far back as 1661, 
but the Norwegians themselves provided the necessary funds. In 
concluding a treaty with the Russians in 1812, Sweden obtained 
their consent to its future annexation of Norway, and at the Peace 
of Kiel in 1814 the Danes were compelled to make the cession. 

X. HISTORY. lxxv 

Frederick thereupon released the Norwegians from their allegiance 
to him, and the union of Norway with Denmark , which had sub- 
sisted for more than four centuries, was thus dissolved. 

The Literature of Norway from the Reformation to the end of 
the union is inseparable from that of Denmark. As translators 
of old northern laws and sagas may be mentioned L. Hanssem 
(d. 1596) and P. C. Friis (d. 1614), of whom the latter also wrote 
interesting works on Norwegian topography and natural history in 
his native dialect. A. Pedersen (A. 1574), of Bergen, was the 
author of a description of Norway and of the 'Chapter-book of 
Bergen'. The historian and topographer J. Ramus (d. 1718) and 
the poet Peter Dass (d. 1708), the still popular author of 'Nord- 
lands Trompet', were also natives of Norway, while T, Torfaus 
(d. 1719), a famous historian of Norway, was an Icelander. By 
far the most important author of this period was Ludvig Holberg 
of Bergen (d. 1754), the poet and historian, whose 'Peder Paars', 
the 'Subterranean Journey of NilsKlim', and comedies have gained 
him a European reputation. Among later poets and authors C. B. 
Tullin (d. 1765), J. H. Vessel (d. 1785), C. Fasting (d. 1791), 
E. Storm (d. 1794), T. de Stockfleth (d. 1808), J. N. Brun (d. 1816), 
J. Zetlitz(&. 1821), and C. Friman (d. 1829) are noted for the 
national character and individuality of their writings , which are 
uninfluenced by the French and German taste then prevalent in 
Denmark. This national school was partly indebted for its origin 
to the foundation of the 'Norske Selskab' at Copenhagen in 1772, 
while the 'Laerde Selskab' of Throndhjem , founded by Ounnerus, 
the naturalist (d. 1773), and Schening, the historian (d. 1780), 
promoted scientific research. On the whole , notwithstanding 
the want of good national schools, the Norwegian literature of this 
period ranks at least as high as the Danish. 

Union of Sweden and Norway. 

After the Peace of Jonkoping in 1809 Norway was governed by 
Prince Frederick of Hessen and afterwards by Christian Frederick, 
cousin of King Frederick and heir to his throne. Christian was a 
popular prince, and even after the terms of the Peace of Kiel had 
been adjusted he made an effort to secure the sovereignty of the 
country for himself. He summoned an assembly of notables to 
Eidsvold (Feb. 1814), stated the terms of the Peace of Kiel, which 
had not yet been published, and declared that he would assert his 
claim in spite of it. The assembly denied the right of the king 
of Denmark to hand over Norway to Sweden , but also declined to 
recognise the prince's hereditary claim. They, however, appointed 
him regent until a national diet should be summoned to consider 
the state of affairs. The king of Sweden promised the Norwegians 
a liberal constitution if they would submit to his authority ; but 
his offer met with no response, the country eagerly prepared to 

lxxvi X. HISTORY. 

assert its independence, and a temporary government was con- 
stituted. On 10th April, 1814, the representatives of the country 
met at Eidsvold , a constitution framed chiefly by K. M. Falsen 
(d. 1830) was adopted on 17th May, and on the same day Christian 
Frederick was proclaimed king. Count Wedel-Jarlsberg, the most 
far-seeing of the Norwegian statesmen , who had urged a union 
with Sweden, was overruled on this occasion , but his object was 
soon afterwards attained. About the end of June ambassadors of 
the guaranteeing powers, Russia, England, Austria, and Prussia, 
arrived at Christiania to demand fulfilment of the Peace of Kiel 
and to recall the regent in the name of the king of Denmark. 
After fruitless negociations and the outbreak of a war with Swe- 
den , which was terminated by the Convention of Moss on 14th 
August, the Swedish regent temporarily recognised the new Nor- 
wegian constitution, and Christian summoned a Storthing to meet 
at Christiania in October, to which he tendered his resignation, 
and immediately afterwards set sail for Denmark. He afterwards 
reigned over Denmark as Christian VIII. (1839-48). During the 
same month the Storthing, though not without reluctance, affirmed 
the principle of union with Sweden, and several modifications were 
made in the Eidsvold constitution, and on 4th November Charles 
(XIII. of Sweden) was unanimously proclaimed king. On 10th 
November the crown-prince Charles John solemnly ratified the 
constitution at Christiania. With pardonable national pride, how- 
ever, the Norwegians still observe the 17th of May, 1814, as the 
true date of their political regeneration. 

At first as regent, and after the death of Charles XIII. (1818) 
as king of Norway (1818-44), Charles John or Charles XIV. had a 
difficult task to perform in governing two kingdoms to which a 
few years previously he had been an entire stranger, and with 
whose languages he was imperfectly acquainted. The internal 
affairs of both countries were, moreover, in an abnormally unsettled 
condition, and their finances were well-nigh ruined, while foreign 
states looked askance at the parvenu king and his almost repub- 
lican kingdom of Norway. In 1815, however, the legislative au- 
thorities of the two kingdoms drew up a formal Act of Union, 
placing the connection of the countries on a satisfactory basis. By 
the sale of the island of Guadeloupe to England the king was 
enabled to pay part of the national debt of Sweden, and he adopted 
other wise financial measures. Among other serious difficulties 
was that of calling in the unsecured Danish banknotes still cir- 
culating in Norway, a task which occasioned heavy sacrifices, and 
at the same time a bank was founded at Throndhjem (1816). In 
1821 a new burden was imposed by the unlooked for liability of 
Norway for part of the national debt of Denmark, while the intro- 
duction of a new educational system and other reforms was attended 
with great expense. About this period the king displeased his 

X. HISTORY. lxxvii 

democratic Norwegian subjects by opposing their abolition of titles 
of nobility (1821), by attempts to enlarge the prerogatives of the 
crown and to obtain for it the absolute right to veto the resolutions 
of the Storthing (1824), by appointing Swedish governors of Nor- 
way, and by yielding to what were considered the unjust demands 
of England in consequence of a fracas at Bod». On the other hand, 
by dint of rigid economy, sound administration, and the legalised 
sale of church property for educational purposes (1821), and owing 
to good harvests and successful fisheries , the prosperity of the 
country rapidly improved, while the king's firmness of character 
and his self-denial in renouncing his civil list for a period of ten 
years in order to assist in paying the national debt justly gained 
for him the respect and admiration of his people. From 1836 on- 
wards the highest offices in Norway were filled with Norwegians 
exclusively, and a new communal code (1837), penal code (1842), 
and other useful laws were passed. — In Sweden the French re- 
volution of 1830 caused a great sensation and led to a fruitless 
demand for the abolition of the existing constitution. A conspiracy 
in favour of Prince Vasa (1832) and several riots in Stockholm 
(1838) were also unsuccessful. On the other hand the king earned 
the gratitude of his Swedish subjects by the zeal with which he 
promoted the construction of new roads and canals , particularly 
that of the Gota Canal, and furthered the interests of commerce and 
agriculture, and at the time of his death the internal affairs of both 
kingdoms rested on a sound and satisfactory constitutional basis. 

The administration of his son Oscar I. (1844-59) was of a still 
more liberal and enlightened tendency. This gifted and highly 
educated monarch thoroughly remodelled the law of succession 
(1845) and the criminal code (1854) of Sweden, and abolished the 
monopolies of guilds, but he was unsuccessful in his attempts to 
procure a reform of the constitution (1845 and 1850-51). On his 
accession the king rendered himself popular in Norway by present- 
ing it with an appropriate national flag, and he was afterwards a 
scrupulous observer of the constitution of that country. At the same 
time the population and wealth of Norway now increased rapidly. 
His temporary interposition in the German and Danish war re- 
garding Slesvig, which led to the Armistice of Malmo (1848) and 
afterwards to the occupation of Northern Slesvig by Swedish and 
Norwegian troops, was regarded with favour in both of his king- 
doms , where patriotic Scandinavian views were then in the 

Oscar's eldest son Charles (XV. of Sweden ; 1859-72), a highly 
popular, though pleasure-loving monarch, who was endowed with 
considerable artistic and poetical talent , inaugurated the present 
representative constitution of Sweden in 1865, while in Norway 
the triennial Storthing was made annual (1869). In both countries 
the principle of religious equality was extended , new railways 

lxxviii X. HISTORY. 

and roads constructed, and other reforms introduced. A threatened 
conflict between the representatives of the two countries was 
averted through the king's influence, and to his wisdom was due 
the neutrality observed during the German and Danish war of 
1863 and the Franco-German war of 1870-71 , although his sub- 
jects warmly sympathised with the Danes in the one case and with 
the French in the other. 

In 1872 Charles was succeeded by his brother , the present 
king Oscar II., a gifted prince, endowed like his father and elder 
brother with considerable taste for science , poetry , and music. 
Materially and intellectually his kingdoms have recently made 
rapid strides. Latterly the radical and republican movement has 
gained considerable ground in Norway, where it has been accom- 
panied by a strong ultra-nationalistic spirit, revealing itself largely 
in a revulsion of feeling against the union with Sweden. 

In both kingdoms the field of Literature has been most sedu- 
lously cultivated during the present century. In Sweden there 
existed an academic and a neutral school, both of which , as for 
example Franzen (d. 1847), were more or less influenced by 
French taste , while a romantic school with German proclivities, 
called 'Phosphorists' from their 'Phosphorus' periodical, was re- 
presented by Hammarskold (d. 1827), Atterbom (d. 1855), and 
Palmblad (d. 1852). Akin to the latter, but of more realistic and 
far more national tendency, is the so-called 'Gotisk' school, to 
which belong the eminent historian E. G. Geijer (d. 1847) , the 
great poet Esaias Tegner (d. 1846) , and the poet, and inventor of 
the Swedish system of sanitary gymnastics, P. H. Ling (d. 1839). 
An isolated position , on the other hand , is occupied by K J. L. 
Almqvist (d. 1866) , an author of fertile imagination , but perni- 
cious moral tendencies. To the highest class of modern Swedish 
authors belongs the patriotic Finn , J. L. Runeberg (d. 1877), of 
whose noble and genial poetry 'Faurik Still's Sagner' afford an 
adrnirable example. As popular authoresses , though inferior to 
some of their above-mentioned contemporaries , we may mention 
Frederica Bremer (d. 1865) and Emilie Flygare-Carlen. Pre-emi- 
nent among scientific men are J. J. Berzelius , the chemist (d. 
1848), E. Fries, the botanist (d. 1878), K. A. Agardh, the bota- 
nist and statistician (d. 1859), and Sven Nilsson, the venerable 
zoologist and antiquarian (b. 1787). Among modern historians 
may be mentioned A. M. Strinnkolm (d. 1862), A. Fryxell, F. F. 
Carlson, K. G. Malmstrom, C. T. Odhner , H. Beuterdal (church 
history; d. 1870), and C. J. Slyter (legal history); and to this 
period also belong B. E. Hildebrand and B. Dybeck , the anti- 
quarians , J. E. Bietz , the philologist , and C. J. Bostrom , the 
philosopher. — In Norway , whose literature since 1814 has as- 
sumed a distinct national individuality, and though written in 
Danish has adopted a considerable number of words and idioms 



peculiar to the country , the poets H. Wergeland (d. 1845) and 
.7. Velhaven (A. 1873) occupy the foremost rank. Of the still liv- 
ing poets and novelists Bjernstjerne Bjernson , H. Ibsen , and 
J. Lie, the two former in particular have earned a well-merited 
reputation far beyond the confines of Norway. Of high rank among 
scientific men are N. H. Abel, the mathematician (d. 1829), C. 
Hansteen , the astronomer (d. 1873) , and M. Sars [A. 1869) and 
his son O. Sars, the naturalists. Eminent historians are R. Keyset 
(d. 1864), P. A. Munch (A. 1863), C. C. A. Lange (A. 1861), and 
the still living O. Rygh, E. Sars, L. Daae, and G. Storm ; distin- 
guished jurists, A. M. Schweigaard (d. 1870), F. Brandt, and T. 
H. Aschehoug ; philologists, S. Bugge, C. R. Vnger, J. Storm, and 
the lexicographer Ivar Aasen ; meritorious collectors of national 
traditions , M. B. Landstad , J. Moe , and particularly P. C. As- 
bjernsen. H. Steffens , the philosopher and poet (d. 1845), and 
C. Lassen, the Sanscrit scholar (d. 1876), were Norwegians who 
spent the greater part of their lives in Germany. 

Lastly, in the province of Art, we may mention the Norwegian 
painters Tidemand (d. 1877) and Oude (b. 1825) , and the Swe- 
dish sculptors Bystrom (1848) and Fogelberg (A. 1854) , but a 
glance at the galleries of Stockholm and Christiania will show that 
the list might easily be extended. 


Ynglingar Line. 

Harald Haarfagre . . . (?)860-933 

Erik Blodjjks ..... 930 

Haakon Adelstensfostre , 'the 

Good* 935 

Harald Graafeld .... (?)961-975 

Haakon Jarl (?)975 

Olaf Tryggvason 995 

Erik and Svejn, Jarler . . . 1000 

Olaf Haraldsstfn, 'the Saint' . 1015 

Svejn Knutsstfn 1030 

Magnus Olafsstfn, 'the Good 1 . 1035 

Harald Sigurdss0n Hardraade 1046 

Chronological Table. 

Rugnar Lodbrok's Line. 

Olaf Haralds90n Kyrre . 
Magnus Olafss0n Barfod 
Olaf Magnuss0n . . . 
jBtystejn MagnusS0n . . 
Sigurd Jorsalafarer . . 

. 1066 
. 1093 

Magnus Sigurdss0n Blinde 1130-35 
Harald Magnuss0n Gille" . 1130-36 
Sigurd Haraldss0n Mund . 1136-55 
Inge Haralds90n Krokryg . 1136-61 
0ystejn Haraldss0n .... 1142 
Haakon Sigurdss0n Herdebred 1157 
Magnus Erlingss0n .... 1101 

Erik 'VII.' Sejersa'l 
Olaf Sk0tkonung . . 

Anund (Onund) Jakob 

. (d.)995 

. 995 


. (?)1050 

Emund Slemme . . . 

StenkiVs Line. 

Stenkil (?)1056 

Inge I. Stenkilsson .... 1066 

Philip Hallstensson . 
Inge Hallstensson 

. 1111-19 
. (?)llll-28 

Sverker's Line. 
Sverker Kolsson 1132 

EriklX. Jedvardsson, 'tlieSaint' 1150 
Karl VII., Sverkersson . . 1160 




Sverre Sigurdssfjn .... 
Haakon Sverressern .... 
Guttorm Sigurdssefn .... 

Inge Baardss0n ; 

Haakon Haakonssfln, 'the Old 

Magnus Haakonsstfn Lagabflter 

Erik Magnuss0n 

Haakon V., Magnuss0n . . 
Magnus Eriksson, 'Sinek 1 . . 

Haakon VI., Magnuss0n . . 
Olaf Haakonsspn, 'the Young' 





Knut Eriksson 1167 

Sverkev Karlsson 1185 

Erik X. Knutsson .... 1210 

Johan Sverkersson .... 121G 

Erik XI., Eriksson Lsespe . 1222 

Folhungar Line. 

Valdemar Birgersson . . . 1250 

Magnus Ladulas 1276 

Kirger Magnusson .... 1290 

Magnus Eriksson, 'Smek' . . 1319 

Margaret, 'Valdeniarsdatter' . 1387 

Denmark and Norway. 
Erik of Pomerania .... 


Christopher of Bavaria . . 1442 

Karl KnutS90n 1449 

Christian 1 1450 

Hans 1483 

Christian II 1513 

Other Lines, and Administrators. " 
Albert of Mecklenburg . . . 1363 

Sweden with Denmark and 


Margaret 1387 

Frederick I. . 
Christian III. 
Frederick II. 

Christian IV. 



Erik XIII. of Pomerania . . 
Karl Knutsson, Administrator 
Christopher of Bavaria . . . 
Karl VIII., Knutsson . . • 

Christian I. . , 

Karl VIII., Knutsson . . . 
Sten Sture, Administrator 

Svante Nilsson 

Sten Sture the Younger . . 
Christian II 

The Vasa Line. 
Gustavus Vasa .... 

Frederick III 1648 

Christian V 1670 

Frederick IV 1699 

Christian VI 1730 

Frederick V. ...... 1746 

Christian VII 1766 

Frederick VI 1808 

Christian Frederick .... 1814 

Charles (XIII.) 1814 

Charles (XIV.) John .... 1818 

Oscar I , • • • 1844 

Charles (XV.) 1859 

Oscar II 1872 

Erik XIV. . . . 

John III 

Sigismund . . . 
Charles IX. . . . 
Gustavus Adolphus 
Christina .... 

Palatinate Line. 

Charles X. 
Charles XI. 








Charles XII 

Frederick of Hessen . . 

Holstein Line. 
Adolphus Frederick . . 

Gustavus III 1771 

Gustavus IV 1792 

Charles XIII 1809 

Bemado/te Family. 

Charles XIV 1818 

Oscar 1 1844 

Charles XV 1859 

Oscar II 1872 

1. Christiania and Environs. 

Arrival. The large steamers from Loudon, Hull, Hamburg, etc., 
usually land their passengers at the Toldbodbrygge or the Jernbanebrygge, 
the two pi'incipal quays near the Custom House (PI. I), E,7). Porterage from 
the steamer, on board of which luggage is slightly examined, to one of 
the principal hotels: 30 f*. for 601bs. or under, 40 t<- for 60-1401bs. (only 
porters with numbers should be employed). Cabs, see below. — Tra- 
vellers by railway from Sweden arrive at the 0sl- or Ilovedbanrgaard 
(PI. D, 6), where luggage is slightly examined, and from Drammen at the 
Vestbanegaard (PI. B,7). Porterage and cabs thence to the hotels, see above. 

Hotels. s Victoria (PI. h: C, I),7), at the corner of the Raadhus-Gade 
and Dronningens-Gade, a large, old-established house; -Grand Hotel (PI. 
R,C, 6), Karl-Johans-Gade, well situated at the E.end of the Kidsvolds-Plads, 
D. at 3'/j p.m., 3 kr. ; "Hotel Skanoinavie (Pl.f: 0, D, 6), at the corner 
of the Karl-Johans-Gade and the I'ronningcns-Gade, very central; "Royal 
Hotel (PI. e; T>, Gj, Jernbane-Torv, R. 3 kr., B. 80 #., 1>. 3 kr.; Bri- 
tannia (PI. a: 1), 7), at the corner of the Toldbod-Gade and Store Strand- 
Cade, smaller, the nearest to the quav, well spoken of. Charges at these 
about the same: H. from 2, B. 1-2, D. 3-3'/2, L. and A. 1 kr. — Angle- 
terre (PI. 1): C, 7), at the corner of the Raadhus-Gade and the Kongeiis- 
Gade; — Kong Karl (PI. d: D, 6), .lernbane-Torv ; Kong Oscar, near the 
Vestbanegaard. Charges at these: R. H/a, B. 1, II. 2-2'/a kr. — Holuls 
G'amis, Cnu. Knudsen, Tordcnskjolds-Gade 8, near the Eidsvolds-Plads, 
well spoken of (landlord speaks .English); Jenny Sandbekg, Karl-Johans- 
Gade 33, near the Grand Hotel. 

Restaurants. At the hotels; "ClirisloffersKii, corner of Bankplads and 
Kirke-Gade; Tivoli (see below). — Cafe at the Grand Hotel (see above). 
— Confectioners. :: £aumaim, Jt^vre Slots-Gade 10; Giiitther, Kirke-Gade t(i. 

Cabs. The dri vers are called ' Votjnmasnd'' : 

Per drive within the town 

in the suburbs 

For each additional person ...... 

Per hour within the town and its immediate 


For each additional person 

At night (11 p.m. to 8 a.m. from 1st May to 30th Sept. ; 10 p.m. to 
9 a.m. during the rest of the year), the fares are for one-horse cabs 80 0. 
(20 tl. for each additonal person), and for two-horse cabs 1 kr. 20 0. (30 ft. 
for each additional person). In one-horse cabs 501bs. of luggage, in two- 
horse cabs 100 lbs. are carried free. 

Tramway ( Sporvoijn). From the Slor-Torv, or principal market-place ad- 
joining Vor Frelsers Kirke, to the Vestbanegaard (W.1, Homansby (N.W.), 
Griinirlekkei). (N.E.), and Oslo (S.E.), every 5 or 10 min. from about 8 a.m. 
to 10 p.m. on week-days, and from about noon to 10 p.m. on Sundays. Fare 
for each of these trips 15 0. — As there are no conductors, each passenger 
drops his fare into an ingenious box placed near the driver. The coins 
fall on a slide where they are seen through a pane of glass by the driver, 
who then tilts them into the box below. The drivers give change, but 
have no access to the money-box. This system, the success of which 
depends to some extent on the honesty of the passengers, works well 
where the traffic is inconsiderable. It is used on the smaller cars at 
Stockholm also. 

Post and Telegraph Offices at the corner of the Kirke-Gade and 
Karl-Johans-Gade (PI. C, 6). Post-Office (PI. 27) open from 8 a.m. to 7.30 

BAEDEKER'S Norwav and Swpden 3W1 VA\t J 

IHorse; 1 Pers. 

2Hors.; 1-2 P 

— 40 0. 

— 80 - 

— 20 

— so 0. 

1 kr. 20 - 

— 20 - 

1 kr.20 - 
- 30 

2kr. — 
— 30 

2 Route 1. CHRISTIANI.Y. Shops. 

p.m.; .Sundays 8-10 a.m. and 5-8 p.m. Telegraph Office (PI. 32), open 
daily from 7a. in. to 9 p.m.; open at night also for foreign telegrams. , 

Banks (open 10-2). Norske Credit -Bank, at the corner of the Kirke- 
Gade and Prindsens- Gade; Cliristiania Bank and Credit- Kasse , Torvet, 
W. side; Norges Batik, Bank-Plads ; Th. Jolt. Ileftye <(■ Son, Toldbod-Gade 
20; N. A. Andresen tt Co., Kirke-Gade 6. At any of these circular notes 
may be changed. 

Consulates. American: Torvet 2; consul, Mr. Gerhard Gade. British: 
Kirke-Gaden 36; consul-general, Mr. Th. Mitchell. 

Shops. Booksellers: Alb. Cammermeyer, Karl-Johans-Gade 33 (publisher 
of 'Norges Communicationer' and of 'Nissen's Eeisekart over Norge', see 
p. xxviii); Dybwad , opposite the Post- Office (p. 4); Aschehoug, Karl- 
Johans-Gade 43; Huseby <fc Co., Karl-Johans-Gade 39. — Jewellers (noted 
for filigree and enamel work): "J. Toslrup, Kirkc-Gade 20 (from summer 
188B, at Karl-Johans-Gade 26, opposite the Storthing); Thune, Karl-Johans- 
Gade, S. side, near the 0vre Slots-Gade; D. Andersen, opposite Tostrup's, 
Kirke-Gade 19, cheaper. — Art-dealers and Music-sellers : Blomkvist, Karl- 
Johans-Gade 41 (pictures by Norwegian artists); Abel, Prinsses-Gade 11 
(photographs and engravings). — Antiquities : Gram , Torvet 11 b, dear. 
— Fancy Articles: Vollmann, Kongens-Gade 22. — Travelling Requisi- 
tes : IK Schmidt, agent of the Turist-Forening, Kirke-Gade 21 ; Storen, 
corner of Grfendse-Gade and Akers-Gade, cheaper. — Stationery, Photo- 
graphs, etc.: Olscn, Karl-Johans-Gade, near the Hotel Skandinavie; Grtin- 
vold, Kongcns-Gade 29; Andvord (best photographs), opposite the post- 
office, near Dybwad's (see above). — Preserved meats, etc. : E. Lexow & 
Co., Toldbod-Gade 8; C. J. Christophersen & Co., under the Hotel Skan- 
dinavie; Bergwitz, 0vie Slots-Gade; Chr. Magnus, Karl-Johans-Gade 33, 
near the Grand Hotel. — Shoemaker : Solberg, Karl-Johans-Gade, near the 
Skandinavie. — Travelling requisites of all kinds may also be purchased 
of Mr. T. Bennel, Store Strand-Gade 17. 

Turist-Forening (see Introd. iv.). Secretary, Mr. H. R. tfstgaard, 
Rigsarkivet (in the building of the Storthing, p. 6). 

Newspapers at the principal hotels, and at the Athenamm (p. 6), Akers- 
gadcn, at the back of the Storthings Building, a reading -club to which 
travellers are admitted for a fortnight when introduced by a member. 

Baths. Kristiania-Bad, at the corner of Munkedamsvejen and Rings- 
gangen, diagonally opposite the University, with modern appliances, 
Roman baths &c. ; Brideanslalt (PI. C, D,5), Torv-Gaden. — Baths in the 
Fjord: Hygwa (20 0.) and Seilysl (15 0.) , for swimmers. The baths at 
Bygde (p. 11) are more esteemed on account of the greater purity of the 
water. The water is almost entirely fresh. The rise and fall of the tide 
averages 1-2 ft. only. 

Theatres. Kristiania-Thealer (PI. 33; C7). at the S. end of the Kirke- 
Gade, usually closed in summer. Boxes 2'/2 kr., pit 1 kr. 60 0. — At the 
Tivoli (formerly Klingenberg, PI. B, 7; with a restaurant), in the Eidsvolds- 
Plads, nearly opposite the University, concerts and theatrical performances 
take place daily (sometimes operas); admission 1/2-i kr. — Military Music 
daily at 2-3 p.m. (Sun. 12.30 to 1.30), and occasionally in the evening, 
in the Studenterlunden (PI. B, 6), the promenades opposite the University 
(refreshments in the Pavilion). 

Steamers to London, on alternate Thursdays; to Hull on Fridays; 
to Glasgow once a fortnight (cabin fare 3gs., return igs.); to Gothen- 
burg live times, and to Copenhagen thrice weekly direct, and once 
touching at Fredrikshavn ; to Christianssand daily ; to Bergen five 
times weekly; to Throndhjem four times weekly; to Hamburg, Amsterdam, 
Antwerp, &c. All these vessels start from the Toldbodbrygge , the 
Ffcstningsbrygge, or the Jernbanebrygge (PI. D, E, 7). — Small steamers 
ply from the Jernbanebrygge to Moss, Horten , Fredrikstad , Fredriks- 
hald, Tensberg, and the islands in the Bundefjord; and also from the 
Pipervik (PI. A, B, 8) to Fredriksborg on the Ladegaardsjzr , once or 
oftener daily, affording pleasant excursions. — For these, besides a number 
of other steamers to places on the fjord, Drammen, etc., see 'Norges 
Communicationer 1 . 

imimgi iutgsph^: 

History. LHK1STIANIA. 1. Route. 3 

Small Boats may be hired of the 'Fa rijr/mtitd' on tho Pipervik and 
at the Baadforening by the fortress for 1 kr. 20 ft. per hour. An excursion 
may be made by boat to the Hoveds , with its scanty monastery ruins, 
to visit which (strictly speaking) permission from the commandant of 
the fortress is required (p. 1.1). 

English Church Service in the Feslsal of the University, S.E. win;;. 
Resident chaplain (Rev. Austin West). 

Principal Attractions. Walk or drive from the Jfi'stbancgaard across 
the Jernbane-Torv, and through the Karl-Johans-Oade. Walk on the ram- 
parts of the Akershus fortress in the early morning (p. 5). The col- 
lections in the University (Viking ships, p. 7); the Museum of Sculptures 
and National Gallery (p. 8); the Palace (p. 9). View from SI. llanshauyen., 
about 1 Engl. M. to the N. of the Storthings Building (see p. 6). Ex- 
cursions to Oscarshall (p. 11) and to Frognersceter (p. 12). Sail on the 
Fjord in one of the small steamers starting from the Pipervik. — Even- 
ing at the Tivoli (see above). 

Christiania, the capital of Norway, beautifully situated at the N. 
end of the Christiania Fjord and on the W. bank of the small Akers- 
El n, in 59° 51' N. lat. and 10° 50' E. long., was founded by Christian IV. 
in 1624 on the plain to the N. of the fortress of Akershus, and 
named after him, being intended as a substitute for the older town 
of Oslo, on thcE. bank of the stream, which had been almost entirely 
burned down in that year. Oslo, founded by Harald Hardraade about 
the year 1050, afterwards became a depot of the Ilanseatio League 
and the capital of Norway, but was burned down by its inhabitants 
in 1567 to prevent its falling into the hands of Swedish besiegers, 
and was again destroyed in 1624. It once possessed a richly endowed 
cathedral, dedicated to St. llalvard, where several of the Norwegian 
kings were interred, and where James I. of England married Anne 
of Denmark in 1589. The number of its inhabitants falmost ex- 
clusively Protestants) was 32,000 in 1835, 94,869 in 1875, and is 
at present estimated at 124,000. The next census will take place 
at the end of 1885. 

Christiania is the scat of government and of the supreme court 
of Norway, and the headquarters of the Storthing or parliament. It 
also boasts of a University, containing several scientific collections, 
a National Picture Gallery, an Observatory, a Royal Palace , and a 
number of charitable and other institutions. The chief exports arc 
timber, lish, beer, and various manufactured goods , and the im- 
ports wheat, wine, etc., the former being valued at about 25, and 
the latter at 72 million kroner in 1882. On 31st Dec. 1884 the 
town possessed 381 vessels, of an aggregate burden of 122,000 tons, 
of which 70 were steamers. In the neighbourhood are several con- 
siderable engine-works, breweries, cotton-mills, and paper-manu- 
factories , most of which lie on the Akers-Elv. 

Owing to its comparatively recent origin, as well as to destructive 
fires by which it was visited in 1686, 1708, and 1858, Christiania 
now presents a substantial modern appearance , most of the old 
timber-built houses having disappeared. Beyond the beauty of the 
situation at the foot of gently sloping, grassy, and pine-clad hills, 
with the picturesque fjord stretching into the distance , studded 


4 Route 1. CHKIST1ANIA. Vor-Frelaers-Kirke. 

witli islands, ami enlivened with occasional steamboats and sailing 
vessels, the town offers few inducements for a prolonged stay. Our 
walk or drive through the principal streets includes the chief points 
of interest, all of which may be visited in half-a-day, if the traveller 
is pressed for time. A couple of hours should also, if possible, be 
devoted to the exclusion to Oscarshall (p. 10). 

Starting from the Toldbodbrygge , or Custom House Quay 
(PI. D, 7 ), situated on the Bjervik, the bay which bounds the town 
on the S.E., and proceeding to the X., we come in 4 inin. to the 
0stbanegaard, or Eastern Railway Station (PI. D, 6), which is also 
known as the Hoved-Banegaard ('principal railway-station'; p. 1), 
a handsome building erected by Schirmer and v. Hanno in 1854 
and enlarged in 1879. Leaving the railway - station , we cross the 
Jernbane Turn to the W. and ascend the Karl-Johans-Gade, the 
most important street in the town. On the right(2min.)is a hand- 
some building containing the Brandvagt (PI. 3 : 0, 6), or tire- 
station, and the Basarer ('bazaars'), occupied by butchers, poul- 
terers, etc. A few paces farther on, also on the right, lies the Stor- 
Tobv (PI. 0, 6; 'great market'), usually known simply as Torvet 
(•the market'). It is adorned with a Statue of Christian IV., by 
Jacobsen (1874). On the E. side of the market-place rises — 

Vor-Frelsers-Kirke (PL 16), or Church of Our Saviour, a large 
cruciform edifice with a conspicuous tower, consecrated in 1697, 
and restored by Chateauneuf in 1849-56. The altar-piece, re- 
presenting Christ in Gethsemane , is by the German artist E. 
Steinle , and the marble font by Fladager. — The Torv-tiade 
leads hence to the N., passing on the left the Vampkjekken ('steam 
kitchen'), a large establishment for the benefit of the poorer classes, 
where about 2000 persons are daily provided with dinners for 25- 
45 0. each. Some of the customers carry away their food, while 
others dine at large marble tables provided for the purpose. A 
few paces farther on in the same direction is the Nytorv ('new 
market'), on the left (VV.) side of which rise the Byret ('municipal 
court) and the Politikammer (PL 4), or police-office. Beyond this 
market-place, on the left side of the same street, is situated the 
Badeanstalt (PL D, 5 ; p. 2), a handsome building, suitably fitted 
up. (The entrance to the ladies' baths is at the back.) The Akers- 
Gade , leading to St. Hanshaugen (p. 6), is only 3 mill, walk 
from this point. The Torv-Gade then leads to the N., past Anker- 
Imlckens-Uraclund , to the Akerselr, which forms several waterfalls 
higher up. Adjoining the falls are numerous manufactories, some 
of which are of considerable size. On the E. bank of the river 
lies the well-built suburb of Griiner Lekken, with the Olaf Rye's 
Plads. — We retrace our steps to the Karl-Johans-Gade, cross it, 
passing the — 

Post and Telegraph Offices (PL 27, 32 ; C, 6), at the corner of 
that street and the Kirke-Gade, and follow the latter. After 3min. 

Akershus. CHRISTIANIA. 1. Route. 5 

we cross the Raadhus - Gade , and a little farther on reach the 
Theatre (PI. 33), erected in 1837, opposite to which, on the W. 
side of the Bank-Plads, is situated Norges Bank (PI. 25). To the 
E. is Grev-Wedels-Plads, with pleasure-grounds, adjoining which 
is the Freemasons' Lodge. A little to the S. of the Bank, we next 
reach the fortress of — 

Akershus, or Agershus (PI. CJ, 8), situated on the E. bank of the 
Pipervik. The date of its foundation is unknown, but it is mention- 
ed as having been besieged by Duke Erik of Sweden in 1310. In 
1355-80 the works were extended by Haakon VI., and they were 
farther strengthened in the 16th-18th centuries, but have since 
been partially levelled, and are now of no military importance. The 
castle was besieged unsuccessfully by Christian II. in 1531-32, and 
by the Swedes in 1567 and 1716. CharlesXII., who conducted the 
siege on the latter occasion , was signally defeated a few months 
later near Fredrikshald by Tordenskjold (d. 1720), the famous 
Norwegian naval hero, a native of Throndhjem (p. 218). The for- 
tress itself now contains nothing noteworthy , but those who have 
leisure may visit the Rustkammer, or armoury, on applying at the 
office of the Feltteimester ('master of the ordnance', in the 'Artilleri- 
gaard'), where permission to visit the monastery ruins on the Hovede 
(p. 11) is also granted. The Ormegaarden , or court, is also of 
historical interest. The ramparts , which have been converted into 
pleasant promenades, afford beautiful views of the fjord, especi- 
ally in the morning. 

Retracing our steps to the Bank-Plads and the Raadhus-Gade. 
we turn to the left and soon reach the Johanskirke (PI. 13; C, 7), 
built of yellow brick ('Flensburger Sten') by Bull, and completed 
in 1878. It contains a good altar-piece by Eilif Petersen, eight 
monolithic granite columns, and a marble font. The sacristan 
('kirketjener') livesat Akersgadel, on theW. side of the church. ■ — 
The Raadhus-Gade now descends to the W. to the Pipervik, where 
we observe opposite to us the handsome Vestbanegaard, and obtain 
a fine view of the fjord, with the rocks of Akershus rising on the 
left. We next proceed to the N. by the to the 
Eidsvolds - Plads , a fine square, planted with trees, on the E. 
(right) side of which rises the — 

Storthings - Bygning (PI. 30: C, 6), or assembly-hall of the 
Norwegian Parliament, a handsome edifice, half Romanesque, 
half Byzantine, designed by Langlet, and completed in 1866. The 
facade, flanked with two lions in granite by Borch, overlooks the 
Plads, and the N. side adjoins the Karl-Johans-Gade. The Interior 
(shown by the 'Vagtmester' or custodian, who is to be found at the 
entrance from the Storthings-Gade, on the S. side of the building, 
fee i /'>-l kr.), which is handsomely fitted up, comprises the Storthings- 
Sal, with accommodation for about 150 deputies and an audience 
of 300 persons, and the smalW T ".'.•ih : ".nn-8nl, with seats for about 

6 Route. 1. CHRTSTIANIA. -St. Hanshaugen. 

40 members and 130 visitors, besides which there are several com- 
mittee-rooms , a library, secretary's office , archives room (Riks- 
nrkivet), and other apartments. Prior to 1866 the Storthing met in 
the Departements- Guard, in the Dronningens-Gade, which is now 
occupied by various government offices. The Storthing sits annually 
in February and March, but not longer without permission from 
the king , to whom also belongs the prerogative of summoning it 
to meet at other times if necessary. The usual summer-session, 
held by royal permission, lasts till the middle of June. 

In the Akers-Gade, at the back of the Storthings-Hus , is the 
Alhe.nn.eum (PI. 1 ; see p. 2), including the Norwegian Society, 
the linest modern building in the town. Following the Akers-Gade 
towards the N., we next reach the Trefoldigheds-Kirke (PI. If): 
C,5,6), or Church of the Trinity, on the right, a Gothic editice, 
partly designed by Chateauneuf, and erected in 1853-58. The 
interior forms a handsome octagon. It contains an altar-piece 
(Rnptism of Christ) by Tidemand and a font with an angel by 
Middeltltun. A few paces beyond it is the Roman Catholic St. Olafs- 
Kirke (VI. 14), erected in 1853, with a school at the back, where 
the road divides. 

The Akersvei, to the right, leads past the E. side of Vor /•'reiser* 
Cemetery in 6 min. to the *Gamle Akers Kirke (1*1. to, 4), one 
of the oldest churches in Norway , mentioned as early as 1080, 
and probably founded by King Olaf kyrre. It was skilfully re- 
stored in the original style by Schirmer and v. Hanno in 1861. 
The church is a three-naved basilica in the Anglo-Norman Roman- 
esque Style ; and the interior is remarkable for the manner in 
which the square at the crossing is closed on all sides by walls, 
through which door-like openings connect with the nave, transepts, 
and choir. — The Ullevoldsrei, to the left of St. Olafs-Kirke, leads 
past the W. side of Vor - Frelsers-Gravlund, a well-shaded ce- 
metery, embellished with flower-beds, and provided with numer- 
ous benches for the use of mourners. The N.part forms a pleasant 
park, and commands line views. On an eminence near the en- 
trance is the monument of Henrik Wergelund (d. 184:")), the most 
famous of Norwegian poets, erected by 'grateful Jews' in recogni- 
tion of his successful efforts in obtaining liberty for them to settle 
in Norway. In 5 min. more we reach — 

*St. Hanshaugen ('St. John's Hill' ; PI. A, 3, 4; cab from the 
Stor-Torv 40 ». and upwards, and half-fare returning , see p. 1), 
a prettily laid out eminence about 150 ft. above the sea-level, on 
the summit of which there is a reservoir belongi7\g to the city 
waterworks. This point commands an excellent survey of the 
town, the fjord and islands beyond it, the Ekeberg (p. 12) to 
the left, Oscarshall (p. 11) to the right, and Frogners;eter on 
the hill to the N.W. (see p. 12). The view I; rather more exten- 
sive from the building at the N. end of the reservoir. Cards of ad- 

University. CHRISTIANIA. 7. Route. 7 

mission may be obtained in the office of the city engineer, at the 
Are- station. The attendant, for whom the visitor rings, names 
the chief points, and lends a telescope (fee 40 e. or upwards). 

"We now return by the same route, or by the St. Olafs-Plads, 
to the W. of the church of that name, to the Karl-Johans-Gade, 
where we next visit the — 

University (PI. B, 6), a handsome edifice in the classical style, 
with two wings at right angles to it. The establishment was found- 
ed by Frederick VI. in 1811 , but as the various lecture-rooms 
were scattered throughout the town , the present building was 
erected in 1841-53 by Grosch, whose design was partly suggested 
by Schinkel of Berlin. There are five faculties with a staff of 52 
professors, who lecture gratis to upwards of 1000 students. The 
E. wing, containing the Festsal (English service, p. 3), is known 
as the Domus Academica , and the W. wing is occupied by the 
Library, consisting of 250,000 vols., and reading-room (open on 
the first five days of the week, 12-2 and 11-3 respectively. En- 
trance in the Frederiksgade). In front of the central building 
stands the statue of the Norwegian jurist and politician Ant. Martin 
Schweigaard (d. 1870), by Middelthun, erected in 1883. 

The University possesses several Collections of considerable value, 
which may be visited if time permits. 

Collection of Northern Antiquities (in the E. wing, Mon. and 
Frid. 12-2). Ascending the staircase, we turn to the left and follow a 
passage leading to the Cabinet of Coins (see below) and the Antiquities. 
The latter are arranged in seven rooms. Room I. (that farthest to the 
right): relics of the flint and bronze ages. Rooms II., III., and IV. are 
devoted to the earlier and later parts of the iron period. Room V. con- 
tains mediaeval relics (A.D. 1000-1500), the chief of which have their 
names and dates attached. Among them are three -Church-portals from 
old Norwegian wood-churches, dating from the 12th -13th centuries. 
Room VI. contains several other interesting door-posts and portals of 
the same period. Room VII. is occupied with curiosities of later date 
than 1500, including tankards in wood and metal, bridal crowns, trinkets, 
fire-arras, and tools. — In the entrance -hall are several richly-carved 
church-portals. — The — 

Cabinet of Coins (E. wing, adjoining the Antiquities; Mon. and 
Frid., 1-2) is a valuable collection, numbering 45,000 specimens. — The — 

Zoological Huseum (central building, Sun., Mon., Frid., 12-2) is 
reached by ascending the staircase, turning to the left, and entering the 
last door on the left. In the 1st (Reading) Room, birds, etc. ; in the 2nd 
R. is a well -arranged zoological collection; in the 3rd R., fish and rep- 
tiles. — We now pass a staircase on the left descending to the Zootomic 
Museum (skeletons, and anatomical preparations), and enter the 4th and 
5th Rooms, which contain an extensive and valuable collection of birds. 

Ethnographical Museum (central building, reached by a staircase in 
the N.W. corner, from the garden at the back; Mon. and Frid., 1-2). 
1st Room: Scandinavian costumes, furniture, and implements. 2nd R.: 
Laplander's tent, reindeer, and pulk. Another staircase now ascends to 
a series of small rooms containing articles of dress, implements, utensils, 
armour, weapons, manufactures, etc., from other parts of the world. 

A shed behind the central part of the university contains two Viking 
Ships, supposed to date from the 9th century. One, excavated at Sande- 
fjord (p. 33) in 1880, is 76 ft. long and 14-16 ft. broad. Adm. on Mon. and 
Frid., 12-2 (at other times for a fee). 

8 Route 1. CHRISTIANIA. Museum of Art. 

The Botanic Garden (PI- EF 4), 3 / 4 Engl. 51. to the N.E. of the Stor- 
torv, is daily accessible. 

To the S. of the university extends that part of the Eidsvolds- 
Plads (p. 5) known as Studenterlunden (Cafe' in summer; music, 
see p. 2), embellished with a statue of Henrik Wergeland (p. 6), 
by Bergslien. 

To the N. of the University, in the Universitets-Gade, is the 
haiidsome *Museum of Art (PI. 21), built in the Italian Renais- 
sance style by Adolf Sehirmer and presented to the town by the 
h'ristinnia Sparebank , or Savings Bank. The wings are not yet 
completed. In the centre is a large flight of steps. Admission on 
Sun., Tues. and Thurs. 12-2, free; at other times on application to 
the ' Vagtmester', who lives at the back of the building (fee '/ 2 — 1 kr.). 

The Ground Floor contains the 'Sculpture Gallery (Sculptur- 
Museet ; Historical and Descriptive Catalogue, by Prof. Dietrich- 
son, 1 kr.). 

The Vestibule and the three adjoining Rooms contain the Casts vf 
Aiwient Sculptures, and the Staircase and Hall the Casts of Renaissance 
and Modern Sculptures , the whole forming the most complete collection 
of the kind in Scandinavia (also presented by the Sparebank, see above). 
— The other rooms contain Original Works by Norwegian Masters, the 
linest of which are: 328, 329. Fladager, Angel with font (model and 
sketch); Borch, 330. .Tephthah's Daughter, 331. The first lesson, 331a. 
The Sulamite Maiden, 331b. David, 332. Bust of Rector Vibe, one of 
the founders of the collection; 333. Skeibrok , Ragnar Lodbrok anions 
Ihe serpents; no number, Skeibrok, The mother's watch. 

A wide double staircase ascends to the Upper Floor, which con- 
tains the *National Gallery, a collection of paintings founded in 
1837 and belonging to government. It contains about 300 ancient 
and modern works, chiefly by Norwegian masters but also including 
several good specimens of the Dutch school. The gallery was for- 
merly situated in the Apothekergade. 

We first enter the — 

East Room. Danish School. 198. Jens Juel, Bernt Anker, a Norwegian 
patriot of the 18th cent. ; 201. C. W. Eckersberg , Alms-giving at the con- 
vent ; 202. N. Sin/onsen, Caravan overtaken by a simoom ; 204, 205, Grim- 
laml, Flowers and fruit; 206. Serensen, J0Yesund, near Kronborg. — Swe- 
dish School. 210. Kjbrboc, Fox; Amalie Lindegren, 214. The widow and 
her child, 215. Grandfather's lesson ; 216. Fagerlin, Discomforts of bache- 
lor life; 218. E. Bergh , Birch wood. — We now turn to the right and 
enter the — 

South Room (lighted from above). Norwegian School. J. C. Dahl (178S- 
1857), 230. Laurvik, 231. The Hougfos; Th. Feamley (1802-1842), 235. 
The Labrofos, 236. Grindelwald Glacier; 241. Baade (1808-1879), Norwegian 
coast-scene by moonlight; Adolf Tidemand (1814-76), "246. A solitary couple 
(family worship in a cottage), *247. Cottage meeting of the Haugianer (a 
religious sect), 248. Administration of the Sacrament to a dying man; 
250. F. Bee (b. 1820), Breakfast; Eckersberg (1822-1870), 253. Valle in the 
Saitersdal, 254. Mountain scenery; //. F. Gude (b. 1S26), 258. Norwegian 
landscape, 259. Mountain view, "261. Christiania Fjord, 262. Before the 
vain, 263. Scene in North Wales; "267. H. A. Cappeleu (1827-1852), Forest 
scene in Lower Thelemarken ; 272. K. Bergslien lb. 1827), Portrait of the 
artist's father ; Morten Mutter (t>. 1828), 273. Scene on the Christiania Fjord, 
274. Uardanger Fjord; 270. E. Bodom (1829-1879), Scene in Nordmar'ken; 
279. I'. iV. Arbo (b. 1831), Asgaardsrejen (The Wild Huntsman); 281. A. 
Askerold (b. 1831), Mountain lake in summer; 283. V. Slollenherg-Lerche 

National Gallery. CHRISTIANIA. I. Route. 9 

(1). 1837L Tithe-day at the convent; 284. Karl Hansen (b. 1841), In capti- 
vity; :S 287. L. Munlhe (b. 1841), Coast-scene in winter; No number, Mmithe, 
Autumn evening; 289. E. Petersen (b. 1852), Portrait of a lady. The follow- 
ing have no numbers: Skredswig (b. 1851), Subject from Northern France: 
Ucherman, Flemish team; Gerh. llunthe (b. 1849), A Summer's day; O. 
Sinding (b. 1842), Scene from the Lofoden Islands; E. Werenskiold (b. 1855), 
Girl from Thelemarken. 

West Room: Sketches and studies by Ad. Tidemcmd; "278. P. A T . Arbo, 
The Walkyries. We next enter the — 

North Rooms (lighted from the roof), the first of which is devoted 
to the French, Italian, and German Schools. Italian Masters: "1. Fine old 
copy of Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa, wrongly ascribed to Bernardino 
Luini ; 5. Venetian Master , Massacre of the Innocents ; 6. In the style of 
C'araraggio, Laughing head ; 12. Pi. Strozzi, The tribute money ; 13. Salra- 
tor Rosa, Landscape. — German Masters: 134, 135. Barth. Beham , Por- 
traits; 141. J. J. Hartmann, John the Baptist in the wilderness; 145. 
Seibold, Portrait; Anion Graff, 155. Portrait of a lady, 157. Portrait of bis 
son (the landscape painter of the same name); 173. 0. Wagner, Ponte 
Rotto; 175. K. So/in, Tasso and the ladies of Ferrara; 176. C. F. Lessing, 
Scene on the Rhine; "177. R. Jordan, Family worship; 178. E. Geselschap, 
Christmas morning; 179. K. Hilbner, Emigrants paying a farewell visit 
to the graves of their relatives ; 180. A. Achenbach, Beach at Scheveningen ; 
182. A. W. Leu, Waterfall in Norway; 183. 0. Achenbach, Italian land- 
scape; 184. A. Seel, Cloisters. — French Masters; 187. C. de la Fosse, 
Achilles discovered by Ulysses among the daughters of Lycomedes. The 
other works are unimportant. 

The second North Room contains the works of the Flemish and Dutch 
Schools: *22. Pieter Claeissens, Portrait of himself; 24. Francken the El- 
der. The works of charity ; 26. Abr. Bloemaert, St. Jerome ; 28. Pourbns 
the Younger, Portrait; 30. R. Savery, Landscape with accessories; 32. Al. 
Adriaenssen, Still-life; 34. Jac. Jordaens, Allegorical representations of 
the blessings of the peace of Westphalia; 35. Adr. Brouwer (?) , Drunken 
peasant (signed); -36. Jan Fyt, Fight between dogs and wolves; 50,51. 
P. v. Bloemen, Cavalry skirmish, Cattle driven off by armed horsemen; 
5(1. ./. Horemans, Peasant meal; ::: 59. Hellernans , Forest scene, with sheep 
by J. Verboeckhoven ; 63. Mierevelt, Portrait; 67. B. v. d. Ast, Fruit; 71. 
Corn. v. Keulen ( Ravesteyn ? ) , Portrait; 72. E. v. d. Velde, Landscape; 
73. J. v. Got/en, Sea-piece; "81. Jan Davidsz de Heem, Oysters and Rhine 
wine ; 84. School of G. Dow, Schoolmaster ; 86. B. v. d. Heist (?), Man witli 
a glass of wine; 94. G. Lunders, Family portraits; "104. M. Hondecoeter, 
Dog, cat, and game. 

A glass-door in the West Room leads to the staircase, by which we 
ascend to the Collection of Drawings and Engravings (founded in 1877; 
5000 examples), containing drawings by Wilh. Schirmer (Karlsruhe), Ad. 
Tidemand, dc. 

Farther to the N. in the Universitets-Gade, at the corner of the 
Pilestrade, is the building of the Kunstforening , or Art Union 
(adm. 20 ».), adorned with medallion portraits of celebrated artists, 
executed by Jacobsen. The ground-floor is occupied by the Art 
Industrial Museum r Kunstindustrimu$a>et; adm. daily, except 
Sat., 12-2, free), founded in 1877, and containing interesting spec- 
imens of Norwegian work of various kinds, of ancient and modern 
date, as well as numerous electrotype reproductions. The Chinese 
porcelain and lacquer-work also deserve mention. 

On an eminence at the W. extremity of the town, in the beauti- 
ful Slotspark, stands the Palace, or Slot (PI. A, 6), a large, plain 
edifice with a classical portico in the centre. It was erected in 
1825- iS as a royal residence at the comparatively small cost of 

10 Route 1. CHRISTIANIA. Palace. 

about 22,7001., while the grounds in which it stands cost about 
10,700«. more, these sums having been voted by the Storthing for 
the purpose. The Interior is shown by the 'Vagtmester', or custo- 
dian, who lives on the sunk floor of the S. wing (fee 1-2 kr.). The 
principal Staircase is embellished with two reliefs in marble : the 
one to the right, by Stephen Sinding, represents Charles XIV. John 
laying the foundation-stone of the palace; that to the left, by 
M. Skeibrok, Oscar II. unveiling the statue of Charles John. The 
Fes t sal is a handsome and lofty hall, adorned with Corinthian co- 
lumns ; the large Dining-room is decorated in the Pompeian style; 
the walls of the Throne Room, (bursal or drawing-room, and Au- 
dience Chamber are adorned with landscapes by Flinto. The private 
apartments contain paintings and sculptures by Norwegian artists 
(among them Tidemand s Village Catechising, and O. Sinding's Battle 
of Swolder), most of which were presented to the king and queen 
on their silver-wedding in 1882. The roof commands an ad- 
mirable * View of the town and environs. — In front of the 
palace rises an * Equestrian Statue of Charles XIV. John (Berna- 
dotte), by BrynjulfBergslien, inscribed with the king's motto 'The 
people's love is my reward'. 

Christiania also possesses a number of educational, charitable, 
and other institutions, which may be visited if time permits. Among 
these may be mentioned the Kongelige Teyneskole, a School of 
Design , witli which the National Gallery (p. 8) is connected. It 
was founded in 1818, and is supported by subsidies of 16,000 kr. 
from government and 4800 kr. from the municipality. Deichrnanv's 
Library (until April 1886 at the students' society, Universitets- 
Gade 26) founded in 1780, and consisting of 13,000 vols., is open 
to the public on week-days, except Thurs., 6-8 p.m. There are also 
several very useful and meritorious scientific, literary, antiquarian, 
and philanthropic societies, a list of which will be found in Norges 
Statskalender. The most important of the numerous charitable in- 
stitutions are the new Rigshospital (PI. B 5), Nordal Bruns Gade, 
and (htn Hospital, in Oslo, which was founded by Christian III. 
in 1538 and united in 1790 with a lunatic asylum (revenues, 
39,000 kr. ). The Dampkjekken has been already mentioned (p. 4). 

Environs of Christiania. 

a. Oscarshall. 

A visit to Oscarshall on foot takes 2' /2 -3 hrs., including time to in- 
spect the picture-gallery. It may also be reached by carriage (one-horse 
5 G, two-horse 8kr., there and hack), by small steamboat from the Piper- 
vik (PI. B, 7; hourly (12 times a day), except 12-1, to Fredrilsborg or, 
Byijde (fare 10 0.) in '/ 4 hr., and 5 min. walk more, always keeping to 
the right), or by railway (fares 40 or 20 0.) from the Vestbanegaard to 
Bygde (in 8 min., and 20 min. walk more). — Application for admission 
is made to the gardener, Clausen, who lives behind the chateau, to 
the left. 

Leaving Christiania by the Drammensvei (PI. A, 7), which is 

Environs. CHRISTIANIA. I. Route. 1.1 

bordered by numerous villas and gardens, we soon reach ( 3 / 4 Engl. M. 
from the University) the Skarpsno steamboat - pier. Here we cross 
by the ferry (in 6-8 min. ; fare 10 0.) to the wooded peninsula of 
Ladegaardse or Bygde, and then walk to the chateau in 7 min. more. 

The chateau of *Oscarshall, which is conspicuously situated on 
an eminence 80 ft. above the sea-level, surrounded by a pleasant 
park , was erected in the 'English Gothic' style by Nebelong for 
King Oscar in 1849-52, and adorned with paintings by eminent 
Norwegian artists. It was sold by Charles XV. to the government, 
but is still set apart for the use of the reigning monarch. It deserves 
a visit not only for the collection of pictures it contains, but also 
for the beautiful view it commands (adm. see above; fee ^-l kr.). 

The Dining Room, on the ground-floor of the smaller separate build- 
ing, is adorned with six imposing Norwegian landscapes by J. Frich (d. 
1858), the finest being the Ravnedjuv, the Romsdalahorn, and the Norangs- 
fjord, above which are ten celebrated works by A. Tidemand (d. 1876), re- 
presenting 'Norsk Bondeliv', or the different periods of Norwegian peasant 
life. The Drawing Room, on the ground-floor of the principal building, 
with its oak panelling, is embellished with statues of Harald Haarfagre, 
Olaf Tryggvason, St. Olaf, and Sverre, in zinc, by Michelsen. A room on 
the 1st floor contains nine basreliefs from Frithjofs Saga, in marble, by 
liorelt, and five fine landscapes by Gude fb. 1825) from the same Saga. 

Several rooms on the 2nd floor contain works by Swedish and Nor- 
wegian artists, wood-carvings, basket-work, etc. We now ascend by a 
winding staircase of 28 steps to the flat roof of the chateau, beyond which 
43 steps more lead us to the summit of the tower, where we enjoy a 
charming "View of Christiania, its fjord, and environs. 

Close behind the chateau is a modern gate- way in the old 
northern taste, and two antique Norwegian buildings, re-erected 
here within the last few years; viz. the Hovestue, a farm house 
from Hove in Thelemarken, fitted up with the original furniture, 
and the *Church of~Gol in the Hallingdal (p. 82), an old Nor- 
wegian church constructed of boards and planks, and dating from 
the 12th or 13th cent. 

Refreshments at the Saterhytte on the Dronningbjerg, between 
Oscarshall and the Bygd». A monument has been erected here to 
Count Wedel-Jarlsberg, an ardent advocate of the union with Swe- 
den in 1814. 

b. Hovede. 

About 1 Engl. M. to the S. of Akershus lies the Hoved*, an 
island now belonging to the fortress (admission, see p. 5 ; boat there 
and back 1-1 V2 ^ r 0i on which are situated the ruins of a Cistercian 
Monastery, founded by monks from Lincoln in 1147. In 1532, 
after the Reformed faith had been embraced by Denmark, Mogens 
Gyldenstjerne , the Danish commandant of Akershus, ordered the 
monastery to be plundered and destroyed. In 1846-47 the ruins 
were cleared by the Norwegian Antiquarian Society. 

c. The Ekeberg. 
This excursion may be made by Tramway from the Stor-Torv to Oslo 
(corap. PI. C, D, K, 6, 5), by Steamer from the Jernbanebrygge (PI. I>, 
E, 7) to Kongsharn or Ormsund. or bv Railway from the principal sta- 

12 Route. 1. CHRTSTIANIA. Environs. 

tion to BmHelaget (p. 273). — Comp. the marginal map on the Plan of 

The Ekeberg, a wooded hill 400 ft. in height, to the S. of Oslo, 
commands several beautiful views , but the best points are not 
easily found. One of the finest is a rocky knoll, immediately to the 
left of the Liabro road, which like the railway, skirts the fjord, and 
1 Engl. M. to the S. of the Oslo tramway terminus. Near this point 
is the steamboat-station Kongshavn, not far from which is an in- 
teresting 'giant's caldron' or cave, named Kong Krislinn JI.\i Hule. 
Another good point is reached thus : beyond the tramway terminus 
follow the main road for 5 mill. , passing the church on the right 
and the pretty churchyard on the left, and after a few hundred 
paces ascend the stony old road to the right. Where the old and 
new roads unite at the top of the hill (20 min. from Oslo), we turn 
to the right, pass the farm of Ekeberg, and follow a field-road to 
the (7 min.) wood on the N.W. slope of the Ekeberg. A fine view 
of the town and harbour is obtained from the N. end of the hill (a 
little to the right). We may now return by the same route to the 
farm of Ekeborg, thence follow the top of the hill towards the S. 
and then to the W. to the farm Jomfrubraaten, where we descend 
to the right, and return by the above-mentioned Liabro road. 

d. The Frogner setter. 

This excursion, if made on foot, takes 5-6 hrs. Carriage (3-3'/z hrs.) 
with une horse (for 1-2 pers) 10 kr. , with two horses (3-4 pers.) 14 kr., 
charges lower in the forenoon. The hest plan for a single visitor is to 
hire a Ski/ds or carriole from Iversen, Grnhbegade 3. 

The route leads past the N. side of the Palace Grounds and tra- 
verses the suburb of Hcegdehougen, beyond which we observe the 
Ventre Akers Kirke on an eminence to the right. About 1 Engl. M. 
from the Stor-Torv, we next observe the Gaustad Lunatic Asylum 
(Sindssyge- Asyl) , erected by Schirmer and v. Hanno in 1854, 
which accommodates upwards of 300 patients. We now ascend by a 
narrow carriage-road, through wood, tothe*Frognerseeter(1400ft.), 
the rustic summer residence of Consul Heftye, 5 Engl. M. to the 
N.W. of Clmstiania, with a balcony commanding a delightful view 
of Christiania, its fjord, and environs. (Coffee, milk, etc., at the ad- 
joining cottage.) ■ — While the horses are resting, travellers usually 
ascend on foot to the (20 min.) *Tryntindslt0ide (1800 ft.), a wooden 
scaffolding on the summit of which commands a still more exten- 
sive view, including in clear weather some of the snowclad moun- 
tains of Thelemarken (the Gausta, p. 23) to the \Y\, and of Hall- 
ingdal (Xorefjeld, p. 80) to the N.W. 

e. Other Excursions. 
If time permits, pleasant drives may also be taken to the Vd- 
■<igltiiitrn on the Solhnuy , on the Kogstad road (> ' 4 hr. from the 

Stor-Torv, or on foot '/._, hr.); to the a small lake 

Environs. (JHKISTIANIA. I. Route. J 3 

which supplies Christiania with water, 5 Engl. M. to the N., with 
the ruined Marikirke at the N. end; to G 're / 'sens - Bad , a small 
water-cure establishment, prettily situated about 2'^ Engl. M. to 
the N.E. (omnibus from the Stor-Torv in Christiania, several times 
daily) ; and to Sarabraaten, a summer residence of Consul Heftye, 
about 7 Engl. M. to the E. (4 M. from stat. Bryn on the Kongs- 
viuger line; p. 115). 

Longeu Excursions. Travellers whose visit to Norway is limited to 
a few days only should endeavour to take one or other of the following 
short tours before leaving the country. 

(i) To Gjevik and Odncvs, and back by the Randsfjord, I/enefos, and 
Kroijklev, in 3-4 days. — This round may be hurriedly accomplished in 
2 days : On the 1st Day by the morning train from Christiania to Eidsvold ; 
by steamboat to Gj0vik; drive in the evening to Odnpes (39 Kil. or 
24 Engl. M.) in 4 '/a hrs. ; on the 2nd Kay by steamer from OdnHs to 
Randsfjord; thence by train, passing H#nefos, to Christiania. — It is, 
however, preferable to drive from Hanefos to (18 Kil.) Sundvoldcn , visit 
Krogkleven, drive to (23 Kil.) Sandviken, and return thence by train to 
Christiania. — Or the traveller may prefer to make an excursion from 
Christiania to Sundvolden and Il0nefos. as above, and to return by rail- 
way, which may be easily done in two days. Comp. JMl. 2, 13 b, 15. 

(2) To the Rjukanfos via, Koiiysberg, and back, 4-5 days (RR. 2,3). — It 
is possible to accomplish this very interesting excursion in 3'/2 days : On 
the 1st Day by early train from Christiania to Konysbcrg ; drive to Tinnusct, 
either via Lysthus in the Hitterdal, or via Bolkesjet, in 9-10 hrs. ; 2nd Day, 
by steamboat on 31on., Thurs., or Sat. to Strand; drive to Vaaer in 3 hrs., 
visit the Rjukanfos on foot in i l / 2 hr. (there and back) , and return to 
Strand in 2 1 /:< hrs. more; 3rd Day, by steamer on Sun., Tues., or Wed. 
to Tinnoset, and drive thence back to Kongsberg in 9-10 hrs. ; next morn- 
ing take the train for Christiania. 

(3) To Fredriksstad , the Sarpsfos , and Fredrikshald , and back , in 
2-3 days (R. 33); or there and back by railway in l'/2 day. — A steamer 
leaves Christiania every morning for Fredriksstad and Fredrikshald, and 
there are four weekly to Fredriksstad, where they unload, and Sarpsbonj 
on the Glommen, 9 Engl. 31. farther (arr. in the evening). Having slept 
at Sarpsborg, the traveller may next day inspect the fall of the Glommen, 
take the train to Frcdrikshald, and return thence to Christiania on the 
following- day by steamboat in 7-9 hours. — Or the excursion may be 
made in two days: (1) By train from Christiania to Sarpsborg; visit the 
fall the same day ; (2) By steamer (4 times a week) from Sarpsborg to 
Fredriksstad and Christiania. — By train the whole way there and back 
(1 , A> day), not recommended. 

Travellers arriving at Christiania, or leaving it, by water will 
find a description of the beautiful fjord in lilt. 5, 34. 

2. From Christiania to the Randsfjord by Drammen 
and Hougsund. 

142 Kil. (88 Eng. M.). Railway (" Vestbane 1 ) in 6'/4 hrs. (fares 7 kr. 25, 
4 kr. 20 #.), two trains daily; to Drammen express in D/a hr. (fares 2 kr. 
95, 2 kr.), ordinary train in 2 ! /4 hrs. (fares 2 kr. 40, 1 kr. 60 0.), four 
trains daily. The rails on this narrow-gauge line are only 3'/2 ft. apart. 
The carriages are of two classes only, corresponding to the second and 
third in most other countries. — Finest views to the left. 

The railway traverses beautiful scenery , particularly between 
Iteken and Drammen and between Hougsund and Henefos. The train 
passes a number of pleasant country-houses , villages , and farms, 

14 Route :>. SANDVIKEN. From Christiania 

interspersed with manufactories. To the left lies the beautiful 
Fjord of Christiania, while to the right is the peninsula of Bygde, 
with the chateau of Oscarshall (p. 11) and numerous villas. 

3 Kil. Bygde , on the bay of Frognerkilen, is the station for 
Bygde and Oscarshall (20 min. ; see p. 10). Charming scenery. 
About IV2 Engl. M. distant is the Kastelbakke , where snow-shoe 
races ('Skirend' ; 'Skier', snow-shoes) take place in winter. — 
(3 Kil. Lysaker, at the mouth of the Serkedalselv , descending from 
the Bogstad-Vand, to which a beautiful route leads to the N. From 
the E. side of this lake a steep path ascends to the Frogners«ter 

(P- 12). 

To the right rise the imposing Aaser, a range of porphyry hills. 
The Silurian strata are here intersected by dykes of greenstone, 
the most interesting of which is seen near (10 Kil.) Hevik, where 
it forms a lofty wall, 2 ft. in thickness, in the midst of the disin- 
tegrated slate. Farther on the train skirts the Enger-Vand, also to 
the right, and reaches — 

14 Kil. Sandviken, a beautifully situated village, the best 
starting-point for a visit to the Krogklev (see below; skyds-station 
near the station). To the N. rises the Kolsaas (1212 ft.), command- 
ing a view similar to that from the Frognersseter (guide advisable). 
The annual horse races of the 'Norske Traverselskab' take place 
in June at Slcebende, close to Sandviken. 

"Excursion to Kkoglkven. The road, at first uninteresting, gradually 
ascends, passing through the Krogskog , to the first station (16 Kil.) 
llumhdal, situated high above the picturesque Holsfjovd, an arm of the 
TuHfjord (230 ft.); striking view just below the station. We then des- 
cend by the beautiful ' Svangstrands-VeP (p. 15) to the fjord, and follow 
its bank to the N. to (13 Kil.) Sundvolden (_"Jnn, with 17 rooms; R. 1 kr. 
20, B. 80, S. 80 0.), whence (if the weather is clear) we ascend in i'/a hr. 
to Krogkleven, a rocky height (Kiev, 'cliff'), 1000 ft. above the inn, (in 
the "Id road to Christiania (ascent through a romantic gorge, on foot or 
on horseback ; horse 2 kr. 40 0.). We first come to the ( 3 /4 hr.) Klevstue 
(1245 ft.), a poor inn, 5 min. below which, to the N.W., is Dronningens 
Udsigt (the Queen's View). Higher up (along the track to the W., 
following the white crosses on the trees) is the (25-30 min.) "Kongens Udsigt 
(the King's View, 1455 ft. above the sea, 1240 ft. above the fjord), the 
finer point of the two. The prospect from this point in clear weather is 
superb, embracing the Tyrifjord with its islands, the district of Ringerike, 
the .lonsknut near Kongsberg (p. 20), the Norefjeld to the N.W., and 
the Gausta (p. 23) and other snow-mountains to the W. in the distance. 
Even the Hallingskarven (p. 83) in the Upper Hallingdal is said to be 
visible in clear weather. 

The road from Sundvolden to Hjjnefos crosses the Krogsund, which 
connects the Tyrifjord with the Steensfjord. The numerous islands in 
the latter are said to be stones once thrown bv a giantess of the Gyrihaug 
(p. 18) for the purpose of destroying the church of Steen (see below), 
which missiles, however, including even one of her own legs, all fell short 
of their aim and fell into the lake. Like the battle of the giants against 
Odin and Thor in the Edda , this legend is symbolical of the fruitless 
wrath of the powers of nature against the advance of human culture. 

The next station, 16 Kil. from Humledal and 3 Kil. from Sundvolden, 
is Yik (travellers in the reverse direction may drive on to Sundvolden 
without change of horses), about 1 / t hr. beyond which, to the right, is 
the ruined church of Steen , with the farm of the same name. After sn- 

to Drammen. ASKER. 2. Route. 15 

other ! /i hr. the road passes Norderhovs Kirkc, in which Anna Kolbj0rns- 
datter is interred. She was the wii'e of the pastor of the place, and in 
1716, while her husband was ill , succeeded by a stratagem in betraying 
600 of the Swedish invaders into the hands of her countrymen. A picture 
shown at the parsonage represents the heroine obtaining permission to set 
fire to a heap of wood for the pretended purpose of warming the Swedish 
soldiers, but in reality to attract the Norwegian troops who were en- 
camped at the neighbouring village of Steen. Meanwhile she plied the 
invaders so liberally with spirits that they fell an easy prey to the 
Norsemen. — 11 Kil. Hene/os, see p. 18. 

The train now ascends through cuttings in the rock and two 
short tunnels to (15 Kil.) Slcebende and (20 Kil.) Hvalstad, whence 
the picturesque Skogumsnas (1142 ft.) to the W. may be ascended. 
It then crosses a wooden viaduct, 90 ft. high, and reaches — 

23 Kil. Asker, from which the Vardekolle (1132 ft.), a massive 
hill of granite, serving to mariners as a landmark, may be ascended 
for the sake of the admirable view it commands. In former times, 
on the breaking out of a war. beacon - ttres were lighted on this 
hill to summon the people to arms. 

'The hill commands an incomparable and most extensive view. The 
spectator surveys the whole of Ohristiania, with the surrounding country- 
houses , hills, and mountains; then all the valleys of Drammen; the re- 
gion of Kongsberg , Holmestrand , Dr^rbak , and the Christiania Fjord. 
Standing in the centre of this mountainous and so curiously furrowed 
district, we survey at a glance the whole of it, spread out like a relief- 
map\ L. v. Buck, 'Norwegen'. 

The train skirts the foot of the Vardekolle and passes the small 
lakes Bondivand (the property of an English ice-exporting com- 
pany) and Gjellumvand. At the S. end of the latter is (2!S Kil.) 
Heggedal, beyond which we pass the base of the barren Brejmaas. 

Beyond (34 Kil.) Reken (440 ft.) the train turns abruptly to the 
W., traversing an uninteresting region and passing through numer- 
ous cuttings; but immediately beyond a tunnel, 240 yds. long, which 
penetrates the hilly barrier, a most picturesque an d imposing *V«w, 
of the Drummens- Fjord, the town of Drammen, and the fertile 
valley of the Lier is suddenly disclosed to the left, rivalling the 
famous views from Chexbres above Vevey or from Optschina above 
Trieste. The road from Eeken to Drammen descends at once to the 
fjord, while the railway passes through another tunnel and de- 
scribes a long curve towards the N., descending gradually to the 
valley of Lier and the (45 Kil.) station of that name. 

From Lier a pleasant route leads to the N., on the E. side of the 
valley, past the Engerfjeld, to (8 Kil.) Kitilsrud at the S. end of the llols- 
fjord, the S. branch of the Tyvifjord (p. 14). The road . now called the 
'Svangslrands-Vei, and famed for its pieturesqueness , next ascends the 
Burderaas and skirts the Holsfjord, at a giddy height above it, to (3 kil.) 
Humledal (p. 14). 

At Lier the train turns. towards the S. , traversing a fertile 
tract, and next stops at (51 Kil.) Bragere, th,e E. end of Drammen 
(Bragernces) ; it then crosses the Drammenselv, and the island of 
MMlerholm or 'Holmeri with its timber-yards , to the Tangen and 
Stremse quarters, on the S. bank of the river, and reaches the 

16 Route:'. DRAMMEN. Frum Cliristiania 

principal station of (bo Kil.J Drammen, situated at the W. end of 
Stremse, close to the bridge across the Dranimenselv. 

Drammen. — In Streutse: Cektkal Hotel, opposite the station, en- 
trance in a side-street, with restaurant, B. 80 0., D. 2 kr., A. 40 0. ; Bri- 
tannia, in the Frein-Gade, leading E. to Tangen. — In Brayemws : "Hotel 
Kukg Cakl, in the Stor-Gade , near the market-place. 

Cab with one horse, for i person 40 H. per drive; with two horses 
for 2 persons 60 0. — Omnibus from Bragernses-Torv to Tangen. 

Somvierfryd-Badeanstalt , on the E. side of Bragernses, at the end of 
Erik-B<*rresens-Gaden, near the fire-engine station. 

British Vice- Consul, Mr. F. W. Melhuus. 

Steamboats to Holmestrand, Horten, and Moss daily: to TVnsberg 
and Sandefjord once weekly; to Liverpool once monthly. 

Railway (Grevskabane) to Holmestrand, TVnsberg, Laurvik, Porsgrund, 
and Skien, see pp. 31-33. 

Drammen, with 18.850 inhab., situated on, both banks of the 
Dranimenselv, consists of Bragernas on the N. bank, containing 
about 11,000 inhab., Stremse on the S. side, and Tangen to the 
S.E. , which originally formed three distinct communities, lira- 
gernajs , the principal quarter , has been rebuilt since its almost 
entire destruction by tire in 1866 and a great part of Stremse and 
Tangen since a fire in 1870. The situation of Drammen on the 
estuary of the river, between hills of considerable height, is pictur- 
esque, and not without pretensions to grandeur. The pretty fjord 
extends down to Holmestrand (p. 32). The trade of the place is 
very considerable, consisting chiefly in the export of timber from 
the forests of lladeland, Valders, the Hallingdal, and part of the 
Numedal (annual value over 5,000,000 kr.), and of a quantity of 
zinc and nickel from Skouger and Ringerike. The commercial 
fleet of Drammen, numbering more than 300 vessels, is one of the 
largest in Norway, vying in importance with those of Cliristiania 
and Arendal , and having an aggregate burden of 72,000 tons. 
Vessels of large tonnage can load and discharge at the stone quays 
of Bragemses. The town also possesses a number of saw-mills, 
iron-works, and manufactories. 

The railway-station lies at the S. end of a long Timber Bridge, 
crossing the Drammenselv and connecting Stremsa and Bragernss. 
The. bridge affords a pleasant promenade in hot weather, on account 
of the cool breezes always blowing up or down the valley. Charm- 
ing prospect in every direction ; the Brandposten (p. 17), with 
its two flagstaff's, is conspicuous on the hill-side to the right. 

The bridge leads from the station to the Brayernas-Torv, the 
chief market-place, in which, to the right, are the Exchange (with 
the Post ami Telegraph Offices, entrance in the Stor-Gade, to the 
right), and facing us the Itaadhus and Byret (court-house) , with 
the inscription Ret oy Sandhed ('justice and truth'). Ascending 
hence in a straight direction, between the two small towers of the 
Kirkegade, we soon reach the conspicuous Bragern^es Church, a 
handsome Gothic brick edifice by Nordgren, built after the fire of 
1866, and consecrated in 1871. The choir is at the N. end, the 

to the Randsfjord. HOUGSUND. 2. Route. 1 7 

principal entrance in the S. tower. The interior is embellished 
with an *Altar-piece by Tidemand (d. 1876), representing the Re- 
surrection, and an *Angel over the font by Borch. (The 'Klokker', 
or sacristan, lives in the one-storied white wooden house opposite 
the sacristy, to the left; fee '/o-l kr.) 

Following the road on the hill-side above Bragernaes Church, 
which ascends slightly to the right, or proceeding by the Cappelens- 
Gade below the church to the E. as far as Erik Berresen's Gade, 
and then ascending to the left, we reach after 12-15 min. the 
*Brandposten , one of the finest points of view near Drammen, 
affording an extensive prospect ofTangen, Stromse, and Bragernses, 
of 'Holmen' (p. 15), the valley of the Drammenselv, and the fjord. 
The veranda of the watchman's house is always accessible. Can- 
nons are fired here whenever a Are is observed in the town. 

The road proceeds hence, turning to the left after 10 min., to 
the (35-40 min.) Klopkjarn (650 ft.), a sequestered lake in the 
midst of wood, whence the town derives its water-supply. To the 
left are pleasant grounds, and on the right is a small house where 
refreshments are sold. From the latter a footpath ascends to the 
right in 5 min. to Prins Oscars Vdsigt, a rocky summit near an- 
other small lake, which affords a good survey of the Lierdal and 
the fjord. The mountains to the left are the Vardeaas and the 
Skogumsaas. (From the small house above mentioned the traveller 
may ascend to the Varde , a much higher point , commanding a 
very extensive view.) — In returning avoid the very steep and 
stony short-cuts. 

Another good point of view is the hill oi*Bragernasaas, easily 
reached in 35-40 min. by a new zigzag road, provided with numer- 
ous benches, which ascends above the churchyard to the W. of the 
Bragernses Church. The view embraces the town and fjord, and 
the valley up to Hougsund and Kongsberg. From the top the tra- 
veller may proceed (no path) to the Klopkjairn and return by the 
Brandposten (see above). 

A longer excursion may be taken through the Lierdal by the old 
Christiania road to the Studenternes Udsigt on the Rejstad-Aas, near which 
is the Gaard Ojellebcek with a wood-girt lake and a fine echo. The road 
formerly lay farther to the N., crossing the Paradisbakker (about 900 ft.). 
the marble quarries of which supplied the materials for the marble church 
at Copenhagen. 

The Railway to Hougsund (Hemefos, Kongsberg) ascends the 
broad valley of the Drammenselv to (55 Kil.) Gulskogen, (64 Kil.) 
Mjendalen, and — 

70 Kil. Hougsund (*Rail. Restaurant), the junction of the 
Randsfjord and Kongsberg lines. To the W. rises the Jonsknut 
(2952 ft. ; p. 20). In the vicinity is the Hellefos, a fall of the 
Drammenselv, where boxes are placed for the purpose of catch- 
ing the salmon as they ascend the fall. — Passengers for Kongs- 
berg change carriages here (see p. 19). 

Baedeker's Norway and Sweden. -3rd Edit. 2 

18 Route 2. H0NEFOS. 

The Ramlsfjord train continues to ascend the Drammenselv, 
which forms a number of picturesque waterfalls and cataracts, and 
we enjoy a succession of beautiful views. The river is crossed 
several times. 76 Kil. Burud. At (80 Kil.) Skotselven the train 
crosses the Drammenselv, which here forms the Deviksfos , and 
Tiext stops at (87 Kil.) Aamot, on the left bank of the river. On 
the opposite bank are seen the waterfall of the Simoa, a tributary 
of the Drammenselv, and the Nykirke. The scenery at this point 
is remarkably fine. A little farther on is the influx of the Sna- 
rumselv, the river descending from Lake Krederen and the Halling- 
dal. Recrossing to the right bank, the train next stops at (91 Kil.) 
Gjethus, near which is the Gravfos. A charming walk may be made 
hence to the Hirsdal with the St. Olafsgryder, large giants' caul- 

96 Kil. Vikersund, the junction of a branch-line to Lake Kre- 
deren (p. 80), situated at the point where the Drammenselv issues 
from the Tyrifjord. A bridge crosses the river here to the church of 
Heggen, from which a road leads along the S. bank of the Tyrifjord 
to the Holsfjord, the S.E. arm of the lake (p. 15). 

A pleasant drive may be taken from Vikersund (carriages at the station, 
or at the neighbouring posting-station Krona) to (4 Kil.) St. Olafs-Bad 
at Modnm, now the most frequented watering-place in Norway, with a 
chalybeate spring, mud-baths, inhaling apparatus, and other appliances. 
The beautiful forests in the environs, the picturesque views of Ringerike 
and the Tyrifjord, and the Kaggefos and other falls of the Snaruinselv 
are among the chief attractions of the place. This district is moreover 
the scene of many traditions connected with St. Olaf. About 5 Kil. to the 
W. are the Cobalt Mines of Modum, worked by a German company. 

Beyond Vikersund the train skirts the W. bank of the Tyri- 
fjord, of which it affords beautiful views to the right. The wooded 
hills on the opposite bank are the Krogskog (with the Krogklev, 
p. 14) and the Oyrihaug (221G ft.; Gyvr or Gygr, 'giantess'). Farther 
on the steep red - sandstone road ascending from Sundvolden 
to Krogkleven is distinguishable. 105 Kil. Nakkerud. Ill Kil. 
Skjcvrdalen. 119 Kil. Ask. The train now quits the Tyrifjord. 

124 Kil. Hanefos (*Glatved's Hotel, with a garden, pleasantly 
situated in the N. part of the town; Jernbane- Hotel, near the 
station, good view; Skydsstation, in the S. part of the town, near 
the church), a small town with 1150 inhab., ravaged by a serious 
conflagration in 1878, lies at the confluence of the Bcegna or 
Andalselv, which descends from Lake Spirillen, and the Eandselv, 
coming from the Randsfjord. The river formed by them is called 
the Storelv, which empties itself into the Tyrifjord , whence it 
afterwards emerges under the name of Drammenselv (p. 16). The 
Ba;gna-Elv, just before its junction with the Randselv, forms two 
waterfalls, of which that to the N. is rather a huge cataract, and 
which are together known as the *H.enefos. Though of no great 
height, these falls are quite worth seeing (at least for travellers 
who have not yet visited the large falls in Thelemarken or Har- 

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HEEN. 2. Route. 19 

danger), especially during the 'Flomtid' or 'Flaumtid' (flood time) 
in May and June, when the volume of water is very imposing. 
A fine view of the falls and the environs is afforded both from the 
bridges that cross the rivers above the town, and from the two 
within the town close to the falls. By passing under the bridges 
it is possible to reach a point nearer the seething waters. As is so 
often the case in Norway, a number of flour-mills and saw-mills 
are congregated here for the sake of the motive power afforded by 
the falls. A channel on the left bank of the N. fall conveys the 
timber to the mills with immense velocity. A road on the left 
(E.) bank of the Aadalselv leads in 1 hr. to the Hofsfos, another 
fine fall, close to the railway to Heen. 

From Hpnefos to (18 Kil.) Sundvolden, from which we ascend Kroy- 
kleven, see p. 14; carrioles may he ordered at the hotel. 

131 Kil. Heen. — To Lake Spirillen, see pp. 85, 86. 

Turning suddenly to the E., the train skirts the Heensbreud 
and the Askelihoug (1409 ft.) , traverses a wooded district thinly 
peopled, and Anally stops at — 

142 Kil. (88 Engl. M.) Randsfjord Station (*Inn), see p. 89. 

3. From (Christiania) Hougsund to Kongsberg and 
the Rjukanfos. 

Comp. the Map. 

From Hougsund to Kongsberg, 28 Kil. (17 Eng. 31.1, Railway, in li/» hr. 
(fares 2 kr. 65, 1 kr. 15 H.). From Kongsberg to Tinoset , 65 Kil. (40 Eng. 
31.), by Carriage in 10 hrs., including stoppages (or by carriage only to 
Bolkesj0, 4-4'/2 hrs., then by boat across the Folsjtf, and walk to Tinoset, 
5hrs.). From Tinoset to Strand, 25 Kil. (1572 Eng. 31.) Steamboat in 2 3 /i hrs. 
(2kr.), in spring and autumn thrice weekly (Mon. afternoon, Thurs. and 
Sat. forenoons), in summer five times weekly (Mon., Tues., Wed., and 
Thurs. afternoons, Sat. forenoon). From Strand to Rjukanfos, Drive of 
3 hrs. and Walk of 3 /4 hr. 

From Christiania to Hougsund, see pp. 13-17. The railway to 
Kongsberg (finest views on the left) next stops at — 

5 Kil. Vestfossen, with several manufactories, near the beauti- 
ful Ekersje or Fiskumvand , bounded by lofty mountains on the 
E. side (usually traversed by a steamboat twice weekly to Eidsfos). 
11 Kil. Darbo also lies on this lake. 15 Kil. Krekling, where the 
slate-formation predominates. Farther on we obtain a fine view of 
the mountains towards the S. 22 Kil. Skolletiborg , where sand- 
stone makes its appearance, and the country becomes sterile. The 
Labrofos (p. 20) lies about 1 Engl. M. to the S. of Skollenborg. 
The train approaches the Laagen, which descends from the Nume- 
dal and forms a waterfall, and stops at — 

28 Kil. Kongsberg. — Hotels. Victoria, at some distance from the 
station, in the W. part of the town, on the right hank, R. & L. 2, A. 
'/2 kr., B. 80 0. ; Britannia, on the left bank , near the station. Both 
hotels are often crowded in summer. 

Carriages to Tinoset: Carriole for 1 pers. 1U, there and hack 2Skr. ; 
carriage with 2 horses for 2 pers. 30 or 52'/* kr., for 3 pers. 30 or 63 kr. 

o * 

20 Route 3. KONGSBERG. From Hougmnd 

Those wlm detain the carriage in Tinoset for more than one night pay 
4 kr. extra per horse for each day. To Bolkesje, carriole 8, carriage with 
2 horses for 2 pers. 15, for 3 pers. 19 kr. ; to Hitterdal, carriole 6'/2, car- 
riage with 2 horses for 2 pers. 13, for 3 pers. 18 kr. 

Kongsberg (490 ft.) , an uninviting , but not unpicturesque 
town , situated on the Laagen or Laugen , in the S. part of the 
Numedal (p. 25), contains 4311 inhab. (formerly twice as 
many), who are almost all supported by the neighbouring silver- 
mines. Most of the houses are timber-built, but the large Church 
and the Raadhus are substantial stone edifices. The former was 
erected in the middle of last century, when the population of the 
town was about double the present number. The town owes its 
origin to the Silver Mines in the vicinity, which are said to have 
been discovered by goat-herds, and was founded in 1624 in the reign 
of Christian IV. In the town itself are situated the Smeltehytte, or 
smelting-works, where specimens of the ore may be purchased, the 
Mynt (mint), and a government Vaabenfabrik (weapon-factory), the 
last of which is near the Hammerfos. The rapid Laagen is crossed 
by two bridges. A monument to Christian IV- was erected here in 

The Sn.vKit Mines of Kongsberg, the property of the government, 
now yielding an annual profit of about 22,000/., were discovered early in 
the 17th cent, and have been worked with varying success. Of more than 
a hundred mines opened since the first discovery of the ore , four only 
are now of anv importance. The principal of these is Kongens-Oriibe, 
about 6Kil. to the W.S.W. of the town, which is nearly 2000 ft. in depth, 
and a little to the N. of this mine are the i Golles-Hiilfe\ the Armtn- G rube, 
and the -ffmis-Sdchsen' mines. Besides the perpendicular shafts descending 
to these mines, there are two level shafts or adits, the Fredrikt-Stollen 
and the Clirisiians-Slollen, entering them from the hill-side, the latter being 
300 ft. below the other and connecting all the mines, the aggregate length 
of which is upwards of 5 Kil. — Permission to visit the mines is obtained 
at the offices in the market-place, but the expedition is a laborious one, 
which hardly repays the fatigue (guide 2 kr.). The veins of native silver 
which the mines contain are mingled with sulphuret of silver and copper 
pyrites, occurring generally in layers of calcareous spar. Beautiful argen- 
tiferous crystals are also frequently found. The finest yet discovered is 
now in the University Museum of Natural History at Copenhagen. 

The Jonsknut (2952 ft.), which rises a short distance beyond the Gottes- 
Hiilfe and Haus-Sachsen mines, commands an admirable view of the Gausta 
and other mountains of Theleniarken to the W. Near the Jonsknut rises 
the ShTimsfjeld (2946 ft.), about 15-20 Kil. to the S. of the town, and also 
commanding a beautiful view. 

About 3-4 Kil. to the S.E. of the town the Laagen forms a very fine 
waterfall called the Labrofos , 140 ft. in height, which is well worthy of 
a visit. — Another fall of the same river of equal grandeur is the Hvi- 
tinyfos, 20 Kil. from Kongsberg , on the Laurvik road. 

From Kongsberg to Tinoset there are two routes, the shorter 
and more picturesque but rougher road via Bolkesje, and the high 
road via Hitterdal. The former route is generally preferred in 
going, the latter in returning. (An account of the 'Rodestolper' 
passed en route will be found at p. 119; numerous snow-ploughB.) 

a. Via Bolkesj». We first follow the road ascending the 
Numedal on the right bank of the Laagen for 4 Kil. (see p. 25), 
and then turn to the left intu the Jondal and ascend through the 

to the Bjukanfos. NOTODDEN. 3. Route. 21 

pines on the right bank of the Jondals-Elu. Farther on we cross 
to the left bank. After about 4 hrs. (including a short halt for 
rest) we reaeh-the culminating point of the route (1825 ft.), where 
a magnificent view of the mountains of Thelemarkeu is suddenly 
unfolded. The most conspicuous heights are the Lifjeld (p. 27) and 
the (Musta (p. 23), which appears from this point in the form of a 
blunted cone. A little before Bolkesje, a softer charm is added to 
the landscape by the presence of two lakes in the foreground, the 
Bolkesje (1030 ft.) and the greater Folsje (710 ft.). At — 

34 Kil. (from Kongsberg) Bolkesje (1285 ft.), a Hotel and Sa- 
natorium, commanding a flue view, has recently been built, super- 
seding a former simple cottage-inn. The fine 'Stabbur', or store- 
house, of the latter should be noticed. — [Walkers may eross the 
Bolkesje 1 and Folsje by boat (traversing the isthmus between these 
lakeson foot) to Vik('/2hr.)and thence walk to(3i/ 2 hrs.)Tini>oset.] 

Beyond Bolkesje the road leads through wood , high up on the 
N.W. bank of the Folsje, commanding several views of the lilei- 
fjeld (3900 ft.) to the right. At the W. end of the lake lie the 
houses of Vik, about l'/4 hr.'s drive from Bolkesje. The Tinn-Elv 
soon comes into view on the left ; the road descends and crosses 
the stream near the church of Grandsherred. About 5 min. later 
( 1 '/ 4 hr.'s drive from Vik) we reach the high-road described be- 
low, on which a drive of 35 min. brings us to Tinnoset. 

b. Via Hitterdal. The road at first runs towards the S., but 
after 2 Kil. turns to the W. into the valley of the Kobberberg-Elv . 
To the right rises the Jonsknut (p. 20). The road then gradually 
ascends the wooded Medheia and after 2-2'/2 hours reaches Jern- 
gruben (tolerable inn ; 1350 ft.), where the horses are usually rested 
for an hour. Beyond Jerngruben the road continues to ascend for 
some distance, and then traverses the plateau (1450 ft.) in numeious 
undulations. On emerging from the forest it begins to descend 
into the Hitterdal , commanding a beautiful view ; in front the 
mountains of Thelemarken, the Himingen , and the Hceksfjeld , to 
the left the Hitterdalsvand. We then pass the gaards of Ileiber, 
Tinne, and Hvale, near the last of which a direct road diverges 
to the right to the (10 min.) Tinnfos (see below). 

28 Kil. (pay for 36) Notodden (*H6tel Furuheim, kept by J. (J. 
Tliomassen, R. l'/ 4 -2kr., D. 2 kr., B. 80 e. ; horses obtainable; 
Victoria , with the skyds-station , near the pier of the Hitterdal 
steamers, p. 19, well spoken of), a very pretty spot, with exten- 
sive pine-forests and many pleasant walks. The drive from Kongs- 
berg to Notodden takes 472 hrs., that in the reverse direction at 
least 5 1 / 2 hrs. The horses are rested here 2 hrs., during which the 
traveller should dine. 

The road now crosses the Tinn-Elv by a bridge which affords a 
view of the *Tinnfos, a beautiful waterfall formed by the river here. 
Near the waterfall, which we may approach more closely, is a 

22 Route 3. HITTERDAL. From Hougsund 

paper mill. The road, -which is here almost level, then passes 
some unimportant inns (Fr»ken Hoist) and the old skyds-station 
of Lysthus. Ahout 6 Kil. from Notodden, to the right, lies the — 

*Hitterdals Kirke , a grotesque -looking timber -built church, 
resembling the ancient church of Borgund (p. 95), and one of 
the greatest architectural curiosities of Norway. The style of archi- 
tecture and general character of the ornamentation of the singular 
Norwegian 'stavekirker' relegate them to the 12th cent., the capi- 
tals of the pillars and the mouldings almost exactly corresponding, 
so far as the difference of material allows, to the details of Anglo- 
Norman architecture at the same period (Fergusson). They are con- 
structed, like block-houses, of logs laid horizontally above each other 
and kept in position by strong corner-posts. The walls are sut- 
mounted by a lofty roof, the artistic construction of which was ori- 
ginally left open to view in the interior, though now, as in this case, 
often concealed by the interposition of a plain ceiling. Thequadran- 
gular nave is adjoined by a semicircular choir. Round the exterior 
of the building runs a low arcade (Lop), probably added as a pro- 
tection against snow and cold ; the lower part is closed, while the 
upper part is open and supported by small columns. Above the 
roof of this arcade appear the windows of the aisles, over which 
rises the nave, surmounted by a square tower with a slender spire. 
The windows of the aisle are an innovation, the original design 
having only small air-holes in their place. The capitals of the 
pillars, the doors and door-frames, and other suitable parts of the 
edifice are embellished with elaborate and fantastic carvings, re- 
presenting entwined dragons, intermixed with foliage and figures. 
The projections from the ridges of the roof and gables are also 
carved in grotesque forms. The church of Hitterdal has been re- 
cently restored. The old episcopal chair at the back of the altar 
should be noticed. The key (Neglen) is obtained in the parsonage, 
opposite the entrance to the church. 

The road from Hitterdal to Tinnoset (26 Kil.) is tolerably level 
the whole way. The gaards of Bamle and Kaasa are passed. To 
the left the Himingen and the Hseksfjeld long remain conspicuous. 
To the right rises the Kj0ivingfjeld(22tib ft.), which our road skirts 
towards the N., while the road, to Hjierdal (p. 27) diverges to the 
left. We now ascend the course of the 0rva?lla, a small river which 
has forced its way through huge masses of debris, overgrown with 
pines and rlrs. The road crosses the river several times. At the 
'Plads' Dakken, 21 Kil. from Notodden, the horses are rested. The 
road from Grandsherred and Bolkesje (p. 21) joins ours on the 
right, 5 Kil. farther on. After 6 Kil. more we reach — 

32 Kil. (from Notodden; a drive of about 5 hrs. ) Tinnoset 
{Kauli's Inn, close to the steamboat-pier, tolerable, often full, 
R. 1 kr. 20, 8. 1 kr. 20 ».), a group of scattered houses at the S. 
end of the Tinnsjar, a lake about 22 Engl. M. long and 1-1'/ 2 M. in 

to the Rjukanfos. IUUKANFOS. 3. Route. "23 

width, enclosed by barren and precipitous mountains. A small 
screw-steamboat plies on the lake 3-5 times a week (see p. ID) 
between Tinnoset and Sigurdsrud at the N. end. Fare 2 kr. ; hire 
of the whole steamer on its disengaged days 28 kr. for 7pers., each 
additional person 2 kr. more. Small boat to Strand 13 kr. 60 m. 

The'finnsj» on the whole resembles the Spirillen, but the banks 
are even lower then those of that lake. The steamer calls at two 
intermediate stations, Sanden (to the left) an&Hovin (to the right). 
The finest point in the scenery is the Haakencesfjeld , which the 
steamer skirts. Soon after, 2 3 /4hrs. after leaving Tinnoset, we reach — 

Strand (*Fagerstrand's Hotel, at the pier, R. iy 2 , D. 2, S. 1 kr. ; 
Framnas, 2 Min. from the pier, only takes travellers when Fager- 
strand's is full), near the church of Male, at the mouth of the Maan- 
Elv. Stolkjaerre for 1 pers. to Vaaer 4, for 2 pers. 5, there and 
back 8, Carriole there and back 6 or 8 kr. ; Gig 6 or 10 kr. ; open 
carriage with 2 horses for 2, 3, or 4 pers., there and back 16, 18, 
or 20 kr. ; if kept over night, 2 kr. extra for each horse. 

The good, and for the first 18Kil. tolerably level road ascends the 
beautiful Vestfjord-Dal, on the left bank of the Maan-Elv. To the 
right opens the Haakedal, from the sides of which several water- 
falls precipitate themselves into the valley below. The long and 
imposing ridge of the Gausta, with its snow-furrows, becomes 
visible to the left soon after leaving Strand. In about 1 hr. we 
reach (9 Kil.) Nyland (small *Inn), the station for the ascent of 
the Gausta (6180 ft.), the highest mountain in S. Norway, which 
commands a magnificent view (ascent 6, descent 4 hrs. ; guide, near 
the church, 4 kr. ; the night may be spent at Langefondsater, about 
2 / 3 of the way to the top). 

We pass (3 Kil.) the straggling village of Dale (no inn), at the 
foot of the Gausta. (From Dale to Landsvaerk, see p. 27.) About 
6 Kil. farther on the ascent becomes steeper. Looking back , we 
observe the Gausta presenting the appearance of a single sharp 
cone. Skirting the superb valley on the left, we at length reach 
(5 Kil.) Vaaer, a poor mountain hamlet(noinn),23Kil. from Strand 
(a drive of 3-3'/2hrs.), where we alight. A steep and at places fati- 
guing footpath (guide unnecessary) ascends hence to( 3 /4hr.) Krokan 
(2300ft. ; *Inn of the Turistforening, small and often full , It. 1 kr. 
60 »., S. 2, B. 1 kr. 20), about 250 paces beyond which is the 
point where the magnificent * Rjukanfos ('reeking' or 'foaming 
fall') bursts upon the view. This waterfall, formed by the large 
Maan-Elv, is one of the finest in Europe and is about 800 ft. in 
height. The scene is stupendous in the early summer, when the 
river is swollen with melted snow , but less picturesque than when 
there is less water, as the fall is partially concealed by the spray 
and foam. The adjuncts of the fall are also remarkably pictu- 
resque. The point of view which we have reached is about 500 
yds. from the fall, but it is scarcely advisable to attempt a nearer 

24 Route 3. SKARVAND. From Kongsberg 

approach. Some of the projecting rocks are not very secure. A well 
defined path , which the traveller should not quit, leads to the 
valley (10 min.), affording a view of the fall from below. 

Fkom the Rjukanfos io the Hardanger Fjobd. There are two 
practicable but somewhat trying routes for pedestrians and riders from 
the Rjukanfos to the Hardanger Fjord, one to Odde, and one to Eidfjord, 
of which the former is the easier. Ole Knudsen Vaa of Krokan may be 
engaged as a guide (distinct bargain desirable). 

To Odde , 4-5 days. 1st Day. From Krokan to Holvik (Inn), on the 
Mjesvand (2800 ft.), a walk or ride of 4 hrs. by a fatiguing path, on 
which snow sometimes lies early in the season. To the W. are the huge 
Ilaulandsfjeld and the Theseggen. The dreary-looking Mj#svand, 22 Engl. M. 
long, and 1-6 M. broad, is then crossed by boat, passing Mjesslranden, 
to (3 , /-i'hrs.) the W. bank, whence a path, very rough and marshy at 
places , leads across the Bitdalselv , in 6 hrs. to Rauland (Inn, tolerable), 
on the N. bank of the Totakvand (2080 ft.), or to Berge (Inn, fair), also 
on the lake, a little farther on. — 2nd Day. Row from Rauland or from 
Berge to Kosthveit (slow station) in 1 hr. , and drive or ride thence by a 
rough road to (14 Kil.) Jamsgaard i Vinje in 2'/ 2 hrs., and from Jams- 
;;aard via. Nylatnd to (48 Kil.) Batten (p. 29) in 7 hrs. — 3rd Day : from 
Botten to the (17 Kil.) Smikeliswter a drive of 3 hrs., thence to (28 Kil.) 
Reldal, a ride or walk of 8-9 hrs. — 4th Day: from Rtfldal to (28 Kil.) 
Seljestad, a drive of 5-6 hrs., and thence to (25 Kil.) Odde, a drive of 4-5 
his. — Comp. pp. 29-31. 

The above route from the Rjukanfos to Odde may be varied as follows. 
Ride from Holvik by a rough and often marshy path all the way to 
Berge (see above) in 7-8 hrs. — Or row from Holvik to Erlandsgaard in 1 
hr., walk to Oioeen in 2 hrs., cross the S. arm of the Mjjarsvand in •/•[ hr., 
and walk to Berge, passing the fine gaard of Gjuveland, in 5 hrs. — From 
Berge or Rauland we may row to Brunelid in 2 hrs., then ascend through 
the steep Orungedalsbygd to Nylsend (p. 28) in 3V2 hrs., and drive thence 
in 3 1 /? hrs. more to Botten (p. 29). 

To the Vokingsfos and Eidfjord , 3-4 days , for pedestrians only. 
1st Day. From Krokan to Holvik (see above) in 4 hrs.; row thence in 
3'/^ hrs. to Mjtfsstrand, and in 3 x /2-4 hrs. more to the upper end of the 
lake; walk in '/a hr. to Mogen (poor quarters). — 2nd Day (with guide to 
Eidfjord , 16 kr.). The path ascends towards the N.W. to the (6 Kil.) 
Gjuimje, a lake abounding in fish, passes several small tarns on the 
left, and crosses (20 Kil.) the Gjuvaa, a stream l'/ z -2 ft. deep. It next 
passes the (6 Kil.) Skarvand , and then three mountain-lakes on the left, 
where the soil is boggy and the scenery very desolate. Farther on we 
pass several more tarns on the left, and the Lagtjasm and Nordmands-Lua- 
gen on the right, the latter of which is well stocked with fish. Just beyond 
this lake we have to cross the Bessaelv, a considerable stream which 
falls into the lake , and here, after a laborious walk of 12-13 hrs. , we 
spend the night in the Bessabu, a small stone hut which affords no ac- 
commodation of any kind. (It is, however, preferable, if possible, to spend 
the night in a fisherman's hut on the neck of land between the Lagtjsern 
and Nordmandslaagen). — 3rd Day. Our route continues to traverse wild 
and bleak mountain scenery, occasionally crossing snow, to (25 Kil.) Bar- 
rastelen, a walk of 5-6 hrs., whence a good path leads in 2 hrs. to the 
(9 Kil.) Veringsfos, near which is the farmhouse of Hal, where if neces- 
sary the night may be spent. From H#l to Eidfjord 3'/ 2 -4hrs. 

From Kongsberg to the Hardanger Fjord through the Numedal. 

This excursion takes 4-5 days. Of the three great routes (comp. pp. 
79, 85) leading from E. Norway across the Fjeld to W. Norway, this 
is the least attractive. Fine scenery, however, is not altogether lacking, 
while the inhabitants have retained more of their primitive characteristics 
than those of Valders or the Hallingdal, and the interest of their country 

to the Hardanger fjord. SKJ0NNE. 3. Route. 25 

is enhanced by numerous traditions. A carriage-road with fast stations 
leads through the Numedal to Breslerud (138 Kil. or 85'/2 Eng. M.), from 
which driving is also practicable to Flolen, 11 Kil. farther, beyond which 
the traveller must ride or walk. 

The road follows the right bank of the Laayen, which descends 
from the Nordmands- Laagen in Hardanger (1500 ft. ; sec above). 
As far as Skjenne, where the Laagen and Opdalselv unite, the sce- 
nery is somewhat monotonous. 

17 Kil. Svennesund. Farther on we pass the church of Fles- 
berg , situated on the left bank of the Laagen. The next stations 
are (14 Kil.) Heimyr , (17 Kil.) Alfstad, and (23 Kil.) Helle, 
at the S. end of the Kravik-Fjord (868 ft.). The district between 
the church of Vmylid and Skajem is picturesque. The road runs 
for 22 Kil. along the bank of the Kravikfjord and Nore-Fjord, 
which had better be traversed by boat , and passes many thriving 
farm-houses. One of the old buildings of Gaarden Kravik is said 
to date from the 12th century. The Nore-Kirke, on the W. bank of 
the Nore-Fjord , an old timber-built church now doomed to demo- 
lition, contains interesting paintings and inscriptions in a kind of 
hieroglyphics, the objects (eyes , ears, animals, the devil, etc.) 
themselves being represented. — The Eidsfjeld (4300 ft.), rising 
to the W., may be ascended from Nore in one day. 

25 Kil. Savli lies at the N. end of the Nore-Fjord, and 3 Kil. 
farther is Skj#nne (920 ft.), an ancient 'Tingsted', or place of as- 
size, now belonging to the brothers Torsten* Torgil, and Keltil, 
who accommodate visitors at their farm. 

From Skjiefnne across the Fjeld to Hoi in the Hallingdal, l'/V2 days. 
The bridle-path ascends rather steeply, skirting the Laagen, which rushes 
through its channel far below, and passing the ffygaarde, to the (11 Kill 
.S. end of the Tunhevd - Fjord (2550 ft.). At Haga we take a boat and 
ascend the lake, being towed through several rapids, to the (22 Kil.) N. end. 
Then a steep ascent to Tunhevd, a hill-farm, where good quarters for the 
night are obtained. Next day we cross monotonous 'Heier' (barren heights), 
skirting the Redungsvand (2790 ft.) and the base of the Sangerfjeld (3755 ft.), 
and passing several sseters, and at length reach Hoi (Hammersbeen) in 
the Hallingdal (p. 84). 

A little beyond Skjenne the road enters the Opdal , and the 
scenery becomes very picturesque. Within the next 8 Kil. (5 Engl. 
M.) the road ascends 600 ft. to the Fennebu fjord (1525 ft.), at the 
W. end of which is (14 Kil.) Liverud. Thence to (22 Kil.) Br#- 
sterud (2550 ft.) a continuous ascent through a somewhat mono- 
tonous region. 

From Brtfsterud to Hoi in the Hallingdal a mountain - path leads in 
l-l'/'i days. It crosses a hill (3800 ft.) whence the Hallingskarv to the 
N.W. and the whole of the Jotunheim chain are visible, and then descends 
past the Vast and Hafde saeters to Kjensaas in Dagalid (2750 ft.). We 
again cross the mountain to the Skurdal (2740 ft. ; poor quarters) , and 
then another height to the Ustadal, pass several farms, and reach Hammers- 
heen and Hoi (p. 84). 

For the journey across the mountain ' Vidda' ('width', or 'ex- 
panse') to the Hardanger (100 Kil., a walk of two days at least) 
a guide should be engaged either at Bresterud , or, if possible. 

26 Route 4. THELEMARKEN. 

lower down the valley (12 kr. J, and a supply of provisions ob- 
tained. The route starts from the Floten (Flaata, or Nerstebo) 
farm , 14 Kil. to the N. of Bresterud (good quarters), at first fol- 
lows the sseter-path , and then traverses a lofty plateau (4000 ft.) 
commanding an extensive view in every direction. It passes the 
H. side of the Solheimsfjeld, the Skarsvand, and the Ylgelidsceter ; 
it then leads round the Heljebrctefjeld to the Gjetsje (Langvand), 
where the Laagen is crossed by boat, and to Hansbu (3380 ft.), a 
fisherman's hut at the E. end of the Langesje , which affords poor 
quarters for the night (45 Kil. from Floten). — Next morning our 
route leads round the RedhMerfjeld to theN.W. to the Holmeijern, 
and then , crossing the boundary between the Numedal and the 
llallingdal Fogderi , and skirting the Svinta , reaches the Nybu- 
xatre (3600 it.) , on the Nybusje , the first on the W. side of the 
fjeld (Vestenfjeldske Norge). Beyond this we generally follow 
the course of the Bjereia, which lower down forms the Veringsfos 
(p. 61), and cross snow-fields, brooks, and marshes. The path ia 
marked by 'Varder', or signals, as far as Storlien, and thence to 
Maursat (2370 ft.) and Hel it cannot be mistaken (comp. p. 84). 

4. From Chri9tiania to Odde. 

Comp. the Maps, pp. 18, 32. 
Thelkmauken, one of the most picturesque districts in Norway, 
extending from the vicinity of Kongsberg on the E. to the Haukeli-Sseter 
on the W., and from KragerjJ on the S. to the Hardanger Vidda on the 
N., boasts of several beautiful lakes, a number of fine waterfalls, and 
much wild mountain scenery, but cannot compare in grandeur or variety 
with the W. coast of Norway. It is, however, now visited by large num- 
bers of tourists. The inns have improved considerably of late years, and 
are now often really clean and comfortable; the charges are somewhat 
high. Many of the lakes afford excellent trout - fishing , so that, if the 
pursuit of angling be combined with the exploration of the scenery, 
several weeks might most pleasantly be devoted to this district alone. 
Some of the mountains and forests also afford good shooting. The fol- 
lowing description embraces the two chief routes through the district 
from E. to W. 

a. Via Kongsberg. 

401 Kil. (251 Kngl. M.). Railway to Kongsberg, 98 Kil., see p. 19; 
carriage-road thence to the llaukeli- Sceter , 223 Kil.; road for part of 
the way, and then bridle-path, to Reldal, 30 Kil.; carriage-road to Odde, 
53 Kil. — This fine route may be accomplished with tolerable ease in 
5 days , but 8-10 days should , if possible , be devoted to the journey and 
the points of interest on the way. Travellers by this route desirous ot 
seeing the Rjukanfos and of avoiding the rough route thence to Holvik, 
the Totakvand, and .Tamsgaard (p. 24) may visit the waterfall from 
Lysthus, returning thither by the same route, in 2 days. The direct 
route may be conveniently divided into the following stages: — 1st Day. 
Railway to Kongsberg (dep. early in the morning, arr. about noon) ; drive 
to Landsvwrk (17 Kil. beyond Lysthus, the station for the digression to 
the Rjukanfos) in 8-9 hrs. — 2nd Day. Drive to Mogen in 10-12 hrs. — 
3rd Day. Drive to Botlen in 10-12 hrs. — 4th Day. Drive to Nauteli- 
Scster in 2'/2-3 hrs.; walk or ride to Raldal in 7-8 hrs. — 5th Day. Drive 

SKBJE. 4. Route. 27 

to Odde in 9-10 hrs. — The usual charge on this route for a horse and 
horse and carriole is 15 «. per kilometre. The stations are all fast. 

From Christiania to Kongsberg, and thence to Notodden (Furu- 
heim) and the church of Hitterdal, see K. 3. 

Pedestrians will be repaid by leaving the high - road 5 Kil. beyond 
Hillerdals - Kirke (p. 22), crossing the river, ascending the Himingen 
(3440ft.), an isolated, pyramidal hill which commands an admirable view 
in every direction , and descending thence to Mosebe (see below) , a walk 
of 7-8 hrs. (guide desirable). 

About 10 Kil. beyond Hitterdal the road to the Tinnsje (p. 22) 
diverges to the right (N.), while our route leads to the W. to — 

19 Kil. Landsveerk i Sauland (poor station) amid picturesque 
scenery. Better accommodation at (2 Kil. farther) Kleppenhagen 
i Sauland (Hot. Lavheim, moderate). — 1 Kil. farther on, Mosebe. 

Fitosi )Ioseb0 to Dale in the Vestfjorddal, or Maanelv Valley (p. 24), 
39 Kil. (24 Engl. M.). — Carriage- road to Been in the Tudal, 23 Kil. 
(UVuEngl. M.); thence by a sseterpath across the spurs of the Gausta and 
past the Langefondsaiter to Dale in 4-5 hours. A long, but in many re- 
spects interesting day's journey. By sleeping at B#en and starting very 
early next morning, we may ascend the Gausta on the way. 

As we ascend the valley the scenery becomes wilder and more 
imposing. Passing the Hjarsje on the left, we next stop at — 

17 Kil. Skeje i Hjardal (poor station). 

From this station the traveller may ascend the Vindegg (4890 ft.), 
which commands a magnificent survey of the Gausta and other mountains. 
The route ascends in 2-3 hrs. past several picturesque waterfalls , the 
parsonage, the Fyrebmatn , and a number of sseters, to the Prcestegaards- 
Soeter, from which the summit is reached in 2-3 hrs. more (guide desirable). 

The road now ascends to the watershed between the Hjjerdal 
and the Flatdal. Near the top of the hill (11 Kil.) a road diverges 
to the N.W. to (11 Kil.) Aamotsdal, whence paths lead to the To- 
takvand and Mjesvand (p. 24), the former being about 40 Kil., 
the latter 50 Kil. from our present route. From Aamotsdal another 
path leads via Rakelid to (28 Kil.) Vaaer (p. 23). Our road turns 
towards the S. and descends by zigzags, commanding very striking 
views, to Flatdal , with its little church and sprinkling of farms, 
beyond which is the Flatdalsvand , with the Skorvefjeld (4440 ft.) 
rising in the background. Adjoining the lake is the Spaadomsnut, 
the falling of which into the water , according to local tradition, 
will be the prelude to the end of the world. Farther on we obtain 
a view of the Siljordsvand (400 ft.), a picturesque lake, 17 Kil. 
(IOY2 Engl. M.) in length, traversed 4-5 times weekly by a small 
steamboat. On the N.E. side of the lake rises the Lifjeld, on 
which two French aeronauts descended in 1870, having arrived in 
their balloon from Paris in 15 hours. At the N.W. end of the lake, 
along which our way leads, lie the church of Siljord and the gaard 
of Moen, at the junction of a road to Skien (p. 34). 

26 Kil. Nordgaarden i Siljord (*//o/f's Inn, also the skyds-sta- 
tion, moderate), prettily situated near the Siljordsvand, 20 min. 
from the steamboat-pier. 

About 12 Kil. from Siljord we pass the ftnely-situated Brunke- 

28 Route i. MOGEN. From Christiania 

bergs- Kirke, splendidly situated on the watershed, where the road 
to (10 Kil.) Kirkebe and (4 Kil.) Hvideseid diverges to the left, 
commanding very striking views in the descent to Kirkebe (steam- 
boat on the Hvidesje see p. 35). 

Our route now leads to the N.W. through the Moryedal, pass- 
ing near several considerable lakes, abounding in trout. We next 
stop at (10 Kil. from the church) — 

23 Kil. Berge i Brunkeberg (tolerable station), and then cross 
a range of hills of considerable height to — 

15 Kil. Mogen i Heidalsmo (good station), near which a road 
diverges to the S. to (14 Kil.) Laurdal on the Bandaksvand (p. 36). 
In the vicinity are several lakes which afford good fishing. A hilly but 
very picturesque bye-road leads hence towards the N. to (37 Kil.) 
Rauland on the imposing Totakvand (p. 24). — Our route contin- 
ues in a straight direction, traversing a fine mountainous region. 

21 Kil. Mule i Vinje (1500 ft. ; tolerable station) , prettily 
situated at the E. end of the Vinjevand. 

From Mule to Nasland and Ravnejuvet, see p. 36. 

From Mule, a somewhat hilly road ascends the N. bank of the 
lake for about 200 yds., passing several farms, amongst which is 
Jamsgaard (no station), where a carriage-road diverges to Kosthveit 
on the Totakvand (p. 24). — Our road descends abruptly to the 
church of Vinje , at the N.W. end of the Vinjevand. Here a 
beautiful view is obtained of the Midtfjeld (4527 ft.) and of the 
Orm Eggen to the S.W. The road then crosses the Grungedals-Elo 
by a lofty bridge, and follows the right bank of the river towards 
the N., first passing through a pine-wood, and then ascending to 
the hamlet of Kringlegd. The Flaatsbunut on the Totakvand now 
comes into sight to the N., and remains in view during the re- 
mainder of the journey through the somewhat monotonous valley. 
We now cross the Elv by the Grungedalsbro, a sort of Norwegian 
'Devil's Bridge', commanding a delightful view to the S. and W. 
Here the road is joined on the right by a footpath from Brunelid 
on the Totakvand (p. 24). A little farther on we reach the pretty 
Grungedalsvand (1590 ft.), on the N. bank of which is situated 
the station of — 

21 Kil. Nylttnd (poor; overcharges complained of). The next 
part of the route, skirting the green but shallow lake and affording 
a good view of the Grungedalsfjeld, is very picturesque. After 
passing the Church of Grungedal we reach the farms of Eilandt, 
where travellers in the reverse direction generally halt for '^ nr - 
(An uninteresting footpath leads hence to the N.W. end of the 

The road now follows the left bank of the Flaathel-Elv. To 
the left (S.) we see the fine Vafos descending from the Langeid- 
vand in a series of bold leaps. Near the farm of Kasti, to the right, 
the pines disappear. The route now ascends the dreary and almost 

to Odde. ROTTEN. 4. Route. 29 

entirely uninhabited valley, passing several H0I , or rleep pools 
formed by the Elv after breaking through , iu the form of water- 
falls or rapids, the various rocky barriers thrown across its course. 
The largest of these waterfalls is named the Rjukanfos (comp. 
p. 23), the largest Hal the Ekelidhel (2290 ft.). Continuing to 
ascend without intermission, we at last reach — 

26 Kil. Botten i Grungedal (2590 ft. ; good station), situated 
on the pretty Voxlivand and commanding a good view of the Qrov- 
hoved, Simlenuten, and Haukelifjeld. 

From Botten to Stavanger. Good walkers (for the path is almost 
too rough for riding) may here diverge to the S.W. to (45 Kil.) Jordbrcekke, 
a walk of 14-10 hrs., and (7 Kil.) Roaldkvam on the Suledalsvand. From 
Roaldkvam to Stavanger via Hylen or Sand, see p. 49. 

Beyond Botten the road at first skirts the Voxlivand, passing 
the farm of Voxli on the right, and then the Arrebuvand and the 
Evenbuvand. The district traversed is deserted and monotonous, 
a few old and dying pines being almost the only objects to attract 
the eye. Farther on the road runs more to the right, on the hill, 
and Teaches a point commanding a fine *View of the mountains to 
the W.: to the left Vasdalseggen (5765 ft.), then Kistebunuten, 
the Kallevasheia, the Sveien, and to the right, the Storefond. Below 
us, to the left, lies the Kjcelavand (2940 ft.), to the S. of which 
rises the Kjmlatind. The trees now entirely disappear. The road 
now traverses the high-lying plateau to — 

17 Kil. (pay for 22) Haukeli-Seeter (3720 ft.; good accommo- 
dation ; two buildings with about 20 beds, open only from June 15 
to Sept. 15). 

Guide to R0ldal 4 kr. , necessary as far as Tarjebudal (p. 30) only. 
Horse with guide (and side-saddle if required) 6 kr.; for a heavy port- 
manteau a second horse must be engaged ; trunks could not hitherto be 
taken. Stolkjwrre to the Fjeld 15 ii. per kilometre. The tarift' from 
Tarjebudal to Rtfldal is the same, but carrioles cannot be obtained unless 
ordered by 'forbud'. 

The Haukeli-Sater or Haukelid-Sceter is a fjeldgaard at the E. 
end of the Staavand. It lies in the midst of most imposing scenery, 
and commands an unimpeded view of the above-named mountains 
of the fjeld, with the exception of the Storefond. The peaks and 
even some parts of the plateau remain covered with snow as late as 
August. — Comp. the Map, p. 54. 

The new road from the Haukeli-Sseter to Raldal is now (1885) 
completed all but about 2'/2 M. in the middle , where the journey 
is somewhat rough and laborious. The scenery , particularly on 
the first and last parts of the route, is impressive if not exactly 
picturesque. The cube-shaped mountains fall away abruptly on 
all sides, and their bases are surrounded with desolate 'Ures' (fallen 
stones). The deep and narrow side-valleys lead on the N. to the 
lonelySaeters of the Hardangervidde, where herds of reindeer are kept, 
a landscape of great grahdenrbut bleak and desolate in the extreme. 

The new road leads from the Haukeli-S.eter towards the N. \V.. 

30 Route 4. R0LDAL. From Christiania 

skirting the Staavand, as far as the bridge over the outflow of the 
Ullevaa-Vatten (3100 ft."), where the Nupsfos descends from the N. 
To the left rise the lofty mountains of the fjeld, to the right is the 
Storefond, with the Nups Eggen (5695 ft.). At the bridge we quit 
the Bratsbergsamt and enter the Bergenhusamt ; the following saeters, 
although situated on the E. side of the fjeld, consequently belong to 
Raldal. Pedestrians and riders cross the bridge and follow the 'strong' 
saeter path on the S. bank of the Ullevaa-Vatten, leaving the Ullevaa- 
Sceter to the left. The carriage-road remains on the N. bank of the 
lake, and unites with the bridle-path at its W. end. The scene is 
one of wild and lonely grandeur : to the right the steep sides of the 
Storefond, to the left the Sveien, in front of us the Stafsnuten, to 
the right of the latter the Rekkingsnuten and the Midtdiirrnstene. 

About 8 Kil. from the Haukeli-Saeter the path ascends in steep 
zigzags to the (Y2 nT P* ss of Dyreskard, the highest point of which 
lies 3720 ft. above the sea. At the top there is generally a good 
deal of snow, forming the so-called Byre Fond. The path now 
turns to the S., passing after 20 min. a Refuge Hut, on the right, 
at the base of the dark Stafsnuten. We then descend by a stony 
path to the green and solitary 0istenvatten, the N. bank of which 
we then skirt (10 min.). The N.W. side of the Kallevasheia now 
comes into sight on the left. — We follow a W. direction and in 
20 min. reach the — 

Midtleeger-Seeter , a small earthen hut on a lake, where a halt 
is usually made for resting (milk, bread, etc.). The scenery is 
monotonous. In Y2 nr - more we pass the Svandalsflaaene, a lonely 
saeter-house at the foot of the Stafsnuten, to be made a skyds-sta- 
tion on the completion of the road. To the left, farther on, are 
several small tarns, above which rises the jagged Rensnuten ; to the 
W., in the distance , the snow-clad Horreheia. The river flowing 
hence towards the S. forms the Navlefos lower down (see below). 
Crossing a hill called Staven, we now descend gradually to the 
Risbo-Elv, with the Ormefald saeter to the right. 

At this point the Carriagb Road recommences , crossing the 
stream and descending the Tarjebudal. The scenery becomes more 
interesting, and from the hill above the Valdai a fine view is ob- 
tained of the valley, the blue lake of Reddal, and the Horreheia. The 
road now descends to the Valdai, crosses the stream, and follows 
the right bank. (The old bridle-path along the ridge is shorter but 
not to be recommended.) At the farm of Stohovden (to the right) 
we enjoy an admirable view of the Navlefos (to the left), above 
which lie several saeters. We now soon reach the beautiful Reldal 
with its numerous farms. The lake, with the Holmenuten and Rel- 
dalsaaten (4100 ft.) rising to the S.W. , forms a very attractive 

30 Kil. Gryting i Reldal (good quarters; accommodation 
also at Hagen's, the Lensmaud, well spoken of) lies at the N. end 

to Odde. GORSVINGANE. 4. Route. 31 

of the small Reldalsvand (6 Eng. M. in length), surrounded by 
precipitous mountains. Near it is a conspicuous old 'Stavekirke' 
(p. 22), which still contains a few relics of Roman Catholic times. 

Fkom R0ldal to Stavanger. We row to Botten at the S. end of the 
lake, and then ride across the fjeld to (23 Kil.) Nws on the Suledalsvaml. 
whence Stavanger is easily reached (see p. 49). 

The new road to Odde crosses the Tufte-Elv, skirts the N.W. 
hank of the lake to Horre, and then ascends gradually, through in- 
teresting scenery, hy a series of interminable windings known as the 
Horrebrakkene, which the pedestrian can considerably abbreviate. 
The Botten-Sater is passed on the left. To the right rises the pre- 
cipitous Horreheia, to the left the Elgersheia. Fine retrospect of 
the Reldalsvand and the Bredfond and other mountains to the E. 
At the top of the lonely plateau (3300 ft.), the road passes several 
small tarns. A little farther on the view of the W. part of the fjeld 
begins to disclose itself, increasing in extent and grandeur as we 
descend the **Gorsvingane. Deep below us lies the narrow Gors- 
botn, surrounded with precipitous mountains and enclosing the 
dark-blue Oorsvatten, with a waterfall at one end. Beyond this 
valley lies the extensive district of Odde, with the snow-fields of 
the flat Folgefond (p. 54), many miles in length. The whole scene 
is one of great grandeur and peculiarly Norwegian in style. The 
old bridle-path runs parallel with the Gorsvingane, on the other 
side of the brook, which is crossed by several snow-bridges. Far- 
ther on it changes its name to the Hedsten-Elv. On arriving at the 
lower end of the Gorsvatten (2800 ft.), we pass through a kind of 
rocky gate, beyond which the whole landscape above described is 
seen before us as in a map. We then proceed in easy windings, 
passing the Svaagen and the Hedstensnuten on the right, to an un- 
interesting green plateau, on which lies — 

28 Kil. Seljestad (2070 ft. ; unpretending quarters; new inn 
near the station). Farther on the road crosses the Elv, which soon 
after forms the Hesteklevfos (worth alighting to see), and then des- 
cends circuitously by the Hesteklev, which is continued by the *Selje- 
studjuvet, a deep and formerly dangerous ravine. Fine views at 
every point of the Folgefond and the mountains of Odde. We 
again cross the Elv and follow the right bank. The Jesendal opens 
on the left, to the right are the houses of Share (p. 66). 

The road descends the valley and leads by Hildal (16 Kil. ; p. 66) 
to Odde (65 Kil.), see pp. 66, 65. 

b. Via Skien. 
This route generally takes 6 days, but under favourable circumstances 
may be completed in less. — 1st Day. From Christiania to Skien by rail- 
way, 204 Kil. or 125 M. ; bv express train in (i'/2 urs - (fares 11 kr. 30, 7 kr. 
70 «f.), by ordinary train in 7-9>/s brs. (fares 9 kr. 20, 6 kr. 15 0.). The 
steamer, four times weekly, takes 10-14 hrs. From Skien to Ulefos by 
steamer, in connection with the express train, in 2'/-2 brs. (daily except 
Sun. ; fare 2 kr.). — 2nd Day. Drive to Strtengen in 3 hrs. ; from Strst ngen 

32 Route 4. SANDEFJORD. From Christiania 

to Dalen by the steamer 'Thelemarken' on the Flaa, Hvideseid, and 
Bandak Lakes (daily except Sun., Tues., and Frid.) in 6'/ 2 hrs. — 3rd Day. 
Drive from Dalen via Eidsborg Church (whence Ravnejuvet may be visited) 
to Mogen i Heidalsmo, or walk or ride by the direct route to Mule i Vinjt, 
both on the road to Odde, see p. 28. — 4th, 5th, and 6th Days, as in 
Route a. 

From Christiania to (53 Kil.) Drammen, see R. 2. The railway 
('JarlsbeTgbane') from Drammen to Laurvik and Skien runs to the 
S. W. past the suburb of Tangen and then ascends, at a considerable 
gradient (1:80), the Kobberviksdal , the highest point of which 
is reached at (62 Kil.) Skouger. — 69 Kil. Qalleberg. 

73 Kil. (if) Engl. M.~)Snnde, with the church of the same name, 
situated near the Sandefjord or Sandesognfjord, of which a fine 
view is obtain ed to the left. The next part of the line skirts the fjord. 

86 Kil. Holmestrand (Hotel du Nord ; Vesman's), a sea-bathing- 
place with 2200 inhab., situated at the foot of a steep porphyry 
cliff. The train now leaves the coast for a little. 96 Kil. Nykirke. 
100 Kil. Skopum, near the Borrevand ; branch-line hence to Bone 
and (3 Kil.) Horten on the Christiania Fjord. 

103 Kil. (64 M. ) Angedal. 109 Kil. Barkaker. To the right we 
see the chateau of Jarlsberg. The train then passes through a short 
tunnel and reaches — 

115 Kil. (71 M.) Terosberg (Victoria Hotel), a town with 5200 
inhab., and the oldest in Norway, dating from the time of Harald 
Haarfagre. This is the headquarters of Sven Foyn (see p. 265) and 
a number of hardy Arctic mariners residing chiefly in the islands 
of Nettere and Tjeme to the S. of the town, who man the fleet 
of about fifty whalers and seal -hunting vessels of considerable 
size (one-third of them being steamers) which annually starts from 
this port. The hill above the town, formerly crowned by a castle 
and now penetrated by the above-mentioned railway tunnel, com- 
mands a beautiful view. 

The line does not extend any farther in this direction, and the 
train backs out of the station and returns for 7 Kil. in the direction 
from which it came. At (121 Kil.) Sem or Semb it crosses the 
Oulie-Elv. 128 Kil. Stokke. 135 Kil. Raastad. 

139 Kil. (86 M.) Sandefjord (Hotel Kong Karl; Heidemarkh 
Hotel, well spoketi of ; Johnseris Hotel), a favourite, but some- 
what expensive watering-place with 2500 inhab., prettily situated 
on the fjord of the same name. It stands in regular steamboat 
communication with Christiania. The sea here in summer swarms 
with medusae ('maneter'), which make not altogether desirable 
addition to the pleasures of bathing, but are said to exercise a 
beneficial effect in certain ailments. Mud-baths and sulphur baths 
are also employed here. — The Jcettegryder near Aasen are very 
interesting; the largest is upwards of 20 ft. deep. Other giant- 
caldrons of a similar kind at the (6 Kil. ) Vindalsbugt may be visited 
by boat. — The whole district between Temsberg and Laurvik is 

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to Odde. LAURVIK. i. Route. 33 

replete with historical interest. At Hjertnas , where there are 
several Bauta Stones, one of the Viking ships now exhibited at 
Christiania (p. 7) was dug up. 

144 Kil. (89V 2 M.) Joberg, in the midst of a well-wooded 
district. 149 Kil. Tjedling, commanding a view of the Launnks- 
fjord as far as Fredriksvaern. In the vicinity is the hamlet of Kou- 
pang, perhaps the old historical Skiringssal. The train now crosses 
the Laagen (p. 25), which descends from the Numedal, by a bridge 
550 ft. in length, with Ave arches. It then traverses the suburb 
of Thorstrand, passes through a tunnel, and reaches — 

158 Kil. (98 M.) Laurvik. — Hotels. "Laurvik's Hotel, 5 min. to 
the W. of the harbour, on the Faris-Elv, E. 1 kr. 60 0. ; Victoria Hotel ; 
Central Hotel. 

Bath Establishment (Dr. T. C. Holm's), at the harbour, near Laur- 
vik's Hotel, with good sulphur, mud, and warm salt-water baths, and 
a sulphureous drinking-spring ; pens. 16 kr. weekly, R. 20 50 kr. per month. 
'Kurpenge', or visitors' tax, for baths, physician, and spring, 20 kr. per 
week, for a stay of more than a month 15 kr. per week. — Sea-Baths, to 
the W. of the harbour. 

Laurvik or Larvik, formerly the capital of the county of that 
name, is finely situated near the mouth of the Laagen or Lougen 
in the Laurvikfjord, and is a pleasant place for a short residence. 
With the suburbs of Langestrand to the W. and Thorstrand to the 
E. it contains 8000 inhabitants. 

The station lies close to the harbour, which the railway skirts. 
A pleasant walk may be taken along the wharfs. Proceeding to- 
wards the E., we reach, on the right, the Lauruiks Kirke, which 
commands a fine view of the fjord , or in a straight direction, 
beyond the prison, the Herrgottsbakken. To the W., the bridge 
crosses to the suburb of Langestrand ; it is, however, better to turn 
to the N. before reaching the bridge and follow the principal street, 
passing a weir, to the (10 min.) Farisvand. The outflow of this 
lake affords the motive power for the Fritze saw-mills, and several 
other manufactories. We then return to the above-mentioned weir, 
ascend to the left to the town itself, and proceed towards the N. 
to the (!/ 4 hr.) *Begeskov, a fine beech-plantation , commanding a 
beautiful view, especially by evening light (cafe; best point of 
view at the W . end of the ridge traversing the park). The direct way 
from the harbour to the Bogeskov passes the Brandvagt on the left. 

The railway crosses the Faris-Elv, and skirts the W. bank of 
the picturesque Farisvand. 169 Kil. Tjose; 181 Kil. Aaklangen, 
on the small lake of that name. The train now turns to the S., 
passing several lakes. 188 Kil. Birkedalen; 191 Kil. Eidanger 
(Hotel ; several bath-houses in the fjord), J / 2 hr. from the station, 
pleasantly situated on the Eidanger-Fjord. 

195 Kil. (121 Engl. M.) Porsgrund (Stianseris Hotel, well 
spoken of; Victoria, with cafe', R. &L. 2kr.55«., tolerable), a town 
of 8600 inhab., situated on both sides of the Skiens-Elv, which 
descends from the Nordsja and here enters a bay of the Friersfjord. 

Baedeker's Norway and Sweden. 3rd V.ah 3 

34 Route 4. ULEFOS. From Christiania 

The harbour generally contains some large English and American 
vessels, taking in cargoes of ice from the 'Ishuse' at Traag. 

Beyond Porsgrund the train ascends the left hank of the broad 
Skiens-Elv to — 

204 Kil. (125 Engl. M.) Skien. — Hotels. ' Hoyek's Hotel, at 
the pier of the southward-bound steamers, R. & L. 2'/2, A. 50 0., B. 1, D. 
2 kr. ; Victoria, on the hill above the railway station, R. 2 kr., D. 2 kr. 
40 0. ; Ph<enix, on the hill behind Hover's. The two last second class. 

Steamers. The steamers for Thelemarken (to the K.W.) start from the 
dam to the N. of the Damfos : to Ulefos and Tangen i HUterdal twice daily 
except Sun., in 2'/2 and 5Y2hrs. (fares 2 and 3>/2kr.). Those for the S. (Povs- 
ynmd, Langesund, Christiania) ply 4 times weekly, starting from the pier 
opposite Skiens Hotel, about •/« M. (Engl.) from the other steamboat-quay. 

Skien (pronounced ScKien or Skien), a town with 5460 inhab., 
the ancient Skida, dates originally from the 14th cent., but in 
consequence of repeated fires now consists of modern wooden 
houses. The church was erected in 1777. Between the two steam- 
boat piers are the Klosterfos and the Damfos, two waterfalls of 
great volume, which are crossed by bridges. On a small island 
between the falls formerly stood the nunnery of Gimse, founded 
in 1110. On the steep Bratsbergklev , to the E. of the town, aTe 
the ruins of the (V2 nr Bratsberg Chapel, belonging to the adjacent 
Bratsberg-Oaard , which has given its name to the entire district 
(fine view). 

The steamer for Ulefos ascends the Skiens-Elv, passing through 
the three curious locks of Leveid, and after 1 hr. enteTs the Nordsj« 
(50 ft. above the sea), a picturesque lake about 45 Kil. or 28 Engl. 
M. in length. To the right in the rocky bank, at a height of about 
200 ft. above the surface of the water, is the Mikalshule, or Michael's 
cave, which may be visited by boat from L»veid. Religious ser- 
vices were held in it in former times. In about 1 hr. after enter- 
ing the lake the steamer reaches — 

28 Kil. Ulefos i Holden (skyds-station at the pier, small but 
tolerable ; Peer Jenssen's Inn, old-fashioned , but quiet and toler- 
able, on the other side of the river, 25 min. from the pier), with 
numerous saw-mills, two churches, and several villas belonging to 
wealthy timber-merchants, is picturesquely situated on the W. 
bank of the lake, and on both banks of the Sogna (small boat 10- 
20».), which descends from the great Thelemarken lakes and here 
enters the Nordsj*. About 10 min. from the pier this little river 
forms the fine waterfall which gives its name to the place. To the 
S. is the church of Holden, to the N. the deserted church of Ro- 
menas, on the headland of that name. 

Travellers for the Hitterdal and the Rjukanfos do not disembark at 
Ulefos, but go on with the steamer, passing the Romenses, to Gvarvel 
and (l'/ii hr.) Akershougen. [From here we may drive via (6 Kil.) Seboden 
to (24 Kil.) Telnccs, at the S. end of the Siljordsvand , comp. p. 27.] 
The steamer then proceeds to the N. end of the Nordsj0, where the sce- 
nery is finer than at the S. end, and enters the Sauerelv, a river connect- 
ing the Nordsju with the Hitterdalsvand (GO ft.), another picturesque lake, 
16 Kil. in length. The steamer here touches at Farotlden (Farvolden), Bolvig, 

to Odde. BANDAKSVAND. 4. Route. 35 

IJJukse (Juxe), and Notodden (p. 21), and in about 6 his. after leaving 
Skien reaches Tangen (5 Kil. from the church of Hitterdal, p. 22). 

From Ulefos i Holden we now drive (17-25 e. per Kil. ; to 
Stramgen 22 Kil., carriole 3 kr., stolkjajrre for 1 pers. 5 kr. 60 ».) 
through a fertile and uninteresting district, occasionally enjoying 
a view of the Lifjeld (p. 27) to the N., to — 

11 Kil. Lundefaret, opposite which is the church of Lunde. 
Beyond this point the road leads along the Sogna to (11 Kil.) 
Strcengen (tolerable quarters), at the E. end of the Flaavand, 
which we traverse by steamer. The rate of speed is at first very 
slow, on account of the vast quantities of timber floated down 
from the forests and massed round the outflow of the lake. The 
eland is still found in the forests on the banks. On reaching the 
W. end of the lake (17 Kil. from Strangen) the steamer enters 
the narrow Fjaagesund, which is bordered on the N. by the pre- 
cipitous 0stnafjeld, and on the S. by terraces of alluvial formation 
sprinkled with numerous farms , and soon reaches the Hvidesj* 
(185 ft. above the sea). The scenery now becomes finer : to the 
right the Kuskreia, the abrupt S. slope of the Brakedalsfjeld ; to 
the left, in the distance, the Boboltfjeld (3345 ft.), and to the W., 
near the Bandaksvand, the peak of the Rauberg. At the upper 
end of the lake lies the wooded island of Buke, and on the W. 
bank is the village of Hvideseid. The steamer, however, gener- 
ally first enters the SundkU , if the depth of water in the shallow 
sound connecting this small lake with the Hvidesja allows it, calls 
at Kirkebe at its W. end, and then returns to the Hvidesja, rounds 
the Spjosodd, and stops at Hvideseid. 

Fkom Hvideseid to Tvedestrand (152 Kil. or 9i Engl. M.) or Arkndal 
(161 Kil. or 100 Engl. M.). This is the least interesting of the three prin- 
cipal routes by which Thelemarken may be entered or quitted , but is 
by no means devoid of attraction. The road ascends rapidly , and then 
descends to (7 Kil.) f Strand i Vraadal, a little to the W. of which lies 
the Vraavand (p. 36). Our route now turns to the S. and skirts the 
E. bank of the Nisservand (795 ft.), a fine sheet of wator, 40 Kil. long, 
affording good trout-fishing. The next two stages may be performed by 
the small steamer which plies on the lake (twice weekly). The follow- 
ing stations are (23 Kil.) Tvet iMssedal, (23 Kil.) Tvelsund i Nissedal, (23 
Kil.) 0y, (15 Kil.) Neergaarden (fair station), (14 Kil.) Simonslad i Aamlid, 
(15 Kil.) Uberg, (15 Kil.) Tvede, (6 Kil.) Tvedestrand (p. 38). From Tvede- 
strand one steamer weekly runs direct to Christiania (in 15 hrs.), and one 
weekly to Christianssand (7 hrs.), while small steamers ply almost daily to 
the Dynge and the Bore in connection with the larger coasting steamers. 
The traveller bound for Christianssand will, however, find it preferable 
to drive direct from Uberg (see above) to (20 Kil.) Brcekke and (10 Kil., 
pay for 13) Arendal (p. 39), whence steamers run daily to Chirstianssand 
(in 6 hrs.). 

Beyond Hvideseid the steamer passes through the canalized 
channel of the Skarpstremmen, connecting the Hvidesja with the 
""Bandaksvand (225 ft.), a long and picturesque lake, enclosed by 
imposing mountains of considerable height, and well stocked with 
trout and other fish. The sharp peaks and ridges on the N. bank 
assume various fantastic forms, to which appropriate names have 


36 Route 4. LAURDAL. 

been attached. The first view of these mountains, after the station 
of Apatstei (right) and the Bandukse (left) have been passed, is 
very imposing, but afterwards the lake becomes somewhat mono- 
tonous. The W. end, however, is enclosed by another fine group 
of mountains. About l^hr- after leaving Hvideseid, the steamer 
touches at Laurdal {*Bakke's Hotel, at the pier), beautifully 
situated in a valley facing the S., and sheltered on all other 
sides, amidst rich vegetation which contrasts admirably with the 
frowning mountains we have just passed. A good road leads hence 
to Mogen i Heidalsino (14 Kil., p. 28). — On the S. bank of the 
lake opposite Laurdal lies Bandakslid (ferry in 20 ruin., 20 ».). 

From Bandakslid ('slow' station , horses to lie ordered beforehand) 
the hill is crossed by a very picturesque zigzag road to the (8 Kil.) Vrua- 
vaud (850 ft.), which is connected by a river with the Skredvand, a lake 
1\ iti^ ; 3U0 ft. higher. Not far from the road this river forms a picturesque 
fall, known as the * Lille Rjukanfos. Farther on (17 Kil. from Bandakslid) 
is Ilatuji'nr, beyond which are Veui/i and (23 Kil.) Moland, on the Fiirisvand 
(28 Kil. in length), on which a small steamboat plies. Between Veuni and 
Moland the Bispevei diverges to the \V. to (50 Kil.) Sogneskar i Valle in 
the Stelersdal (p. 42), a very rough walk of 12-13 hrs. 

At the upper end of the Bandaksvand (l'/ohr. from Laurdal, 
by steamer) is Dalen (Tokedalen's Hotel, by the pier; Sundt's Hotel, 
in Dalen itself, 1 Engl. M. from the lake; both well spoken ofj, 
the starting-point for a visit to the Ravnejuvet (!S-4 hrs., there and 
back 7 hrs.). The fine new road ascends to the N. in zigzags, along 
a rocky wall 1500-2000 ft. high. Below us are woods of beeches 
and oaks, above us pines and firs. Fine view of the lake and of the 
Ilotnedal to the W. After 1-1 '/^ hr. we reach the top (extensive 
view), and then proceed by a level road to the village of (J/^hr.) 
Eidsborg (2300 ft.), where a manganese quarry and an ancient 
timber-built church (1242) are objects of interest. The road divides 
here, the carriage-road to the right leading to (18 Kil. from Dalen; 
p. 28) Mogen i Heidalsmo, and the bridle-path to the left to Mule 
i Vinje. 

The latter ascends the steep Eidsborgaasen. On reaching the 
top it descends on. the other side, amid rocks and forests, to the 
Molands-Sceter (milk). A tablet here indicates the way to *Ravne- 
juvet or linvnedjupet , a perpendicular rock, about 1000 ft. in 
height, overhanging the turbulent Tokeelv, and commanding a fine 
view of the Libyyfjeld and the district of Niesland. A strong current 
of air constantly streams upwards from the ravine, so that light ob- 
jects thrown from the top of the rock do not fall but are blown back 
over the edge. A pavilion has been erected here in memory of the 
visit of King Oscar in 1879. 

Travellers encumbered with much luggage must return to Eids- 
borg, and continue their journey thence by the carriage-road (men- 
tioned above) to Mogen. Riders and pedestrians may, however, 
proceed from Ravnejuvet direct to Na;sland and Mule. The path at 
first leads through dense forests, and afterwards descends rapidly 


and crosses the Tokeelv. Tn 1-1 1/ 4 lir. we reach the village of 
Nsesland, whore good accommodation may be obtained at the gaard 
of Sandok. Horses may also usually be procured here, but carrioles 
seldom. In the vicinity is the gaard of Gjelhus, with an old 
'Stabbur' said to date from 1115. The hilly road now leads through 
lonely forests. From the higher points we obtain a view of the 
Vehuskjcerrinyen (4508 ft.) to the ,S.E. At the foot of this mountain 
is the HyUivndsfos, formed by the Tokeelv, which descends from 
the Totakvand. After passing the Orooen gaard and crossing the 
Vinje-Elv we reach the great Thelemarken high-road, which leads 
to Mule i Vinje (10 Kil. from Nsesland) ; comp. p. 28. 

5. From Christiania to Christianssand. 

.Steamboats (comp. '■Norges Commvnieationer"). About twelve steamers 
start weekly from Christiania for Christianssand, a distance of 39 Norwegian 
nautical miles (156 Engl. M.), performing the voyage in 16-30 hrs., according 
to circumstances (fares IS kr. 45, 12 kr. 30 ff.). The larger steamers, hound 
for Bergen, Throndh jem, and the North , touch between Christiania and 
Christianssand only at Arendal and Lawvik, while others touch at four- 
teen or fifteen intermediate stations. The traveller who proposes to 
break his journey at any station between these two towns may perform 
the first part of it by one of the small coasting steamers plying to Drebak 
(daily), Holincslnind (daily), JIIoxs (almost daily), Tensberg (almost daily), 
Sandefjord (4 times a week), or to Poragvund and Skien (4 times a week). 
The smaller vessels, which touch at numerous stations, ply almost ex- 
clusively '•indenskjws^, i.e. within the Skjccrgaard , or belt of islands 
which flanks almost every part of the Norwegian coast, where the water 
is perfectly smooth, while the course of the larger steamers is hidcns- 
kjivi'iC, or outside the islands, where the sea is often rough. The tra- 
veller may, therefore, if he prefer it, perform nearly the whole voyage 
to Christianssand in smooth water, with the additional advantage of getting 
occasional glimpses at some of the picturesque coast-towns. — The usual 
cabin fare is 40 0. per Norwegian nautical mile, steerage 25 0. per mile. 
Most of the steamers have good restaurants on board (breakfast or supper 
about l'/2, dinner 2 kr.), and good, though limited sleeping accommodation 
(steward s fee discretionary). — Distances from Christiania are given ap- 
proximately in Norwegian sea-miles, one of which is equal to 4 English miles. 

The * Christiania Fjord, a very picturesque arm of the sea, 
about 50 English miles in length , and enlivened with frequent 
steamboats and sailing vessels , is bounded by banks of moderate 
height, which are studded with pleasant looking country-houses, 
villages, and towns. The steamer starts from the Bjervik on the E. 
side of Christiania (p. 4), steers between the islands of Bleke and 
Grcvaholm, commanding to the left a tine view of the beautiful 
Bundefjord with its numerous country-houses , and between the 
Linde and Hovede (on the right, with interesting strata of slate), 
and describes a circuit round the town. On the right rises the 
picturesque chateau of Oscarshnll (p. 11), and to the left (S.) 
projects the promontory of Nasoddtangen , which separates the 
Bundefjord from the main fjord of which it is a branch. To the 
right, a little farther on, lies Sandviken (p. 13), ensconced behind 
a number of islands. The vessel now steers due S., and the 

38 Route 5. DR0BAK. From Christiania 

beautiful city is soon lost to view. Looking back from this part 
of the fjord , we obtain a view of the Kolsaas , the Skogumsaas, 
and to the W. the Vardekolle , three porphyry hills well known to 
geologists (p. 15). Several islands are passed, and the fjord 
gradually contracts to a passage barely 700 yds. in width. 

4M. (26 Kil.) Dr#bak (two hotels), with 1700inhab., carries on 
a considerable traffic in timber and ice. The latter is obtained from 
a small lake in the neighbourhood, and is exported to England as 
'Wenham Lake ice'. In winter , when the upper part of the fjord 
is blocked with ice , the navigation frequently remains open up to 
this point. Opposite the town is the small fortified island of 
Kaholm, with the Oscarsborg, to the W. of which (on the right) is 
the peninsula of Hudrum. On the latter lies Slottet , a posting- 
station, from which a hilly road leads to Srelvig on the Drammens- 
fjord. Drabak and the next stations Hvidsten (500 inhab.) and 
Soon (700 inhab.) are frequently visited for the sake of the sea- 
bathing. Opposite Soon, on the W. bank of the fjord, which now 
expands to a considerable width , and from which the Drammens- 
fjord diverges here to the N., lies Holmestrand, see p. 32. Beyond 
Soon the small steamers usually steer to the S . , through the strait and 
canal which separate the Gjelle from the E. bank of the fjord, to — 

8 M. (52 Kil.) Moss (Reinsch's Hotel ; Moss Hotel ; Hotel Skeien, 
by the bridge), a small town and sea-bathing place, with 5100 in- 
hab., where the treaty which terminated the war between Norway 
and Sweden was signed on 14th Aug. 1814. Opposite Moss, on 
the "W. bank of the fjord, is — 

8 M. (52 Kil.) Horten (two hotels), or Karl-Johansvcern, with 
6000 inhab., prettily situated, the headquarters of the Norwegian 
fleet. The rich vegetation of the upper part of the fjord is now 
left behind , and the coast becomes more bleak and rocky. A 
little to the S. of Horten lies Aasgaardstrand, beyond which is — 

10 M. (64 Kil.) Vail*, a small town with a large pasteboard- 
manufactory, where the larger coasting steamers touch frequently. 
We next pass through the Tensbergs Canal to T«nsberg(p. 32). — 
Beyond Tflnsberg our route passes the Nettere and Tjeme , to the 
S.E. of which rises the lofty Lille Fcsrder Lighthouse, which marks 
the entrance to the Christiania Fjord. The steamer then rounds the 
promontory of Tensbergs Tende, which has gained an unpleasant 
notoriety as the scene of numerous shipwecks , and passes the 
mouth of the Sandefjord, at the head of which lies the small town 
of Sandefjord (p. 32). 

17 M. (108 Kil.) Laurvik, see p. 33. The steamer then steers 
to the S. to Fredriksvwrn, at the mouth of the Laurvikfjord, with 
about 1200 inhab. and formerly the station of the Norwegian fleet. 
— Crossing the mouth of the Langesunds-Fjord, which is unpro- 
tected by islands, the steamer next stops at — 

19 M. (121 Kil.) Langesund (Johnsen's Inn, near the pier), 

to Christiunssand. LANGESUND. 5. Route. 39 

with 1100 inhab., which lies at the entrance to an important 
water-highway leading into the heart of Thelemarken. 

Fkom Langesund to Poksgrund and Skien, 29 Kil. (18 Engl. M.), 
steamboat daily in 3 hrs. — About Vu br. after leaving Langesund we 
reacb Brevik (Sti(msen , s Inn), a small town with 2300 inhab., charmingly 
situated at the S.E. extremity of the rocky peninsula that separates the 
Eidangerfjord from the Friersfjord. Opposite, to the S., lies the little 
town of Slathelle. Our route then traverses the Friersfjord to ( 3 /i hr.) 
Porsgrund (p. 33) and ascends the Skienselv to ( 3 /i hr.) Skien (p. 34). 

After leaving Langesund the course of the steamer is un- 
protected by islands for some distance. The smaller steamers then 
pass through the * Langesunds- Kreppa(i. e. 'strait), or Langaarsund, 
a very narrow channel between lofty and picturesque rocks , while 
the larger vessels steer through a wider passage inside the island 
of Jomfruland, on which stands a lighthouse. 

22M. (141 Kil.) Kragera {Central Hotel, 5 min. from the pier; 
Victoria, small, near the Central ; Oermania, prettily situated near 
the church, 10 min. from the pier), with 4800 inhab., a pictur- 
esquely situated and very busy little town. In the neighbouring 
island of Lange are iron-mines of some value, and uearKragere are 
extensive deposits of apatite, a mineral consisting chiefly of phos- 
phate of lime, largely used by manufacturers of artificial manures. 

Between Kragere and Riseerthe coast is unprotected by islands. 

24 M. (153 Kil.) 0ster-Ris«er (Thiis, at the pier, well spoken 
of; Busch, in the town, 10 min. from the pier, K.l'/4kr.,B.6O0.), 
with 2600 inhab., is another small trading town. The islands again 
become more numerous. Some of the steamers next touch at 
Boreen, an island 3M. from Riseer, and others at (28M.) Dyngecn 
ot Haven, about 1 M. farther, from which a small steamer runs 
frequently to Tvedestrand (1-1 ^ hr. ; see below). 

Beyond Haven , a prettily situated place , the steamer enters 
the Tromesund, a strait between the mainland and the considerable 
island of Trome, and soon enters the excellent harbour of — 

30 M. (191 Kil.) Arendal (*Hotel Schnurbusch, on the quay, 
R. li/2-2V2kr., D. 2 kr. 40, B.80 0. • Grand Hotel), a ship-build- 
ing and trading town of considerable importance (4100 inhab.), 
prettily situated near the mouth of the Nidelv, and possessing one 
of the largest commercial fleets in Norway. A small terrace planted 
with trees (follow the quay to the left of Schnurrbusch's, ascend 
a little, and mount steps to the left: 6 min.) affords an admirable 
*View. At the country-house of Tangen, belonging to Consul 
Kallevig, is a large magnolia, which blossoms every summer. 

One of the chief approaches to Thelemakken is by the road leading 
from Arendal via Tvedestrand (sec above) and Risland (49 Kil., 30 Engl. 31). 
to the Nisservand (comp. p. 35). Another road leads direct to Rustdnlen, 
whence we cross the Nelmigvand to Simonslad and proceed thence to Ris- 
land (40 Kil. or 25 Engl. M). 

Soon after leaving Arendal the steamer traverses the Galte- 
sund, between the Trome and the Hise, and passes the two light- 
houses known as Torungerne. The next stations are — 


33 M. Orimstad (Mailer's Hotel ; Nilsson's Hotel), with 1780 
inhab., and — 

35 M. (223 Kil.) Lillesand (Hotel Norge), with 1420 inhab. 
39 M. (249 Kil.) Christianssand (see below). 

6. Christianssand and Environs. 
The Ssetersdal. 

Hotels. "Ernst's Hotel, Vestre Strandgade, close to the steamboat- 
pier and the custom-house (German landlord), R. and L. 2 kr., R. 40 0., 
D. 2 kr. 20 0. ; 'Victoria Hotel, Skippergade, 3 min. from the quay, 
a good second class house, B. l'/2-2, D. 2 kr., B. 80 0. Skandinavia, 
Dronningensgade , small and unpretending. 

Boat to or from the steamboats , the larger of which do not lay to 
at (he pier, 13 0. for each person, 7 0. for each trunk. 

Porterage from the landing-place to the custom-house 20 0. for each 
trunk; from the custom-house, or from the landing-place, to one of the 
three hotels, 33 0. for each trunk. 

Post Office in the Kongensgade; Telegraph in the Strandgade, 5 min. 
from the hotels. 

Sea Baths adjoining the Otters, a small island at the E. end of the 
Strandgade (ferry 3 0.), reserved for ladies 10-12 a.m. (bath 40 0.). Warm 
and Shower Baths adjoining the public gardens, near the church (40-60 0.). 

Steamers to Christiania daily, to Stavanger and Bergen almost daily, 
to Throndhjem 4 times weekly, to Tromse 3 times, to Hammerfest twice, 
and to the North Cape, Varde, and Vadset once weekly. Also to Gothen- 
burg fortnightly, to Fredrikshavn in Denmark on Sun., Wed. and Fri. 
evenings, to Copenhagen weekly, to Hamburg twice weekly (on Sun. and 
Thurs.), to London fortnightly, to Hull weekly, to Leilh fortnightly and 
to Amsterdam. Small local steamers ply daily to Ronene and Boen on the 
Topdalselv, and to Mosby on the Otteraa. 

Christianssand, with 11,760 inhab., the largest town on the S. 
coast of Norway and the residence of a bishop, is beautifully situ- 
ated at the mouth of the Otteraa, or Torrisdalselv, on the Christians- 
sand Fjord, the prolongation of which , running inland towards 
the N., is called the Topdalsfjord. The town is named after 
Christian IV., by whom it was founded in 1641. It possesses an 
excellent harbour, at which all the coasting steamers and others 
from England, Germany, and Denmark touch regularly. The broad 
and regular streets with their low, timber-built houses present an 
exceedingly dull appearance , as the town is thinly peopled in 
proportion to its area. Almost every house, however, is gaily 
embellished with window-plants , on which the inmates usually 
bestow great care. The only buildings worthy of mention are the 
Cathedral, a handsome edifice of the 17th cent, (recently burned 
down), adjoining which is a small Park, the new Cathedral Skole, 
and the Ilank-Bygning. In the streets nearest the harbour and the 
hotels are several good shops. 

Environs. The situation of Christianssand is picturesque, and 
a day or two may be pleasantly devoted to excursions in the en- 
virons. One of the favourite walks (1 hr. there and back) is on the 
-Ottere, a rocky and partially wooded island at the E. end of the 
Strandgade, about 8 min. from the hotels (ferry 3 ».). The baths 


(p. 40) are reached by a path turning to the right a few paces 
from the terry. The path in a straight direction passes the Seamen's 
Hospital and leads round the whole island (40 mill.), commanding 
beautiful views of the town and fjord. — On the Mandal road, on 
the W. side of the town, i/ 4 hr. from the hotels , lies the pretty 
Cemetery. Immediately opposite to it (to the right) is a path 
ascending the hill and leading to the (10 min.) *Ravnedal, a wooded 
and grassy dale, from the upper end of which a path ascends to 
a small lake, crosses a bridge, and leads to the left to ('20 min.) 
a beautiful point of view, with benches (in the foreground the Tor- 
risdalselv, beyond it the Church of Odderiiies, then the Topdals- 
Fjord and the Christianssand-Fjord). A little beyond this point 
we descend a long flight of stone steps, pass a bath-house, and 
reach (15 min.) the large and well organized Lunatic Asylum 
(Sindssyge-Asyl), from which a good road leads to the bank of the 
river and (20 min.) Christianssand. — On the N. side of the town, 
at the mouth of the Otteraa ('/ 4 hr.), is the landing-stage of 
the small steamers which ply on that river. A rocky hill near 
it affords a good survey of the environs. At the mouth of the river, 
on the opposite bank, rises the church of Oddernces, to which a 
wooden bridge crosses. - — About 10 Kil. up the river is Mosby, to 
which the steamer plies daily in an hour; 10 Kil. farther to the N., 
near the Vcnnesland station, is the (iaard Viyland, near which are 
the Hundsfosse and the Helvedesfos , picturesque waterfalls , to 
which the traveller may drive from Christiansand in 2y 2 -3 hrs. — 
A steamer plies twice daily between Christiansand, lionene, and 
Boen on the Topdalselv, traversing the Topdalsfjord , a pleasant 
excursion of 2'/2-3 hrs., there and back. — A trip by boat may be 
taken to the (Iti Kil.) lighthouse on the Oxe. Farther to the .S.W. is 
the lighthouse of Ny-Hellesund, where L. von Buck, the celebrated 
German geologist, spent a considerable time in 1807, while waiting 
for a vessel to Denmark, which was then at war with England. 

From Chkistianssand to Kkeksund (200 Kil. or 124 Engl. M.J. A 
good, but hilly road, running near the coast, and crossing several fer- 
ries, leads from Christianssand to Ekersund, traversing beautiful scenery 
nearly the whole way. Almost all the stations on the route are 'fast', the 
most important being (44 Kil.) Mandal, (62 Kil.J Fedde, (59 Kil.) Eide, and 
(34 Kil.) JSkersund (p. 45), at each of which good accommodation is obtain- 
able, but the others are poor. The steamboats perform the voyage tn Eker- 
sund in 12-15 hrs., while the journey by land, which very few travellers 
undertake, occupies 3-4 days. If time permit, however, the traveller will 
be rewarded by driving at least as far as Jlandal (p. 44), where steamers 
bound for Stavanger and Bergen touch almost daily ; or he may continue 
his journey thence to (52 Kil.) Farsund (p. 45), where the steamers also call. 
The Saetersdal. A visit from Christianssand to the Swlersdal, a valley 
running to the N., 238 Kil. (148 Engl. M.) in length, watered by the Ot- 
teraa, abounding in picturesque scenery and quaint old dwelling-houses, 
and remarkable for the primitive character of the inhabitants, involves 
some privations and occupies 10-12 days (there and back). As most of the 
stations, exceedingly poor at all times, are almost deserted in the height 
of summer, when the inhabitants are engaged in pasturing their cattle 
among the mountains Cpaa Heja 1 ), the traveller should endeavour to 

42 Route 6. S^TERSDAL. 

visit the valley either before 24th June or after 15th August, between 
which dates it is difficult to obtain horses, guides, or even food. The 
journey as far as Breive is accomplished by Stolkjserre, by steamboat, 
and (the two last stages) on horseback or foot. Travellers bound for 
Bergen are recommended to proceed from Breive to the Suledal , Reldal 
(p. 30), and Odde (p. 65) on the Hardanger Fjord; while those bound 
for Kongsberg or Christiania leave the Scetersdal at Valle and traverse 
the interesting lake-district of Thelemarken (RR. 2, 3, 4). — Visitors to the 
Ssetersdal should travel with the smallest possible quantity of luggage, 
and had better be provided with a moderate fupply of preserved meat, 
biscuits, and brandy. Carrioles may be had at Christianssand, but at all 
the other stations the less comfortable Stolkjserre is used. Fast stations 
as far as Sogneskar: 17 0. per horse and car per kilometre. 

I. Day. Drive to (10 Kil.) Mosby (to which a steamer also plies on 
the Otteraa, p. 41), (17 Kil., pay for 22) Reiersdal, and (13 Kil., pay for 17) 
Kile, at the 8. end of the Kilefjord, where an "Inn is kept by the captain 
of the lake steamer. 

II. D.\Y. By steamer in 2 hrs. to Faret or Fennefos, at the N. end of 
the Kilefjord, which is 25 Kil. in length. Drive to (12 Kil.) Guldsmedmoen 
or Senum, at the S. end of the Byglandsfjord, a lake about 40 Kil. long, 
consisting of two parts, separated by a short river (the Olteraa), with 
locks to facilitate navigation. The lower lake, sometimes called the Aar- 
dalsvand, extends as far as (28 Kil.) Slremmen, about 6 Kil. above Nees; 
the upper, beyond the locks, 14 Kil. long, terminates a little below Ose. 
If the stale of the water permits, small steamers ply 4-5 times weekly 
between Scnum and Ose (in 4 hrs.), but passengers are sometimes landed 
at Nces (2 hrs.). The traveller may therefore have to drive from Nses to 
(17 Kil.) Ose; or, if the steamer does not suit, the whole way from Senum 
to (42 Kil.) Ose; or possibly the whole way from Kile to (G3 Kil.) Ose, 
near the church of ffieslad. Gunnar Drengsen's quaint old house at Ose 
affords good quarters (small collection of national costumes, etc.). 

III. Day. Drive to (20 Kil.) Helle i Hyllestad (tolerable quarters), 
from which a fatiguing mountain-track leads to the (79 Kil.) Lysefjord 
(p. 48), near Stavanger (2 days; guide desirable, 12-14 kr.). Drive from 
Helle to (20 Kil.) Sogneskar i Valle (a fair station), situated in the heart 
of the Ssetersdal. The bottom of the valley is tolerably well cultivated, 
but the surrounding hills are extremely barren. The Gaard Riget, ad- 
joining the church, contains an interesting collection of antiquities. Be- 
fore reaching Aakre, a little farther on, it is worth while descending to 
the river to inspect the curious Jwtlegryder, or 'giant cauldrons', 6-8 ft. 
deep, which have been formed by the action of the water. On the op- 
posite bank lies Omlid, whence a mountain-track, soon uniting with that 
from Hyllestad, leads to the Lysefjord (79 Kil.; 2 days; guide advisable, 
12-14 kr.). — From Aakre a rough bridle-path, called the Bispevei, leads 
to the E. to (9-10 hrs.) the road between Moland on the Fyrisvand, about 
11 Kil. to the S., and Veum, a hamlet 11 Kil. to the N., a little beyond 
which is the Haugene station (comp. p. 36; horse and man from Aakre 
to Veum about 14 kr.). — Beyond Aakre the Ssetersdal road narrows 
to a* bridle-path. Sogneskar, as already mentioned, is the last fast station. 

IV. Day. Ride or walk from Sogneskar to (17 Kil.) Bjemeraa, and 
shence to (6 Kil.) Trydal and (5 Kil.) Bykle (accommodation at Ole Deng- 
t0n's) by a good new road. The "Byklesli, a dangerous-looking path skirt- 
ing a precipice overhanging the river, formerly afforded the only means 
of communication between Valle and the 'Annexkirke' of Bykle. The 
Byklevand, a small lake, is crossed by boat at the end of this stage. 

V. Day. Ride or walk about 37 Kil., and then row up the Hartevand, 
a lake 8 Kil. long, to Breive or Breidvik, at the head of the Ssetersdal, a 
lonely gaard , picturesquely situated, and affording rough , but tolerable 
accommodation . 

The traveller may proceed from Breive in one day to Moen or to Mule i 
Vinje in Thelemarken (p. 28). — Or, leaving Breive at a very early hour, he 
may cross the imposing Meienfjeld (4000 ft.) to Jordbrcekke in the Suledal, 
about 34 Kil., and thence go on to Roaldkvam on the Suledalsvand, 6 Kil. 

S^TERSDAL. 6. Route. 43 

farther, a rough and fatiguing walk or ride of 10-12 hrs. (comp. p. 49). 
— The traveller may now proceed direct to the Hardanger Fjord thus: 
row to Gautetun or A«s (about 6 Kil.), on the N. bank of the Suledals- 
vand, a very picturesque lake, 28 Kil. long (p. 49); ride or walk thence to 
(22 Kil.) Botkn on the Eeldalsvand , and row to (7 Kil.) Horre (1 pers. 
1 kr. 40, 2 pers. 2 kr. 20, 3 pers. 2 kr. 80 it., 4 pers. 3 kr.) or to (10 Kil.) 
Reldal, whence the journey to (46 Kil.) Odde is easily accomplished in a 
day (see p. 31). — Those bound for Stavanger row to (17 Kil.) Vaage, on 
the N. bank of the Suledalsvand , walk or ride by a very picturesque 
path to (6 Kil.) Hylen on the Ilylsfjord (steamer to Stavanger in 6'/'2 hrs., 
see p. 49) , and proceed thence by water to (22 Kil.) Sand (steamer 
to Stavanger weekly in 5 hrs.); or they may row from Roaldkvam to 
Fiskekjen or Moen, at the S.W. end of the lake, passing through a 
picturesque strait known as 'Porten', and drive thence to (12 Kil.) Fos 
and (11 Kil.) Sand (see p. 49). — The Suledalsvand is well worthy of 
a visit, and the walk from Vaage to Hylen. or the drive from Moen to 
Sand, is picturesque (comp. p. 49) ; but most travellers will find it more 
convenient to proceed from Nses northwards to Odde, where a steamboat 
touches three times weekly. 

7. From Christianssand to Stavanger. 

Excursions from Stavanger. 

32 M. (205 Kil. or 127 Engl. M.). Steamboats , of different companies, 
daily in 18-20 hrs. (fares 28 kr. 40, 21 kr. 30 n.; to Bergen, 36 kr. 80, 
27 kr. 60 0.). As the voyage is often very rough, particularly the latter 
part, from Ekersund to Stavanger, many travellers prefer taking their 
passage to Ekersund only (12 hrs. from Christianssand), and proceeding 
thence to Stavanger by railway. Passengers with through-tickets to Bergen 
or elsewhere may also land at Ekersund, take the train to Stavanger, and 
there rejoin the steamboat, on board of which they may leave their 
luggage. In this case they are entitled to repayment of the steamboat- 
fare between these two stations. If the traveller does not intend mak- 
ing any stay at Stavanger, he should of course enquire if one of the trains 
from Ekersund starts soon enough to enable him to over-take the steamer. 

Railway from Ekeksund to Stavanger (76 Kil., or 47 Engl. 31.) in 
3'/4 hrs. 20 min. (fares 4 kr., 2 kr. 20 0. ; no third class). Two trains 
daily. Special trains may be ordered. — As the carriages are not pro- 
vided with spring-buffers , passengers often experience a series of un- 
pleasant shocks at starting and drawing up. This is a narrow-gauge 
line, the rails being only 3 ! /a ft. apart. 

The voyage from Christianssand to Stavanger. by the Large 
Steamers presents comparatively few attractions, as the coast is 
very imperfectly seen from the steamboat, but the entrance to the 
Flekkefjord and some other points are very imposing. The vessel's 
course is at places protected by islands (Skjcer), but is often en- 
tirely without such shelter, particularly between Ekersund and 
Stavanger, a voyage of 5-6 hrs., where the water is rarely quite 
smooth. The small Local Steamkks are of course much slower 
and call at a great many unimportant stations , but they afford a 
good view of the curious and interesting formations of the coast. 
The coast-line is broken by numerous valleys descending from the 
'OplaruT and terminating in long and deep fjords. These valleys 
are usually watered by rivers which frequently expand into lakes, 
and they afford a means of communication between the Kystfolk, 
or dwellers on the coast , and the Oplandsfolk , who differ widely 
from their seafaring and trading countrymen in character, dialect, 

44 Route 7. MANDAL. From Christianssand 

and costume. As most of these valleys, all the way from Ohristiania 
to Stavanger, radiate from the mountains in the interior of the 
country as a common centre , it is to them that the fanciful 
resemblance of Norway to a pancake with split edges most aptly 
applies. At the head of these valleys , which seldom offer any 
attraction to the tourist, and barely even the necessaries of life, 
lie huge tracts of barren mountains , spreading out into vast 
and rarely trodden table -lands (Fjeldvidder) , and very rarely 
culminating in peaks or distinct summits. The bare rock-scenery 
of the coast is enlivened by a few unimportant fishing and trading 
towns nestling in the recesses of the fjords, and by an occasional 
forge for the smelting of ore brought down from the interior. One 
of the principal branches of trade is the export of mackerel and 
lobsters to England. The former are packed in ice, while the 
latter arc put alive into tanks (Brende) in the vessels constructed 
for the purpose, to which the sea-water has free access. If the 
sea is moderately rough the lobsters rise and fall with the motion 
of the vessel, and arrive in good condition ; but if it is too smooth 
they sink to the bottom of the tank and crush each other to death. 
Another native product of considerable value consists of the nu- 
merous plovers' (Vibe) eggs found on the moors and sandhills of 
Jnderen, near Ekersund. ■ — As mentioned in the preceding route, 
the journey from Christianssand to Ekersund and Stavanger may 
be performed by land the whole way, and the scenery is exceed- 
ingly fine at many places ; but most travellers will And the steam- 
boat more convenient. ■ — The first steamboat-station (reckoning 
in sea-miles from Christianssand) is — 

5 M. (32 Kil.) Mandal (Olseris Hotel, Natviy's), the southernmost 
town in Norway, with 4000inhab., consisting of Mandal, Malmd, 
and Kleven, and situated partly on rocky islands. As the harbour 
is situated at the last of these places , the station is frequently 
called Klevene (the cliffs'). The Mandalselv, which falls into the 
fjord here, descends through a valley parallel to the Satersdal and 
through several lakes from the Aaseral, the upper part of the valley, 
37 Engl. M. distant, a district inhabited by a very primitive pastoral 
people. In summer they migrate to the neighbouring mountains 
(tilfjelds or Ulheis ; Heia signifying mountain-pasture), where they 
spend several months in their miserably poor Falceger, and are not 
unfrequently attacked by bears. To the W. of the valley of the 
Mandalselv are the parallel Undal and Lyngdal valleys. 

Beyond Mandal the steamer passes the mouth of the Undalselv 
and the conspicuous lighthouse on Cape Lindesnses (formerly Lin- 
dandisnas, Engl. Naze, Dutch Ter Neuze~), 160 ft. in height. The 
part of Norway to the E. of an imaginary line drawn from Cape 
Lindesnjes to the peninsula of Stadt (p. 169) is called Sendenfjeldske 
or 0stenfjeldske Norge, that to the W. Vestenfjeldske Norge. The 
promontory is united with the mainland by the low Spangereid. 

to Stavanger. EKERSUND. 7. Route.. 45 

11 M. (70 Kil.) Farsund (Jahnsen's Hotel), a small seaport 
with 1500 inhab., situated near the mouth of a fjord running in- 
land in three long ramifications, into the easternmost of which falls 
the Lyngdalselv. — Having now passed the southernmost part of 
the Norwegian coast, extending from Christianssand to Farssund, 
the steamboat steers towards theN., skirting the district of Lister, 
with its light-house, passes the mouth of the Feddefjord on the 
right, and enters the Flekkefjord, at the head of which lies — 

16 M. (102 Kil.) Flekkefjord (Wahl's Hotel), a prettily situated 
seaport with 1700 inhab. and a sheltered harbour. To the S.E. lies 
(7!/2 Engl. M.) Fedde (p. 41) on the fjord of that name, into which 
the Kvinesdal descends from the N.E., and to the N. runs the Sire- 
dal, with the Siredalsvand, a lake 17 Engl. M. long, the outlet of 
which falls into the Lundevand, a long lake to the W. of the Flek- 
kefjord. — A little beyond the mouth of the Lundevand, from which 
the Sira empties itself into the sea in the form of a cascade, is — 

17 M. (108 Kil.) Boegefjord, the station for Sogndal (Sluhoug's 
Hotel), about 3 Engl. M. inland , in the neighbourhood of which 
are several iron-mines. 

19 M. (121 Kil.) Ekersund, or Egersund (*Ellingseris Hotel, on 
the right, 4 min. from the pier and 8 min. from the railway- 
station, unpretending, R. 1, D. 2 kr. ; *Jaderen, kept by Daniel- 
son, a similar house , in the market near the station , also on the 
right; Salvesen'sHot., also good), a town with 2400 inhab. and a 
porcelain factory , lies in a singularly bleak and rocky region , at 
the S. end of Jmderen, the flat coast-district extending between 
this point and Stavanger. An excellent survey of the environs is 
obtained from the rocky hill at the back of Ellingsen : s Inn, with 
a pole on the summit, reached in 25 min. by traversing a narrow 
street opposite the railway-station, and ascending to the right 
past the cemetery and a farm-house. To the N. stretches Jtfderen, 
almost the only extensive coast-plain in Norway, partially cultivat- 
ed, but chiefly consisting of moor and sand-hills, where plovers 
eggs are found in great quantities, and intersected with a net- 
work of rocky dykes which were probably formed by glacier-action. 
The railway - station is on the N. side of the town, 12 min. from 
the quay. 

The Railway prom Ekersund to Stavanger (see p. 43), which 
traverses this coast-plain, presents little attraction , the scenery 
being very dreary as far as Sandnces , but is preferable to the 
steamboat if the traveller is liable to sea-sickness. The chief 
stations are (38 Kil.) Narbe, (62 Kil.) Sandnces, prettily situated 
at the head of the Stavanger Fjord (comp. the Map), and (77 Kil. ) 

The Steamboat on leaving Ekersund passes the, a large 
island protecting the harbour , with a lofty lighthouse , and the 
picturesque Viberudde , a promontory with another lighthouse. 

46 Route 7. STAVAMiKK. 

The coast is flat and dreary, and the water generally rough owing 
to the strong currents and violent gales by which it is frequently 
agitated. The Skjaergaard , or belt of islands , now disappears for 
about 30 Engl. M. The steamer steers towards the N., passing the 
JccderensRev ('reef), a sandy promontory forming the westernmost 
point of Jaederen, and the mouth of the Hafrsfjord, where Harald 
Haarfagre ('fair hair') gained a decisive naval victory in 872, 
which gave him the sovereignty of the whole country, and which 
released him from a vow, taken ten years previously, not to cut 
his hair until he should be king of all Norway. A little farther on, 
the vessel turns to the E., traverses a branch of the Bukkenfjord, 
and passes the Tungences, a promontory with a lighthouse, forming 
the N. extremity of the peninsula in which Jcederen terminates. It 
then steers towards the S . E . , and soon reaches the town of Stavanger 

32 M. (206 Kil.) Stavanger (* Jespersen s Hotel; Scandinavie; 
Nielsen, small. British viceconsul, Mr. H. W. S. Hansen; Ameri- 
can, Mr. T. 8. Falck; Nymann's sea-baths), an important com- 
mercial town, with 20,300 inhab., picturesquely situated on a 
branch of the Bukkenfjord, possesses two harbours, Vaagen, fac- 
ing the N.W., and 0stervaagen, a smaller bay separated from 
the other by a peninsula called Holmen, on which rises Val- 
bjerget, an eminence commanding a fine view. The town is one of 
the most ancient in Norway , dating from the 8th or 9th century, 
but as it has suffered very frequently from fires it now presents 
quite a modern appearance. Many of the houses are now built of 
stone. At the upper end of the Vaag lies the Torv or market- 
place , beyond which rises the Cathedral, and near the 0stervaag 
is the modern Petrikirke. Fish is the staple commodity of the 
place, and the herrings, which for a time had almost entirely de- 
serted this part of the coast, have of late re-appeared. 

The * Cathedral, the most interesting building in Stavanger, 
and the finest church in Norway after the cathedral of Throndhjem, 
was founded by Bishop Reinald , an English prelate, at the end of 
the 11th cent, and dedicated to St. Swithin (Suetonius , Bishop of 
Winchester, d. 862). It is about 250 ft. in length , and 70 ft. in 
width. In 1272 the church was burned down, but it was soon after- 
wards rebuilt in the Gothic style. After the Reformation it was 
sadly disfigured by alterations, but since 1866 it has been restored 
as far as possible to its original condition. The nave is separated 
from the aisles by massive pillars of early Norman or Byzantine 
character, which belong apparently to the original edifice. The 
handsome Gothic Choir, which adjoins the nave without the inter- 
vention of a transept, probably dates from the 13th century. The 
choir is flanked with four towers, two at the E. end, and two 
smaller ones at the W. end, and terminates in a large and effective 
E. Window . The great Tower of the W. facade of the church is in 
ruins. On each side of the chuTch are two handsome Portals, one 

STAVANGER. 7. Route. 47 

entering 'the aisle , and another the choir. The Pulpit (Prcsdi- 
kestol) of the 11th cent, and the ancient Font (Debefont) are also 
worthy of inspection. — The Munkekirke, a kind of chapel adjoining 
the cathedral , is now a school. The neighbouring Kongsgaard, 
once the residence of the bishop , whose seat was transferred to 
Christiansand at the end of the 17th cent., is now occupied by the 
Latinskole, with a handsome old Chapel. On the banks of the 
adjacent Bredvand, a small lake, are pleasant promenades. 

To the N. of the cathedral are the Brandvagt, formerly the 
Marienkirke, and the Sparbank, or savings-bank, the building of 
which contains the picture-gallery of the Kunstforening (open 
Wed. and Sun., 11-1). In the opposite direction, about 7 min. 
from the cathedral, is the Railway Station. — Ascending the Peders- 
bakke, we may next glance at the modern Petrikirke, and crossing 
the Nytorv , visit the Spilderhaug Docks , beyond which lies the 
Hetlandsmark with the Vor Fruekirke. 

A beautiful Walk may be taken to the Belvedere Tower (Vdsigt- 
staarn) on Vaalandspiben, to the S.W., and another to the L'llen- 
hauge, farther to the "W. , at the foot of which are a famous Fish- 
breeding Establishment (Fiskeudklaknings- Apparater ; trifling fee 
for admission) and Hanson's Willow Plantation (Pileplantning). 
The road to the Paradies, a pretty private garden , affords a good 
view of the harbour. 

An interesting Excursion may be taken to Sole , a village on 
theW. coast of Jaederen, about8Engl. M. to theS.W., witharuined 
church, where the peculiar character of this coast may be inspected. 
We may then return by the E. bank of the Hafrsfjord (p. 46), cross 
from Oaard Meling to Malde, and regain the town by another road. 

Excursions from Stavanger. 

Stavanger is the commercial centre of the district of Ryfylke and the 
numerous islands of the extensive Bukkenfjord, which is bounded on the 
W. by the Karme, and on the N. by the long peninsula of which Ilauge- 
sund forms the westernmost point. The name Bukkenfjord applies to the 
more open part in the centre of the bay, the chief ramifications of which 
are the Stavanger or Gans Fjord , the Helefjord , and the Lysefjo rd on 
the S., the Hjesenfjord on the E., and the Sandsfjord (dividing into the 
Ilylsfjord and Saudefjovd) , the Sandeidfjord (with its ramifications the 
Vindefjord and Yrkefjord), and the Orindefjord on the N. — Most of these 
fjords are in the form of narrow ravines several miles in length, bounded 
by the lofty and precipitous mountains rising abruptly from the water, 
at the foot of which lie deposits of debris at rare intervals, affording but 
scanty space for the dwellings of the sparse population of the district. 
At places , however , the banks are of a flatter character and well culti- 
vated, presenting a smiling and picturesque contrast to the forest with 
which the lower slopes are generally clothed, and to the frowning rocks 
and glistening snow of the higher mountains in the background. The 
scenery of several of these fjords vies with the finest parts of the Har- 
danger Fjord, but is less accessible and therefore less frequently visited 
by travellers. The magnificent Lysefjorc[ (see below) is unfortunately sel- 
dom accessible except by rowing-boat, but the Sandsfjord , with its pic- 
turesque ramifications, and the Sandeid/jord are regularly visited by 
steamers from Stavanger (see below). 

48 Route 7. LYSEFJORD. Excursions 

Steamboats. An outline of the present arrangements will give the 
traveller a general idea of the principal routes, but no plan can be finally 
settled until the most recent 'Communicationer' have been carefully con- 

To Sand (p. 49) on the Sandsfjokd on Monday (10 a.m.), Wednesday 
(6 a.m.), Thursday (7 a.m.), Friday (2 p.m.) and Saturday (2 p.m.); theMon., 
Wed., Fri. and Sat. boats go on to fiaude on the Saudefjord , whence 
they start for Stavanger, via Sand, the same day or the following morn- 
ing according as they are morning or afternoon boats from Stavanger. 
The Thurs. boat goes on from Sand to Hylen on the IlyUfjord and 
returns to Stavanger on the same day. These boats touch at Jelm or 
Jcelte (p. 49), both in going and returning. 

To Sandf.ii> on the Sandk.iofjord on Monday (6 a.m.), Wednesday 
(0.30 a.m.) and Thursday (11.30 a.m.); theMon. and Wed. boats return the 
same day, the other on Friday morning, the two first touching at Jelse 
(Jwl.10) on the way back, the last on the way out only. 

Travellers may proceed direct from Sand (or Hylen , see above) to 
Sandeid by changing boats at Ncer&trand on Thursday afternoon ; in the 
reverse direction they may proceed direct from Sandeid to Sand and 
Saude by changing boats at Ngerstrand on Monday afternoon. 

The steamers to Bergen (p. 50) merely cross the Bukkenfjord without 
penetrating into any of its recesses. 

A. The Lysefjord. 

An excursion from Stavanger to the Lysefjord, the grandest 
fjord on the S.W. coast of Norway, occupies 2-3 days, and is 
attended with some fatigue and privation , unless, as sometimes 
happens , an excursion steamer runs from Stavanger to Lyse and 
back in one day. There are no good inns or stations on the route, 
and the row up the fjord and back takes 7-.S hrs. each way. 

A small steamer sometimes plies between Stavanger and H«le 
on the HeUfjord (a steam of 2 hrs.); or the traveller may take the 
train to Siindnas (p. 45 ; '/'i nT 0i and drive thence to ('28 Kil.) 
Hele (3-4 hrs.), where tolerable quarters may be procured. Here 
we hire a boat with two or more rowers (15-20 kr. for the whole 
excursion) and cross the Halefjorrt to (6 Kil.) Gjasc. or Fossun, 
at the entrance to the LysefjoTd, on the S. side, where we may 
visit a large moraine which led Esimirk, a Norwegian savant, about 
the year 1S21 , to the conjecture that the whole country was once 
covered with glaciers. (See Forbes's Norway, Edin.; 1853 ; p. 239.) 
We then enter the *Lysefjord, a wild and almost deserted arm of the 
sea, 700-2000 yds. in width, 23 Engl. M. long, and at places 1400 ft. 
in depth, and enclosed by precipitous rocky mountains upwards of 
3000 ft. high. At the head of the fjord lies the hamlet of Lyse 
(poor quarters), surrounded by imposing rocks, a little to the N. of 
which rises the Lysekam (4500 ft.). A curious and unexplained 
phenomenon is sometimes observed here. A crashing noise like 
thunder is heard, immediately after which a gleam of light flashes 
horizontally over the surface of the fjord , disappearing halfway 
across. The noise and light are believed to proceed from a kind 
of cavern in the face of the rock about 2000 ft. above the fjord, 
and inaccessible except by means of ropes from the top of the 

i mm i 

from Stavanger. SANDSFJORD. 7. Route. 49 

mountain. A similar phenomenon is said to have been observed 
on the Trvlgjel near Gaarden Molaup on the Jerundfjord (p. 175). 
(See Vibes 'Meer und Kiisten Norwegens', Gotha, 1860.) 

From Lyse to Helle in the Ssetersdal, a very rough and fatiguing walk 
of two days, see p. 41. 

B. The Sandsfjord, Hylsfjord, and Saudefjord. 

As above mentioned, Ave steamers weekly run from Stavanger 
to Sund on the Sandsfjord, four of which go weekly to Saude, the 
other to Hylen. Some of these vessels touch at the islands Talje, 
Finde ( where several of the inhabitants of Stavanger possess plea- 
sant villas), and Stjcernere , and at Nttrstrand at the mouth of 
the Sandeidfjord (p. 150); while others call at Tau (15Kil. to the 
N.E. of Stavanger; path thence past the Bjereimvand and the 
Tysdalsvand to Bergeland in the Aurdal; 6 Kil. above llergelaud 
is the picturesque Hjaafos), Fitter, and Hjelmeland on the main- 
land. Between Tau and Fister opens to the right the Aardalsfjord, 
which is visited by the Tuesday boat from Sand to Stavanger. 
Hjelmeland lies at the mouth of the Hjesenfjvrd, a long inlet 
somewhat resembling the Lysefjord in character. From the head 
of that fjord a rough and fatiguing route crosses the mountains 
in '2 days to Voile in the Ssetersdal (p. 42). 

Most steamers touch at Jsels« or Jelse (Inn) on the mainland 
(S'/^hre. from Stavanger), at the mouth of the Sandsfjord, a village 
of some importance, with a church and an excellent harbour, where 
the large coasting steamers also touch. We now enter the Sands- 
fjord, and in I1/2 hr. more reach — 

Sand (* Andersen's Inn, unpretending^, at the mouth of the 
Logen-Elv, which descends from the Suledalsvand, 11 Kil. distant. 

The 'Suledalsvand, a most picturesque lake, 30 Kil. long, enclosed 
liy imposing mountains, is well worthy of a visit. A good road leads 
from Sand to (10 Kil.) Fos and (12 Kil.) Fiskekjen or Mo, at the S.W. end 
of the lake. Taking a boat there, we row up the lake, passing (after 
6 Kil.) through * Porten, a grand and narrow defile, to Vaage, about 15 Kil. 
from Mo. About 12 Kil. farther to the N., also on the W. bank of the 
Suledalsvand, lies Na's or Gautetun, whence a bridle-path leads to (5 hrs.) 
Botten on the Reldatsvand (p. 29). A new road from Na?s to Botten, ascend- 
ing the picturesque valley of the Store Elv, is now in progress. Room for 
it has been made at places by blasting the rock. 

The route from Stavanger to the Hardanger via the Suledalsvand, 
Nres , and Rcfldal has deservedly come into much favour during the last 
few years. Heavy luggage may be sent from Stavanger to Odde, or to 
Bergen, by direct steamer. Guide across the Rtfldalfjeld desirable (Samson 
Fricsen Fiskekjen of Suledal may be recommended; from Sand to R0ldal 7, 
to Odde 10 kr.). — At the head of the Suledalsvand , 3 Kil. from Nas, 
lies Roaldkvam (tolerable quarters), whence Breive in the Ssetersdal (p. 42) 
or Gryting in the R#ldal (p. 30) may be reached in one day. 

The steamer, mentioned at p. 48, goes on from Sand into the 
Hylsfjord, an eastern ramification of the Sandsfjord, reaching Hylen 
at the head of the fjord in li/ 2 hr. more (6 4 /2 hrs. from Stavanger). 

From Hylen to Vaage on the Suledalsvand (see above), a very pictur- 
esque walk of l'/2-2 hrs., crossing the lofty Ilylsskar, where we stand 

Baede'"-"'' w "~ -* ° — * — "-' '•"it. 4 

50 Route 7. SANDEIDFJORD. 

on a narrow ridge, a lew feet only in width, and enjoy a magnificent 
view of the lake below. 

The *Saudefjord, or Sevdefjord, the N. arm of the Sandsfjord, 
vies with the Suledalsvand in grandeur. Saude or Sevde (poor 
quarters), at the head of the fjord, is reached by the steamer 
(p. 48) in IV4 hr. from Sand (G l / t hrs. from Stavanger). A path 
leads hence to Eskeoik on the Reldalsvand (p. 31), to the N. of 
Botten, in 10-12 hrs. ; and another, diverging from the first, and 
somewhat longer, leads through the Slettedal to a point on the 
Hardanger road about 5 Kil. to the N. of Horre (p. 31). 

C. The Sandeidfjord. 

The steamers from Stavanger to the Sandeidfjord, like those to 
the Sandsfjord, take different routes, both in going and returning. 
At the mouth of the Sandeidfjord, on the left, lies Narstrand, 
where travellers desirous of proceeding direct from Saude to San- 
deid (or vice versa) change boats (p. 48). Beyond Nserstrand the 
steamer soon reaches the point where this fjord, running N. and 
S., is intersected by the Yrkefjord to the W. and the Vindefjord 
to the E., forming a complete cross, and recalling the form of the 
Lake of Lucerne. On the right, near the mouth of the Vindefjord, 
is Vikedal, a pretty place with thriving farm-houses, beyond which 
we soon reach Sandeid [Fru Meidell's Inn, well spoken of), pleas- 
antly situated at the head of the fjord (6'/2-9V2 hrs. from Sta- 
vanger, according to the route taken by the steamer). 

Travellers bound for the Hardanger should drive from Sandeid across 
the 'Eid', or neck of land which separates the Sandeidfjord from the 
Hardanger, to (8 Kil.) 0len (p. 52), where steamers touch thrice weekly. 

8. From Stavanger to Bergen. 

21 M. (135 Kil. or 84 Engl. M.). From Stavanger to Bergen there are 
usually eleven steamers weekly, live being vessels of considerable size 
from Christiania, and one from Hamburg, bound for Bergen or more 
distant places, while five smaller steamers ply weekly between Stavanger 
and Bergen only. The larger boats touch at Haugesund only , beyond 
which they proceed direct to Bergen, either passing between the Bemmele 
and the Storde, or between the latter and the Tysnccse. The outer islands 
are mostly bare and rocky, and of moderate height. The voyage by the 
direct steamers takes 8'/2-12, by the local boats 12-15 hours. One of the 
latter touches at Nashavn on the W. coast of the Tysncese; the others 
pursue the more interesting course via Tereen (p. 53). 

Nearly the whole voyage by all these steamers is in smooth water, 
their course being protected by islands , except for a short distance 
between Stavanger and Kopervik, and between Haugesund and Lange- 
vaag. The steamers are comfortably fitted up, but the sleeping accom- 
modation is always very limited. Breakfast or supper is provided for 
l-l'/2 kr., dinner for 2-2'/2 kr. ; steward's fee about 50 0. per day. By 
water Bergen is about 2l Norwegian sea-miles (84 Engl. M.) from Sta- 
vanger, but the course taken by the steamers is considerably longer. The 
miles given at the beginning of the paragraphs in the following route, 
are the direct distances from the starting-point of the route (Stavanger). 
The distances between the most important stations are also mentioned. 
— Lastly , it may be mentioned , that , as the fine scenery of the Har- 

HAUGESUND. 8. Route. 5 1 

danger (It. 9), dues not begin till Hertfen and Terpen are approached, the 
traveller loses little by going thus far at night. 

The navigation of these western fjords of Norway, with their 
innumerable rocky islands, winding channels, promontories, and 
sunken rocks , is exceedingly intricate , often demanding the ut- 
most attention of the captains and pilots, whose skill the traveller 
will have occasion to admire. Most of the captains speak English, 
sometimes German also, and they are usually very obliging. — Nu- 
merous lighthouses (Fyr) on both sides of the steamer's course are 
passed between Stavanger and Langevaag, to the N. of Haugesund. 

On leaving Stavanger the vessel steers towards the N.W. ; on 
the left are the Duse-Fyr and Tungenas-Fyr on the Randeberg ; to 
the right the Hundvaagei , the Mostere with the ruined Ulsten- 
kloster, and beyond it the larger Rennese and other islands. On 
the left we next observe the lofty lighthouse on the Hvitingse, 
beyond which the open and unsheltered mouth of the Bukkenfjord 
is crossed (in about an hour). To the N.W. is the lighthouse of 
Falnces (Skudesnas). We next observe Skudesnteshavn, with its 
lighthouse, to the left, a small seaport (1300 inhab.) at the S. 
end of the Karme, to which a steamer runs from Stavanger twice 
weekly. The first station at which the steamers usually stop is 
Ferresvik, a village on the Bukkene. 

3 M. (19Kil.) Kopervik, or Kobbervik (Inn), with 850 inhab., 
is one of the largest villages on the Karme, a large and populous 
island, to which the herring-ftshery is a source of much gain. The 
island is nearly flat , and tolerably well cultivated at places, but 
consists chiefly of moor, marsh, and poor pasture-land, and is almost 
entirely destitute of trees. It contains numerous barrows, or 
ancient burial-places, especially near the N. end, some of which 
have yielded relics of great antiquarian value. The climate, which 
is cool in summer and mild and humid in winter, is exceptionally 
healthy, the average annual death-rate being only 12 per thousand. 
— About 12 Engl. M. to the W. of the Karme lies the small and 
solitary island of Utsire , with a chapel and a lighthouse. 

The steamer soon enters the Karmsund, the strait separating 
the island from the mainland. On the left, about 4 Engl. M. 
beyond Kopervik , is the old church of Augvaldsnces , adjoining 
which, and inclined towards it, is an old 'Bautastein', 25 ft. in 
height, known as ■Jomfru Marias SynaaV (the Virgin Mary's Needle). 
Tradition says that when this pillar falls against the church the world 
will come to an end. To the N. of this point, on the opposite side of 
the 'Sund', are live similar stones, popularly called the ' Five Foolish 
Virgins'. At the end of the Karmsund, on the mainland, lies — 

5 M. (32 Kil.) Haugesund (Jonassen's Hotel; Olseris), locally 
known as Karmsund, with 4400 inhab., a place of no interest, 
except as the supposed burial-place of Harald Haarfagre (d.933), 
whose original tombstone is still pointed out. On this spot , the 

52 Route 8. LERVIK. From Stavanger 

Haraldsliauy , a mound of earth a little to the N. of the town, rises 
an Obelisk of red granite , 45 ft. in height , on a square pedestal, 
around which are placed a number of stones, 9 ft. in height, called 
the Fylkestene , representing the Fylker, or districts into which 
Norway was formerly divided. This monument, called the Haralds- 
Stette, was inaugurated in 1872, on the thousandth anniversary of 
Harald's victory on the Hafrsfjord, in consequence of which the 
whole of the Fylker were united under his sceptre. — A road leads 
from Haugesund to the E. to (48 Kil.) 0len (see below). 

To the N. of Haugesund extends an unprotected part of the 
coast, called Slctten, nearly 3 M. (19 Kil.) in length. Near the 
N. end of this tract, about 1 hr. beyond Haugesund, is Lynghol- 
men, where some of the steamers stop, the first station in Bergens- 
Stift, or the province of Bergen, to the W. of which is the Ryvar- 
dens-Fyr on a rocky island. We now enter the Bernmelfjord , one 
of the narrow inlets of the Hardanger (p. 54), passing the Bemmele 
on the left, on which rises Siggen, a hill known as one of the 'towers' 
of Bergen. This district is called the Send-Horland , the natives 
of which are known as Serinyer. Picturesque mountains in the 
background. Some of the steamers next stop at Tjernagel, on the 
mainland, 2M. (12 Kil.) farther, others at Langevaag, on the Bem- 
niela, opposite. 

9 M. (58 Kil.) Mosterhavn, the next station, on the Mostere, 
boasts of a church built by Olaf Tryggvason (995-1000), the oldest 
in Norway. — From this point onwards, comp. the Map. 

11 M. (70 Kil.) Lervik, a station of some importance, where 
passengers to and from 01en-Fjsere (see below) change steamers. 
It lies at the S. end of the Storde, one of the largest of the is- 
lands at the entrance to the Hardanger. The well- wooded Halsene, 
an island to the E., contains part of the buildings of a Benedictine 
monastery, founded probably in 1164. Several barrows in the 

The Aalefjord, with Rekences and Vikevik, and the Skoneviksfjord, 
extends, and SE. of Lervik respectively and are visited by steamer only 
once or twice weekly. 

On the J0lenfjord , a branch of the Skoneviksfjord , lies .01en (-Inn, 
skyds-station), 8 Kil. from Sandeid {p. 50), and visited 4 times weekly by 
steamer. A steamer starts hence for Bergen (and for Stavanger ; change 
at Lervik) on Tues. and Fri. mornings. Another calls here on its way 
to Fjpere (see below) on Mon. morning, and on its way back to Vikevik 
(see above) on Thurs. afternoon. (This last steamer is of no importance 
to tourists.) — The Mon. and Thurs. steamers (see above) also touch at 
Etne, at the head of the Etne-Pollen, whence a mountain path leads direct 
to (50 Kil.) Seljestad (p. 31), a very fatiguing walk of 11-12 hrs. 

Eastwards from the Skoneviksfjord runs the Aakrefjord , with the 
steamboat stations Aakre and (at the head of the fjord) Fjaere (bad quar- 
ters). Hence a bridle-path (practicable for one-horse vehicles) crosses 
the mountains , amidst imposing scenery , via (2 hrs.) Rullestad (scanty 
accommodation) und Vmiertun, in 6-7 hrs. to (22 Kil.) Guard Jesendal, 
situated between Seljestad and Hildal en the road to Odde (see p. 31) ; 
a little beyond Vintertun a branch of the track descends to the right 
direct to Seljestad (p. 31; comp. the Map, p. 54). 

Gco^raph. Ton 




Wagner & Defies. Leipzig. 
g B -10 

gl. Miles. 

to Bergen. TERJ0EN. R. Route. 53 

Beyond Lervik the direct steamer traverses the Bemmel-Fjord 
and Kloster-Fjord, the latter named after the above-mentioned 
monastery on the Halsene. 

I2Y2M. (80 Kil.) Sunde, situated in the Husnces-Fjord, on the 
peninsula of Husnces. Travellers bound for the Hardanger Fjord 
have often to change steamers here (comp. p. 54). 

13!/ 2 M. (86 Kil.) Herein, a small island opposite Helvik, is an 
important station, as most of the steamers to the Hardanger, botli 
from Stavanger and from Bergen, as well as several of those plying 
between Stavanger and Bergen, touch here (see p. 54). The scenery 
now becomes more interesting ; the mountains are higher and less 
barren, and on every side the eye is met with a picturesque pro- 
fusion of rocks, islands, promontories, and wooded hills, enlivened 
with bright-looking little hamlets nestling in sheltered creeks. 

15 M. (96 Kil.) Terpen (Inn), a little island and village near 
the N. coast of the fjord, and to the E. of the large Tysncese , is 
a very important station , six steamers running thence weekly to 
Bergen, four into the Hardanger, and two to Stavanger. Travellers 
have often to change boats here. The scenery is remarkably fine 
here , especially as the snowy summit of the Folgefond (p. 54) 
is now visible towards theE. — Near this point we quit the S»nd- 
Horland , the island and coast district hitherto skirted, and enter 
the Nord-Horland, and it is here that the Hardanger Fjord strictly 
speaking begins. 

Beyond Terpen, which is reached in 9-10 hrs., the steamer 
passes through the Loksund , a very narrow strait between the 
mainland and the Tysncese. The next station, Einingeviken, lies 
on the Tysnaese, at the N. end of the strait; beyond which is 
Oodesund , on a small island to the N. of the Tysnsesfl. The 
Bjemefjord is next traversed. To the N. lies the pleasant-looking 
Os. The steamer passes Lepse (to the right) and proceeds through 
the narrow Krogene and the Korsfjord. To the right is the Lyse- 
fjord, on the W. bank of which lies the ruined convent of Lyse. 
Farther on we pass the peninsula of Korsnces. To the left, a little 
later, is the light-house of Marstenfyr, apparently rising directly 
from the sea. Then Bukken, a small island between the mainland 
and the Sartore. The scenery on this part 'of the voyage is less 
attractive than at the mouth of the Hardanger. Bergen comes in 
sight as the steamer rounds Kvarven, the N. spur of the Lyder- 
horn ; on the left (N.W.) rises the mountainous Aske (p. 7G). 
The first view of the town is very striking. 

21 M. (135 Kil.) Bergen, 4i/ 2 hrs. from Tewen, 81/2-15 hrs. 
from Stavanger, see R. 10. 


9. The Har danger Fjord. 

Comp. the Maps, p. 52 (Outer Hardangerfjord) and p. S4 (Inner Har- 
dangerfjord), which join at the dotted line on the lower (western) side of the 


From Slavanger to Odde on the Hardanger Fjord direct Steamboat 
('Folgefonden') once weekly, starting on Sun. evening and taking 27 hrs. 
to the passage. The traveller may also take the Bergen steamer from 
Stavanger (Thurs. morning), and disembark at IJereien, whence a steamer 
(from Bergen) plies to Eide and Odde in the afternoon. Other pleasant 
ways of making this trip are as follows: from Sandeid proceed to 01en 
(pp. 50,52), and thence by steamer to Ter0 (see above); or from Sand to 
Odde via, the Suledalsvand (p. 49). 

From Bergen to the Stavanger Fjord there are five Steamboats weekly. 
One starts on Sunday evening and calls at Sunde, where passengers spend 
3 hrs. and then proceed (Mon. morning) in a Stavanger steamer, arriving 
at Odde at 11 p.m. The others start on Tues. morning (passengers for 
Eidfjord and Ulvik change steamers at Eide at 7.30 p.m.) , Thurs. fore- 
noon , and Sat. morning, arriving at Odde on Tues. midnight, Frid. 
noon , and Sun. 11 p.m. Another steamer leaves Bergen at midday on 
Sat., reaching Ulvik on Sun. at 3'/« a.m. — Similar arrangements for the 
journey in the opposite direction. 

From Bergen via Vossevangen (railway) to Fide, see R. 11. 

From Thelemarken via the Ilavkeli-Steter to Odde, see R. 4. 

It need hardly be said that the traveller who performs the whole 
journey to the head of the fjord and back by water cannot thoroughly 
appreciate the beauties of the scenery. The favourite headquarters for 
excursions are Fide, Utne, Ulvik, Eidfjord, Lofthus, and Odde. The inns 
are generally good and reasonable, but are often full in the height of the 
season (ending about Aug. 10th). 

The *Hardanger Fjord, the main channel of which is subdivided 
into the Kvindherredsfjord, the Hisfjord, the Ytre and Indre Stimltn, 
and the Set fjords, runs from Terpen to the N.E. for about 11 sea- 
miles (44 Engl. M.) to Utne, where it turns suddenly to the !S. to 
Odde, a distance of 6 miles more (in all 68. Engl. M.J. Opposite 
Utne diverge the Graven and Eid fjords, besides which there are 
numerous smaller creeks which it is unnecessary to name. The 
average breadth of the fjord is about 3 Engl. M., but the upper 
part of the Serfjord gradually narrows to a width of a few hundred 
yards only. The scenery is justly celebrated for its beauty and 
grandeur, and of all the Norwegian fjords this is perhaps the most 
attractive on account of its variety. Its accessibility and the com- 
parative comfort of its inns are farther advantages not to be over- 
looked. In some respects the Hardanger resembles the Sognefjord 
(p. 98), being enclosed by rocky and precipitous mountains 3000- 
5000 ft. in height, but the forms of the mountains are less pictur- 
esque, and snow and glaciers less frequent. On the other hand the 
mountains are generally better wooded , the banks more fertile, 
and the scenery altogether of a softer and more smiling character, 
while the huge and spotless snow-mantle of the Folgefond is fre- 
quently visible in the background. To these attractions must be 
added two of the finest waterfalls in Norway, hardly indeed sur- 
passed in Europe , both of which are easily accessible to good 
walkers. The population ( l Huratnyer ') , too, and their national 


HARDANGER FJORD. 9. Route. 55 

characteristics 'will interest many travellers. Weddings here are still 
very picturesque festivities, though generally falling short of Tide- 
mancTs beautiful 'Brudefard' . The bridal crowns and gold and silver 
trinkets (such as the Selje , or Sylgja, a kind of brooch or buckle) 
are curious, and the embroidery, coverlids (Slumretapper), and car- 
pets (Tapper) manufactured in this district are much sought after. 
The costumes are seen to the best advantage on a Sunday morning 
before or after divine service. The women, who wear the 'Skautf, 
a kind of cap of white linen with stripes, and sometimes a pictur- 
esque red bodice, may often be observed giving the finishing 
touches to their toilet after landing from their boats to attend 
church. The primitive mode in which public worship is conducted 
is very characteristic. The national music and the six-stringed Har- 
danger violin are also curious and interesting. 

Tereen, see p. 53. The Hardanger Fjord begins on the E. side 
of this island, whence a striking view is enjoyed of the Tolgefond, 
with the Melderskin, Malmangernut, Kjeldhctug, and other spurs de- 
scending from it. The Folgefond (.Form or Fond, 'mass of snow') is 
an enormous expanse of snow and ice, 35-40 Engl. M. in length 
and 7-15 M. in width, covering the plateau, 3000-5000 ft. in 
height, which rises between the Hardanger Fjord on the "W., the 
Aakre-Fjord on the S., and the Ser- Fjord, with the valley extend- 
ing to the S. of it, on the E. side. Towards the S.E. the peninsula 
of the Folgefond is connected with the mainland by an isthmus 
24 Engl. M. in width (between Fjsere and Odde). The mountain 
attains its greatest height (5420 ft.) immediately to theE. of the 
Serfjord, from which it rises almost perpendicularly. On the W. 
side the plateau descends gradually to the fjord. From the 'Fond', 
the nearly level snowy roof of the mountain, descend glaciers (Jek- 
ler, Blaabrceer) in every direction, resembling huge icicles, the best 
known of which are that of Bondhus (p. 56) near the head of the 
Mauranger-Fjord, a favourite subject with artists, and the Buarbrce 
(p. 66) to the E. of Odde. From this vast expanse of snow protrude 
several rocky peaks (Nuter, literally 'knots') of moderate height : on 
the N. side the Solnut (4830ft.) and Thorsnut (5164 ft.), on the W. 
Hundseret ('the dog's ear'; 5360 ft.), and on the E. the Reinnnut 
and Sauenut. The best survey of the Folgefond from the W. side 
is obtained from Tereen and the neighbourhood, and from the E. 
side from the heights between R»ldal and Seljestad (p. 31). 

The stations are here enumerated in their usual order, but 
some of the steamers do not touch at them all. The direct distances 
from Terpen are prefixed to them. 

Hereen, I1/2 M - (1° Kil t0 the S - of Tereien > see P- 53. About 
1 M. beyond Herein, on the mainland, is Uskedal. To the N. lie 
the long islands of Skorpen and Snilsthveit , and on the right are 
the sombre slopes of the Solfjeld. 

3M. (19 Kil.) Demelnriken (Inn). To the E. towers the Mai- 

56 Route .9. MAURANGERFJORD. Hardanger 

mangernut (2880 ft.). We next reach the chateau and park of Ro- 
sendal, beautifully situated at the base of the Melderskin (see 
below), and belonging to the Barons Rosenkrantz and Rosenkrone, 
who, however, were obliged to Tesign their baronial dignity on the 
abolition of all titles of nobility in 1821. In the vicinity is the 
church of Kvindherred. — A bridle-track leads through the Melsdal 
to the Midtsater and the Myrdalsvand, whence a steep, but tolerable 
path ascends to the summit of the Melderskin (4680ft.), which com- 
mands an imposing survey of the Folgefond and the fjord down to the 
sea. — An excursion through the narrow Huttebergsdal, containing 
the Ringerifos, as far as the foot of the Folgefond is also recom- 
mended. — On the opposite bank of the fjord, about l'/^M. (lOKil.) 
from Rosendal, is Ojermundshavn, and 1 M. to the N.E. of it is — 

4 M. (26 Kil. ) Skjelncts , at the S. end of the large, but un- 
interesting Varaldse. The strait on the E. side of the island is 
called the Sildefjord , beyond which , on the mainland lies the 
church of jEnces, at the foot of the Gygrastol (3116 ft.). 

The Maurangerf j ord , about 2'/2 sea-miles in length, with its bays of 
flstre and Nord-Pollen , may be visited from Skjelnses by boat. On the 
right we observe ^nses and the fine waterfall of Fureberg. From Bondhws 
(tolerable quarters) , near the head of the fjord (a row of 2 1 ,j hrs. from 
Skjelnses), wewalk in 2hrs. to the 'Bondhusbrae (guide necessary), a magni- 
ficent glacier which descends from the Folgefond, between the SelsniU and 
the Bonddalsntit. It is reached by crossing a moraine ( Vor, Jekul- Vuv), 
rowing over the small Bondhusvand with a number of waterfalls descending 
from its precipitous banks, and ascending across a second moraine. The 
foot of the glacier is 1050 ft. above the fjord. Refreshments at the sifter 
here (up to the middle of July). Guide or horse 1 kr. 60 0. 

From the Maurangerejokd to Odde (10-12 hrs. in all). From Bond- 
hus we row in l ji hr. to <0vrehus , at the head of j0strepollen, the E. 
extremity of the fjord, where horses and guides are to be had. The 
ascent to the top of the pass is extremely steep , but the expedition 
presents no serious difficulty or danger in suitable weather. After a fresh 
fall of snow ('nysne'), however, it is impracticable. The summit of the 
pass , where the route skirts the Hundser (p. 55) , is about 5000 ft. 
high, beyond which there is a steep descent to Tokheim near Odde (p. 65). — 
Another route, frequently traversed of late, ascends from Bondhus by the 
Bondhusbrse and descends from the Folgefond to Odde by the Buarbrce 
(p. 66), but is more fatiguing. (Comp. Forbes's Norway, Edin. 1853; 
pp. 130, et seq.) 

5 M. (32 Kil.) Oravdal, to the W., on the Bondesund, and, 
about 1 M. farther, Bierhavn, at the N. end of the Varaldse, are 
the next stations. The broad part of the fjord extending from this 
point to Strandebarm, 2 M. to the N., is called the Hisfjord. 

6 M. (38 Kil.) Bakke (*Inn), to the N. of which is the church of 
Strandebarm, is beautifully situated on the W. bank, in the midst 
of grand scenery. To the E. we observe the Myrdalsfos and the 
Folgefond, to the N.W. the snow-clad Thveite Kvitingen (4220 ft.), 
and to the N.E. the Vesholdo. To the left of the last is a foot- 
path, leading past the gaards of Haukuns and Solbjbrg and the 
saeter of TornheUa , to Netland in the Steinsdal (4-5 hrs. ; see be- 
low). The route along the bank of the fjord to Sandven is, how- 

Fjord. JONDAL. .9. Route. 57 

ever, more attractive. — The steamer then steers towards the E., 
enters a narrower part of the fjord, and stops at — 

7M. (45 Kil.) Jondal (Inn), on theE. bank, 2M. from Bakke, 
with a bridge over the Elv. The scenery now becomes less attrac- 
tive. This place is locally famous for the excellence of its boats. 

A road ascends hence the Korsdal to (3 hrs.) Gaarden Flalebe (1100 ft.), 
grandly situated, and leads thence to the S. to the Jondalsbrce, near the 
Dravlevand and Jeklevand; and another path from the gaard crosses the 
Folgefond to Bleie (Naae) on the Serfjord (p. 64). The latter route leads 
from Flateb<j to the N.E. to Sjuscet, ascends steeply and describes a wide 
bend towards the N., turns to the E., skirts the Thorsnut (p. 55), and 
passes the Saxaklep. The highest point of the route is 4510 ft. above the 
fjord. Then a steep descent to the Reisaiter (1080 ft.) and thence to Bleic 
(A r aae, p. 64 ; 8-10 hrs. in all ; guide necessary, Torgils Koppre recommended). 

Beyond Jondal the steamer passes several waterfalls, leaving 
Jonarnces on the right, and soon enters the Ytre Samlen-Fjord. 
The scenery here is again very picturesque. The steamer crosses 
to the W. side, passes Axenas and the church of Viker, and enters 
the Norheirnsund, a beautiful bay, on which lies — 

9 M. (56 Kil.) Norheirnsund or Sandven [Nils Sandvens Hotel, 
R. 1 , B. 1 , S. 1 kr. , D. 1 kr. 60 0.), charmingly situated, and 
suitable for a prolonged stay. In the vicinity are picturesque rocky 
and wooded hills. To the W. rises the snowy Gjeen Kvitingen. 
Sandven commands an admirable view of the Folgefond, with 
the mountain-spurs radiating from it. At the back of the village 
is the Steinsdal, a pretty and well-cultivated valley, in which a 
good road ascends to the (Y2 nr 0fsthusfos (from Overate 
//us'), a waterfall 150 ft. in height, a narrow path behind which 
enables the visitor to pass dry-shod between the water and the 
rock. Some of the steamers stop for several hours at Norheirnsund. 
during which the fall may easily be visited.. 

Beyond the fffsttmsfos the carriage-road ascends the valley, passing 
the farms of Sleine (tolerable quarters) and Birkeland , and terminates 
at (1 hr.) Nelland. From Netland we may walk by the route mentioned 
above to Strandebarm. Another path leads from Netland to the (4</2-5 hrs.) 
Gaard Eikedal , on the N. bank of the Eikedalsvand (1000 ft.) , and then 
descends precipitously past the picturesque Mkedals/os, 285 ft. in height, 
to the beautiful Fr0landsdal (i Samnanger), in whicli, 6 Kil. lower down, 
lies Tesse (Inn) , on the Aadlandfjord , the N. branch of the Samnanger- 
Fjord. The whole walk occupies 9-10 hrs. (guide necessary). From T#sse 
we cross in a small boat to (4 Kil.) Aadland, whence we proceed on foot 
via Haugen to (8 Kil.) Trengereid (p. 77). 

Beyond Norheirnsund the steamer touches at 0stens«, or Aus- 
tesyn(Inn), on the adjoining bay, another pretty place which attracts 
numerous summer visitors. A mountain-path leads hence to the 
(4-5 hrs.) Humlegrevand (1910 ft.), which affords good fishing. 

To the W. of jETstensfl is a promontory (Nais) separating the bay of 
Jl^stensizi from the very narrow and picturesque Fiksensund, an arm of 
the fjord running towards the N. for a distance of 7 Engl. 31., at the head 
of which lies Gaarden Botnen (reached by boat from J8 r stens0 in 3 1 /'j-4 hrs.). 
High up on the mountain-side beyond the Nses is seen a huge giant-basin 
(JwUegn/de), called Gygrereva (Gijgr , 'giantess'), from the popular 
tradition that a giantess standing on the mountain, and endeavouring to 
draw several small islands in the fjord towards her. failed from the 

58 Route, 9. EIDE. Hardangtr 

breaking nf the rope, and caused this indentation by falling backwards. 
— From Botnen a path (guide unnecessary), exceedingly rough and preci- 
pitous at places , ascends the Flatebegjel (Gjel, 'rocky ravine') to the 
(5 Kil.) Lekedal sseter and the top of the hill beyond it (2000 ft.), after 
which it leads across more level ground to the (6 Kil.) Vossestele (Stel, 
'sseter') at the N.E. end of the Ilwmlegrevand , mentioned above. It then 
descends by the course of the river issuing from the neighbouring Thor- 
fnvand to (G Kil.) Oaarden Skjeldal , whence a good road leads through 
pine-forest to (5 Kil.) Grimeslad at the W. end of the Vangsvand. Distance 
thence by road 12 Kil., or by boat 9 Kil., to Vossevangen (p. 77). This 
interesting route from 0stens0 to Vossevangen takes 12-14 hrs. in all. 

Soon after quitting 0stens«r the steamer commands a view, to 
the left, of the Indre Samlen-Fjord, a beautiful reach of the Har- 
ilanger. It either steers straight across the fjord to (1 V4M. ) Herand, 
lying to the S. of the conspicuous and nearly isolated Samlenut 
or Samlekolle (2060 ft.), which may be ascended from Herand, 
or, passing the mouth of the Fiksensund (p. 57), it skirts the 
N.W. bank of the fjord and touches at (2 M.) Aalvik, near which 
is the picturesque Melaanfos. In the former case , on leaving 
Herand , it rounds the Samlenut, touches at Vinces, and skirts the 
Stenkorsnces with Oaarden Nesthammer. Whichever of these routes 
the steamers take, they all stop at — 

11 M. (70 Kil.) Tltne (*Inn), beautifully situated on the Vtne- 
fjord, from which the Samlenfjord, the Gravenfjord, the Eidfjord, 
and the Serfjord radiate towards the four points of the compass. 
A path ascends through the charming valley at the back of the village 
to the (2'/ Hanekamb (3590 ft.), which commands an admirable 
survey of the Utne, Eide, and S»r fjords. The ascent of the Oxen 
(p. 59) is still more interesting. — From Utne the steamer steers due 
N. into the Gravenfjord, a narrow and somewhat monotonous arm of 
the fjord, at the N. end of which, about 2y 2 M. from Utne, lies — 

12 M. (77 Kil.) Eide (*Haukences Hot. with fast station, close 
to the fjord, It. 1 kr. 20». ; *Maland's Hotel, on the river ; *Janseris, 
5 min. from the pier), nestling prettily at the foot of rocky and 
wooded mountains which leave it exposed on the S. side only. 
Several of the streams and small lakes in the neighbourhood are 
said to afford good trout -fishing. This is the most frequented 
place on the fjord as a summer residence, but the scenery is not 
very striking. A very pleasant walk of i /-> hr. may be taken to 
the beautiful Gravensvand to the N. From Eide to (30 Kil.) Vosse- 
vangen, see pp. 78, 77. 

From Eide to Ulvik (23 Kil., pay for 36), a magnificent ride or walk, 
affording an admirable picture of Norwegian mountain-scenery (4-5 hrs.; 
guide unnecessary). All superfluous luggage should be sent round by 
steamer from Eide to Ulvik. From Eide the Vossevangen road leads to 
(4 Kil.) Gravens-Kirke (p. 78), on the Gravensvand, where the bridle-path 
(which we take) to (12 Kil.) Ulvik, extremely steep at places, diverges to the 
right. — Travellers may effect a saving of nearly an hour by taking (with 
guide) the bridle-path past Oaarden Kjelland which unites with the road 
from Graven at the Angerklev. Following this road to the right, we reach 
the highest point of the route (about 1200 ft. above the fjord) between 
the Graahellerfjeld and the Grimsmil on the right and the Kvashmed on 
the left, beyond which opens a magnificent 'View of the Ulvilsfjord. 

Fjord. ULVIK. .9. Route. 59 

To the E. rise the Onen , from which the Degerfos is precipitated to a 
depth of upwards of 1500 ft., and the Balonefjeld and to the N.E. the ma- 
jestic Vas-Fjairen, (5350ft.). On the descent to (l'/4 hr.) Brakenccs, which 
is very steep at places, the scenery becomes still more picturesque, par- 
ticularly at the Furusceter and Lindebrwkke. On the hill, about l / { hr. before 
we reach Brakenses (see below), is "VillemserCs Hotel, beautifully situated, 
and often full. Pretty waterfalls by the mill behind the church. 

The direct route from Eide to Ulvik across the mountains just 
described is about 12 Engl. M. in length, but by steamer the distance 
is neariy double (5 sea-miles). Some of the steamers go direct, 
while others call at Utne (p. 58) on the way ; and it should be 
observed that they do not all touch at Ulvik. To the W. of the 
mouth of the Gravenfjord rises the Oxen (4120 ft.), a mountain which 
may be ascended from the S.E. side, and which commands a 
magnificent view of the Serfjord and the lofty mountains to the E., 
the Hardanger-Jekul, the Vas-Fjaeren, etc. — The steamer skirts 
the Oxen and then enters the Eidfjord, the easternmost arm of the 
Hardanger. The banks are very rocky and abrupt, affording but 
scanty room for a few scattered houses at their base and in the 
valleys intersecting them. Passing the innermost bay of the Eid- 
fjord on the right, we next enter the Osefjord to the N., with its 
imposing mountain-background (Vas-Fjceren, Skarafjeldet, Sote- 
nuten). This fjord also consists of two branches, divided by the 
low wooded ridge of Osen, that to the right (N.E.) retaining the 
same name, and that to the left (N.) being called the Ulviksfyord 
('Ulv-Vik', wolfs creek). These bays are generally frozen over in 
winter. Ascending the Ulviksfjord we next stop at — 

15 M. (96 Kil.) Ulvik-Brakenses (Vesterim's Hotel, or house of 
the Forbrugsforening , at the pier, much frequented by summer 
residents, R. 1 kr., B. 1 kr., D. 1 kr. 60 ». ; Sjur Brakenas Hotel, 
with baths, R. 1, D. 2, S. 1 kr. ; Manderup Hjceltncss Hotel, both 
near the fjord; *Villemseris, on the hill, ^hr. from the pier, see 
above), beautifully situated, and one of the most picturesque 
spots on the Hardanger Fjord. Brakences, with its conspicuous 
church, beyond which there is a fine waterfall , is the principal 
cluster of houses on this creek, the hamlets and farms at the head 
of which are collectively known as Ulvik. A pleasant walk may 
be taken along the shore to (10 min.) another group of houses, 
with a pier, near the head of the fjord, where visitors also fre- 
quently take up their quarters for the summer. Farther on lies 
Hagestad, beyond which, on the N.E. bank, is Lekve , an ancient 
'Kongsgaard', or royal domain, from which a path crosses the hill 
to the Osefjord in 1 hr. — An interesting excursion from Ulvik 
is the ascent of the Vas-Fjaeren (5350 ft.), via Lekve ; magnificent 
view from the summit (12-16 hTS. there and back; guide ne- 
cessary). Less practised mountain-climbers should walk to the 
Solsi-Sater on the evening before the ascent. — Pleasant walk of 
IY2 nr - t0 the N.W. to the (7 Kil.) Expelandsvand, a lake which 
is said to afford good trout-fishing. 

60 Route 9. OSEFJORD. Hardanger 

Fkom Ulvik to Ose CH Kil.; or all the way by boat 'i>ji naut. M.). 
The innermost creek of the "Osefjord, which none of the steamers enter, 
is one of the most striking parts of the Hardanger Fjord, and should if 
possible be visited. The excursion there and back may be made in one 
day ; or the night may be spent at Ose. One route is by boat to Lekve, 
on the N.E. bank of the Ulviksfjord, in 20 min., and thence by a path 
across the hill to the Osefjord in 1 hr., on which another boat is hired to 
(1 Kil.) Ose, a row of nearly an hour more; or a boat may be taken di- 
rect from Brakenses to (2V-J naut. M. or 17 Kil.) Ose, a row of 2'/2 hrs. 
or more ('Niste 1 , i. e. a supply of food , desirable). — On rounding the 
promontory by boat we observe to the E. a waterfall of the Bagnaelv and 
(more to the left) the curious Dggerfos, descending from the snow-clad 
Onen and the Degerdalsvand. We now enter the upper part of the im- 
posing Osefjord, the banks of which are almost uninhabited. On the 
right rise Onen and the Balonefjeld, and in the background tower Van- 
Fjtrreii (left) and Kros-Fjcrren and the Mpahegd (right), the mountains 
bounding the wild ~Osedal in which the fjord terminates. From Ose 
(tolerable quarters at the bouse of Lars Ose) travellers usually visit the 
(15 min.) •Koldehullrr' (cold holes', known as Windliicher' among the 
Alps), which are used as cellars, and where water freezes even in sum- 
mer. Close to them is a marsh ('Myr^), which, according to the natives, 
never freezes, and is dry during rain and wet in dry weather. Beyond 
Ose the valley contracts to a wild and narrow ravine, bounded by the Vas- 
Fjeeren and Nipah^gd, through which a path (guide obtainable at Ose) 
leads to the Osesater and thence between the Oseskavl and Vosseskarl 
(right) and the Gangdalskavl (left) to the Gravahals (3710 ft.) and to 
Kaardal in the Flaamsdal (a walk of 10-12 hrs. ; cnmp. p. 108). — Another 
route, fatiguing and rarely frequented, leads from Ose across the Hailing- 
xkari'en (p. 83) by Ulevasbolfen (tolerable quarters) to Hoi in the upper Hal- 
lingdal in 2 days (coinp. p. 84). v 

From Ulvik to Aueland (10-12 hrs.). The path, very precipitous and 
fatiguing at places, ascends via Lekve to the Solsivand and the Sloudals- 
vand (2560 ft.), at the end of which lies Klevene, the highest gaard in 
the ttundal , passes the base of the (U'avahals. and descends to Kaardal 
in the Flaamsdal (comp. p. 108). 

Leaving Ulvik-flrakenfes, beyond which the steamer does not 
proceed, we now return to the Eidfjord, rounding the promon- 
tory of Banknas, which separates the Osefjord from the Eidfjord. 
A certain spot on the Banknses is known as the Berg fall , from the 
fact that a huge mass of rock , 400 ft. high and about the same 
width, once fell from it into the deep water of the fjord at its base. 
To the S. rises the lofty Bufjeld, so named from the solitary Gourd 
Bu, on which the sun never shines in winter. On the right, far- 
ther on, is Erdalen, with a saw-mill and a number of houses, 
where several old moraines and primeval beaches are distinguish- 
able. Above it rises the Erdalsnut. On the opposite bank of the 
fjord is the Hotlenut, beyond which lies the Simodal (p. 62), with 
the snowy plateau of the Hardanger Jekul (p. 63) in the back- 
ground. We next observe on the left the bare Vindaxlen. The 
scenery here is wild and grand, but is destitute of the softer char- 
acteristics of the Ulviksfjord. The next station, Vik, is 18 Kil. 
from Ulvik, but is not farther distant from Stavanger or Bergen 
than Ulvik. 

15 M. (96 Kil.) Vik i 0ifjord or Eidfjord (*Inn kept by the 
brothers Ncesheim, who speak English ; K. 1 '/. 2 , 1!. 1, D. 2, S. l'/ikr.), 
situated in a bay on the S. side of the Eidfjord or 0i[jord, is the 

Fjord. V0RINGSFOS. 'J. Route. 61 

starting-point i'or the Veiringsfos, one of the finest waterfalls in 
Norway, and also for other excursions of great interest. The church 
of 0ifjord, 10 min. from the pier, stands on a moraine (Vor), 
which is intersected by the river descending from the 0ifjords»<md. 

Excursion to the VmuNGsros, 8-10 hrs., there and back, 
including 2 hrs. spent in crossing the lake. Guide from Vik 3 kr. 
20 e., horse from S«be 3 kr. 20 0. Good walkers may dispense 
with both. Complaints have been made of the condition of the 
boats and the harness. At Niesheim's Inn 80 0. is charged for 
keeping the new route in good repair. Waterproof cloaks will be 
found useful at the waterfall. 

We walk across the Eid , or neck of land between the fjord 
and the (30 min.) 0ifjordsvand (54 ft. above the sea-level) , a 
lake enclosed by huge, abrupt, and barren rocks, over which several 
waterfalls are precipitated, and which glisten like silver after a fall 
of rain. Here we obtain aboat(80er., settle beforehand ; the boat- 
man lives at Gjellero, a little to the right, and is usually attracted 
by shouting) to take us to the upper end of the lake (4 Kil. ; 1 hr.). 
On the right a path diverges to Gaarden Kvam (_Kvum, rocky 
basin), whence the Kvamfos descends ; and farther on we pass the 
Borgafjeld, where there is a flue echo. On the left is the 0ifjordx- 
fjeld with the Trellefos. At the end of the lake we reach a small 
fertile plain watered by the Bygdarelv, or Hjcelmoelv, descending 
from the Hjcelmodal on the S., and the Bjereia, which descends 
from the Maabedal. 

Our path ascends the Maabedal. Leaving Gaarden Gaaratun 
on the right, we soon reach the adjacent farms of Scebe, Mvgeletun, 
Lilletun, Varberg, and Reise, at all of which horses may be hired. 
From Ssebe the path, which cannot be mistaken, ascends the 
moraine, and then descends into the wild Maabedal on the left 
bank of the Bjereia, which it afterwards crosses by means of a lofty 
bridge. In 1 hr. from Ssebe we reach Gaarden Tveithougen, beyond 
which the path ascends steeply, passing enormous blocks of rock 
and wild cataracts formed by the river here. In i/ 2 hr. more we 
reach Maabe, a solitary house in the midst of a severe rocky land- 
scape, where the river is lost to view. 

The path constructed by the Turistforening now crosses the 
river and ascends its precipitous left bank to the small, dark-green 
Maabevand, beyond which it continues to mount between walls of 
rock whence large fragments have been precipitated in all directions. 
A number of small waterfalls descend from these rocks , whicli 
seem almost to overhang the path. The vegetation is of an Alpine 
character. In 1 hr. from Maabe we reach the **V#ringsfos , the 
roar of which has long been audible (small Jnn, opened in 1881, 
coffee, beer, cold meat; also 2 beds ; moderate). The water is 
precipitated over the rocks at the head of the ravine in a perpend- 
icular leap of 475 ft. into a basin enclosed by walls of rock on 

62 Route 9. SIMODAL. Hardanger 

three sides. Two ridges of rock divide the river, which comes from 
the right, into three falls, which however soon re-unite. A dense 
volume of spray constantly rises from the seething cauldron, form- 
ing a cloud above it. The scene is singularly impressive. The 
traveller should approach the fall as closely as possible in order 
more thoroughly to realise its sublimity. Beautiful rainbow-hues 
are often observed in the spray, especially of an afternoon. 

Befure the construction of the path to the foot of the fall it was pos- 
sible to view it from above imly. In order to do this the traveller may 
ascend by a footpath between the fall and Maab0; or he may return 
to Maabizr and follow the bridle-path ascending the Maabegalder (Gald, 
'rocky declivity') to Gaarden H#l (in 2 hrs. ; rough accommodation ; guide 
advisable for either route), situated <m a dreary mountain-plateau, about 
2200 ft. above the sea-level. The most conspicuous object on this lofty 
plain is the dense column of spray rising above the waterfall, which had 
long been observed by the natives of the district and led Prof. Hansteen 
to the discovery of the fall in 1821. 

From H#l we may now, instead of retracing our steps, proceed to the 
S. across the plateau to the Skisteter and Barrastel, and descend into the 
imposing Hjtelmodal , through which a good path descends to Gaaratun 
and Siebjzi (a walk of 7-8 hrs. in all). In this case the night must be 
spent at Hj&l. — Or, leaving Hjzrl early in the morning, we may cross the 
river, ascend through the Isdal, with the Isdalsvand, descend a precipitous 
path, 3000 ft., to Gaarden Thveit, and through the Si modal (see below) 
to the fjord, a rough walk of 10-12 hrs. (in the reverse direction 13-14 hrs.; 
boat to Vik in 1 hr. more). A guide is necessary for all these expeditions, 
except the direct excursion to the fall and back. 

Excursion to the Simodal. This picturesque expedition, 
which has recently become popular, takes 7-8 hrs. to the Rembes- 
dalsfos and back (guide 3'/2 kr.), and 10-12 hrs. to the Fjeld- 
plateau, opposite the Skytjefos, and back (guide 5 kr.). — We 
row from Vik to (5 Kil.) the head of the fjord in 1 hr. ; on our way 
thither we observe to the N. the loftily situated farm-house of 
Skaard, and, farther on, above the Simodal, the solitary Guard 
Getaasen. To the N. from the head of the fjord runs the Aas-Dal, 
in which, a little beyond Gaarden Aasen, rises a curious isolated 
rock resembling a tower, nearly 400 ft. in height. The *Simodal, 
running from the head of the fjord towards the E., is an exceed- 
ingly wild, narrow, rocky ravine traversed by a new carriage- 
road, which leads to Gaarden Mehus, where the valley is so narrow 
that the towering rocks above may be seen through the Ljor 
('smoke-hole'); and to Thveit, the highest of the three gaards, 
where tolerable quarters may be obtained. Near it are several 
Koldehuller ('ice-cavities') resembling those in the Osedal (p. 60). 
A rough foot-path, to which the attention of the 'Turistforening' 
has been directed, conducts us along the right bank of the foaming 
stream to the (5 Kil.) head of the valley, which terminates 
abruptly in a huge wall of rock, over which falls the imposing 
Rembesdalsfos. To the E. is seen the *Skytjefos, a fine waterfall 
2000 ft. high, part of which is a perpendicular leap of 700 ft. 
• — Travellers who desire to extend their excursion, may ascend to 
the Rembesdalsvand, a lake to the N.E., to which a glacier of the 

Fjord. GRIMO. 9. Route. 63 

Hardanyer Jekul (5565 ft.) descends. The most interesting point 
of view is a precipitous wall of rock opposite the Skytjefos, from 
which we command a view of the fall, and look sheer down into 
the valley beneath. 

From Vik i <0ifjord, Kinservik , Ullensvang , Espen, and Skjceggedal, 
rough and fatiguing mountain-paths , rarely trodden except by reindeer- 
stalkers, cross the wild and desolate Hardanger Vidda to the Hallingdal 
and to Thelemarken in 2-3 days. All the Thelemarken routes unite at 
the base of Haarteigen (5550 ft.), a mountain of truncated conical form 
{Teig , Teigjen, 'an allotment of land', 'a clearing'), where an excellent 
idea of the extremely bleak and dreary character of the Norwegian 'H0i- 
fjeld 1 scenery may be formed. < >n every side extends a lofty and sterile 
table-land, rarely relieved by mountain-summits, while the distant snow- 
mountains (Gausta, Hardanger Jekul, and Slorfonn) present a flat and 
shapeless appearance. Far and wide not a trace of human habitations, or 
even a valley suggestive of their existence , is to be seen. The angler, 
however, will be interested to hear that the numerous mountain-lakes 
teem with life (excellent 'Fjeldtfrrcter* or mountain -trout), while the 
sportsman will often have an opportunity of shooting wildfowl , eagles, 
and reindeers, the last of which follow the migrations of the lemmings 
(see p. 153). The atmosphere on this mountain-plateau, 3000-4000 ft. above 
the sea-level, is exceedingly clear and bracing, but mists and storms are 
of frequent occurrence. — Travellers or sportsmen traversing this region 
must spend one or more nights in a sseter, in the hut of a reindeer- 
stalker (Vejdemwnd) or fisherman, or in a still more wretched Fwhnger 
(p. 134), or shepherd's hut, no other shelter of any kind being procurable. 

From Vik i 0ifjor» to Odivb. The steamer skirts the S. 
bank of the Eidfjord , the highest summit of which is the Skod- 
dals-Fjceren. Some of the steamers touch at liingeen, on the E. 
bank, near the mouth of the fjord, a little beyond which we steer 
into the narrow arm of the Hardanger called the **S#rfjord ('south 
fjord'), 6 M. (24 Engl. M.) in length , its entrance being formed 
by the Tronas on the W. and the Kirkenirs on the E. side. The 
next station, about 4 M. from Vik, is — 

12M.(75Kil.) Grimo (*Inn), a pretty place on theW. bank, which 
is well cultivated here, and yields the morella and other cherries in 
abundance. A beautiful walk may be taken to the S. to ('20 mill.) 
the top of the Haugmces, and another to the N. to the (20 min.) Tro- 
nas, which affords a view of the Kinservik (see below). The con- 
trast between the wild and bleak mountains rising above the fjord 
and the fertile land at their bases is most striking on the Serfjord, 
and is most apparent when observed from the banks themselves. 

Opposite Grimo, immediately to the S. of the Kirkenses, is the 
charming Kinservik (anciently Kinymrvik), to which the Hundal 
descends. The Tveitafos and the Nyastelsfos, two tine waterfalls in 
this valley, are worthy of a visit. As none of the steamers touch 
at the Kinservik, travellers intending to visit the place land at 
Grimo and row across the fjord. A carriage-road, enjoying a 
splendid view of the Serfjord, leads from Kinservik church along 
the hill-side by Krosnaes to Lofthus (p. 64 ; on foot, 2y 2 hrs.). — 
On the same side of the fjord, about 8 Kil. from Grimo, is the 
next station • — 

64 Route '.). ULLENSVANG. Hardanger 

13 M. (83 Kil.) Lofthus, or UUensvang (*Hans Helgesen Utne's 
Inn, comfortable ; several pensions), charmingly situated. To the 
N. is the house of the Sorenskriver (district-judge), and higher up 
is//eMeiand('Hedleland')with a curious olABeghus, or house with a 
'Ljor'(comp. p. 124). To the S. of the inn is a Convalescent Home, on 
the hill above which is Oppedal. — The name of the parish is UUens- 
vang, to the church of which a beautiful road loads through the 
valley of a river, which, 6 Kil. to the E., forms the waterfall of 
Bjernebykset (bear's leap). To the S. is the Skrikjofos, 500 ft. high. 
The interesting old Church is an early-Gothic building, destitute 
of a tower, with a handsome W. portal. At the E. end of the 
choir is a Gothic window ; above it is represented the head of a 
bishop , and on the right is a weeping and on the left a laughing 
face. By the Prastegaard (parsonage) are several fine old limes 
and ash-trees. — On this part of the fjord mild W. winds usually 
prevail in winter, and the water never freezes ; but farther to the 
S., at Oddc and in the neighbourhood, cold E. winds are more fre- 
quent. — Near UUensvang are several Koldehuller (p. 60), or ca- 
vities which are used by the natives as cellars. 

On the opposite (W.) bank of the fjord are several large farms, 
the chief of which are Jnastnd, Vilure, and Aga. The last-named 
still contains an old hall lighted from above. Above Aga rises 
the Solnut , beyond which is the Thorsnut. The glaciers of the 
Folgefond are visible at frequent intervals. — On this side of the 
fjord, a little farther S., is the picturesque Vikebugt, on which 
are situated the station of — 

14M. (90 Kil.) Naae and the farmhouses of Bleie, where im- 
mediately above the luxuriant fields and gardens are the overhanging 
glaciers of the Folgefond, from which several waterfalls are precipit- 
ated. — Path from Bleie over the mountains to Jondal, see p. 57. 

On the E. bank, a little beyond UUensvang, we next observe 
llmvc Naustad, splendidly situated. (Rooms at the Landhandler's.) 
A line view is obtained here of the glaciers above Bleie and of the 
whole of the Serfjord. The numerous boat-houses (Nest) on the 
bank belong to the small farmers who live on the hill above. An 
excellent point of view is the pointed and prominent Beroenut 
(1 hr.). — ■ The next places on the E. bank arc Oaarden Sandste and 
Sexe; Hovland, with a spinning-mill ; Kvalenaes, a promontory with 
a gaard ; and then, 1 M. from Naae, • — • 

15 M. (96 Kil.) Espen, with several small farms charmingly 
situated on the hill. 

On the "W. bank, to the S. of Naae and Bleie, we next pass 
Oaarden Lindvik and a mountain torrent which disappears under 
a large mass of snow. Then Maage , situated on a thick deposit of 
detritus (Vr, Urd). The next places are Kvitnaa, at the entrance 
to an imposing valley, with glaciers in the background, and Oaar- 
den Digrenas, with several waterfalls near it. Between these 

Fjord. ODDE. H. Route. 65 

places, on a commanding hill, stands Gaarden Aase, whence the 
Folgefond may easily be ascended. (Rowing-boat thither from 
Odde, 2 hrs.) — Beyond Digrenaes are Gaarden Apald and Aaen, 
with the waterfall of that name, also called the Ednafos ; then 
Eitrheim , with the peninsula of Eitruts , and Tokheim with its 
waterfall, commanded by the Tokheimsnut, on the S. side of 
which a path crosses the Folgefond to the Maurangerfjord (p. 56). 
— The background to the S. is formed by the Ruklenut on the 
right and the Rosnaas on the left. 

On the E. bank, a little beyond Espen, is Fresvik. with its 
spacious and picturesque amphitheatre of wood, bordeTed with 
meadows and corn-flelds. On the same bank, opposite Kvitnaa, are 
Gaarden Skjalvik, situated in another wooded bay, and Gaarden 
Stana, at a dizzy height above which is Isberg. Farther on is the 
Tyssedalsnut, below which lies the hamlet of Tyssedal, where the 
captain of the steamer will usually stop to allow passengers bound 
for the Skjaeggedalsfos (see p. 68) to disembark. We next observe 
Gaarden Freheim, on the hill, beyond which we soon reach • — ■ 

17 M. (109 Kil.) Odde. — S: Hardanger Hotel, kept by Svend 
Tollefson, well managed and pleasantly situated on the fjord, frequented 
hy English travellers, E. 1, B. 1, S. 2 kr. ; ; 'Ole Prjestegaard\s Inn, near 
the pier, R. 1, D. 2kr., B. 80 0. ; Baard Ac.a, 200 paces from the pier, a 
little inland, good and cheap; Kristensen's Hot., frequented hy Nor- 
wegians. — Lars Olsen Bustelun, Asbjern, Lars Olsen, and Svend Toltefsoii 
may he recommended as guides (all speak English). 

Odde, situatod at the S. end of the Serfjord, forms excellent 
headquarters for excursions. The name ('tongue of land') applies 
properly to the large Church of the parish. The principal farms 
around the church are Bustetun, Opheim, and Bergeflot. 

Walks. (1). Tof^hx.) Tokhekn, on the W. bank, commanding 
tine views of the fjord, especially from the inland road, ascending 
beyond Tokheim. 

(2). To the *Sandvenvand (280 ft.), to the S. of Odde, there 
and back 172-2 hrs. (carriage-road). The route to it is by the 
high-road, ascending the Eid , an old moraine. At the top of 
the hill the Aaboelv , issuing from the Sandvenvand, forms a flue 
waterfall. On the right, rising above the lake, are the Eidesnut and 
Jordalsnut, between lies the Jordal (see below) ; to the N. the view 
embraces the whole of the Serfjord , with the Oxen (p. 59) in the 
extreme distance. By following the road for 20 min. more along 
the E. bank of the lake, passing under threatening walls of rock 
and over fields of 'Ur' (p. 64), we obtain a *View of the entire 
Buarbrae and the Folgefond ; farther to the left is the beautiful 
Kjendals-Fos, opposite which is the Strandsfos, descending from 
the Svartenut (with a bridge). 

Excursions from Odde. (l)To the Buarbr-je, a very interesting 
excursion of 4i/ 2 -5 hrs., there and back (guide unnecessary). We 
walk or drive to the (20 min.) Sandvenvand (see above) and ascend 

Baedeker's Norwav and Sweden XrA v*:t f. 

66 Route U. LOTEFOS. Hardanger 

to tlie right for 10 Min. ; then row across the lake to the (15 min.) 
entrance to the Jordal , where the boat waits , and where we ob- 
tain a view of the huge ice-masses of the Folgefond. We then 
walk, crossing the first bridge, to (5 min.) Oaarden Jordal, and 
afterwards cross (20 min.) a second bridge, beyond which the path 
follows the left bank of the Jordalselv. Stony path. In 1 hr. more 
we pass Oaarden Buar (Hardanger beer and other refreshments) on 
the left, beyond which lies a small plain. From this point to the 
foot of the *Buarbrse, of which we are now in full view, 20 min. 
more. Travellers are particularly cautioned against attempting to 
enter the blue ice-grotto. By ascending the hill to the right we 
shall have an opportunity of observing traces of the steady advance 
of the glacier, which amounted to 260 ft. in 1870, and to no less 
than 12 ft. in one week in 1871. The foot of the glacier is 1000 ft. 
only above the level of the fjord, or 700 ft. above the Sandvenvand, 
and in its immediate proximity are barley-fields and well-grown 
trees. The glacier is divided into two arms, which afterwards 
unite, by the Vrbotten, a ridge of rock, and consequently has an 
unusually large central moraine. The Jordal itself is an object of 
attraction on this excursion , being bounded by picturesque and 
precipitous rocks , and enlivened with an abundant growth of 
birches, elms, and other trees. 

Good mountain-walkers may ascend on the right side of the glacier 
to the Folgefond, skirt the Eidemut and the Ruklenut, and passing the 
Tokhcimsnut descend to Tokheim and Odde, a very grand and interesting, 
but fatiguing expedition of 10-12 hrs. in all (guide 4-8 kr.). 

(2). To the Lotefos (6-8 hrs., there and back). A carriole or 
'Stolkjaerre', with seats for two persons, may be hired for the whole 
excursion. The traveller is advised not to waste time by changing 
horses at Hildal and should take some provisions. 

The route is at first the same as that above described. At the S. 
end of the Sandvenvand, lOKil. from Odde, lies the farm of Sand- 
ven, near which are the slow station of .ffiWaZ(330ft.)and the Vafos 
or Hildalsfos. The valley gradually contracts till it forms a Djuv, 
or narrow ravine , through which the brawling Grensdalselv forces 
its passage. About 5 Kil. from Hildal we reach the * Lotefos and 
Skarsfos, the waters of which unite near the road. Opposite is 
the * Espelandsfos , descending in the form of a veil, and one of 
the most picturesque waterfalls in Norway. The best point of view 
is on the hill immediately above the road (ascent in 5 min 7). — 
The traveller may now drive on for 20 min. more, alight, and walk 
to the (8 min.) gaards of Share, where coffee may be got, but not 
much else. The traveller may view the Lotefos from above (hardly 
repaying) by ascending from Skare to the (V2 _3 /4 nr Lotevand, 
from which first the Skarsfos and then the Lotefos issues. Several 
mills have been established by the side of the fall. The lofty 
cloud of spray, through which the Espelandsfos is visible, has a very 
curious effect. — From Skare to Thelemarken, see pp. 31, 30. 

Fjord. SK.LEGGEDAL. 9. Route. 67 

If, as (may conveniently lie dime, this excursion be combiner! with 
a visit to the Buarbrse, the vehicles are left at the N. end of the Scmdven- 
vand until the travellers return from the glacier. 

(31. From Odde to Gohsbotn and Gorsvingane (p. 31), one 
of the finest excursions from Odde, extending farther in the direc- 
tion of Thelemarken than the above ; there and back 10-12 hrs. 
We drive to Seljestad (p. 31) and change horses there for the 
drive to the top of Gorsvingane and back. Refreshments and bods 
can be obtained on this Toute only at Seljestad. — The traveller 
is not recommended to extend this excursion to Reldal (there and 
back l'/ 2 day). 

(4). From Odde across the *Folgkfond to the Mauranger Fjord 
(see p. 56), a fatiguing, but very interesting walk of 8-10 hrs. 
(guide 12-16 kr. ; horses may be hired at Odde). 

(5). From Odde to Fj-ere, on the Aakre-Fjord, the N.E. branch 
of the Stavanger-Fjord, see p. 52. 

(6). From Odde to the Skj^ggedalsfos, 10-12hrs., there and 
back. As in the case of the excursion to the Veringsfos, the scen- 
ery on the route is very picturesque, and is almost as great an 
attraction as the fall itself. About one half of the excursion is 
performed by water, the remainder on foot, riding being impracti- 
cable. The actual walking takes about 5 hrs. only, but the path, 
though improved by the Turistforening, is at some places still very 
rough and steep. Ladies, however, also make this excursion. A 
guide (4 kr.) and a supply of provisions had better be taken from 
Odde. We row from Odde along the wild E. bank of the Serfjord, 
passing a group of rocks called 'Biskopen, Prcesten, oy Klokkeren\ 
and just beyond the mouth of the Tyssaa , which falls into the 
lake in a cascade framed with dark pines, wo land at Plads Tyssedal 
(p. 64). The gaard of that name lies prettily on the hill, to the left. 
We now ascend through wood , enjoying beautiful retrospective 
views of the fjord and the Folgefond and its glaciers. The woods 
of the Tyssedalsnut (to the N.) and the Thveitnut (to the S.) still 
contain numerous bears, which, however, are very rarely seen in 
summer. After '/ 4 hr. we pass a second fall of the beautiful clear 
green river, and in another l /i hr. a third. The path ascends steeply 
over 'C/r' and roots of trees. In 3 / 4 hr. more we pass a small pasture 
on the left, where bilbemes, the Caluna vulgaris, and other wild 
plants grow abundantly. We next reach (1/4 hr.) a hay-hut, at the 
foot of the Svelberg , near which is a cavity in the rock used by 
the natives as a kind of kitchen. This is the highest point on the 
route, about 1800 ft. above the fjord. The path next descends the 
Fladberg, and in 1 hr. more reaches Gaarden Skjseggedal (about 
2y 2 hrs. from Tyssedal ; coffee, good trout, and a bed of hay if ne- 
cessary). On the left the Mogelifos descends from the Mogelinut, and 
on the right is the Vasendenfos, the discharge of the Ringedalsvand. 
At the foot of the latter waterfall is the Vetlevand ('small lake), 
which we cross by boat in a few minutes ; and ascending thence 


68 Route W. BERGEN. Hotels. 

for 8 mill, more across the Kid, or neck of land separating the two 
lakes , we reach the extremely picturesque and exquisitely clear 
Rinyedalsvand (about 1500 ft. above the sea), with the huge 
Einsatfjeld rising towards the S. (A high wind sometimes prevails 
here, while the fjord below is quite calm, in which case the night 
must be spent at the gaard, or the excursion must be renounced 
altogether. A second rower is desirable, but not always procurable ; 
fee 1 kr. 80 0.) This magnificent mountain-lake is 8 Kil. in 
length, and the row to its upper end takes nearly l 1 ^ nr - ; about 
halfway we enjoy a fine retrospective view of the huge snow- 
mantle of the Folgefond. On the left, farther on, the picturesque 
TyKnestrenge fall from a precipice upwards of 500 ft. high, uniting 
in one cascade about halfway down the face of the rock. On landing 
at the upper end of the lake, we ascend across 'Ur' to the (20 min.) 
foot of the *Skjseggedalsfos (530 ft.), which though perhaps less 
imposing than the Veringsfos (p. 61) is much more picturesque. 
The water descends at first in veil-like streamers, which farther 
down unite into a single fall. In summer the volume of water is 
somewhat scanty , but when the snow is melting (Flomtid) and 
after heavy rain the effect is very grand. 

10. Bergen and Environs. 

Arrival. The large sea-going steamers cast anchor in the harbour, 
whence passengers are conveyed ashore in small boats (20 0. each person). 
The smaller vessels lay to at the Holbergs Almenning. Porter (Bcerer) 
to the principal hotels, V2-I kr. — Travellers leaving Bergen by steamboat 
should, if possible, secure berths by going on board in person several 
hours or the day before the vessel starts. — The Railway Station (PI. 1) 
is in the S. part of the town, near the Lille Lungegaardsvand. 

Hotels. 'Holdt's Hotel (PI. c), in the street called Veiten, about 
20 min. from the steamboat-quay, R. l>/2-2, B. i'/s, D. 3 kr., L. and A. 
1 kr. 20 0. ; baths in the house; Hot. Nokge, in the Torv, the property 
of a company, opened in 1885 as a hotel of the first rank; Scandinavie 
(PI. b), in the Plads called Klosteret, 10 min. from the quay, "Nord- 
stjeknen (PI. d), Raadstue-Plads , near the Exchange , and 20 min. from 
the landing-place; Hotel Beegen (PI. a), Strand-Gaden, to the E. of the 
Nykirke, well spoken of, R. 2 kr. ; these three are less pretending than 
Holdt's and the 'Norge\. — Britannia, Campbell's , both in the Strand- 
Gaden, to theE. of the Nykirke; Smith's, Strand-Gaden, to the W. of the 
Nykirke; all second-class. In summer the hotels are often full. — Restau- 
rants at the hotels. — Madsen, confectioner, Torv-Almenningen. 

Carriages to be had of Heyer, a 'Vognmand' in the Musse-Gade. Cab- 
stands at the Exchange and the steamboat-pier. 

Boats, here called Flat (Fletmand, 'a boatman'), according to tariff (Taxi). 
Persons in want of a boat hail one by shouting 'FleC , to which the 
boatman usually replies, '/rt vel, Mosje\ A trip towards the N.W. is 
described as udover, towards the Torv at the head of the bay as indover, 
towards the N.E. side (Fljjifjeld) as opover, and to the S.W. as nedover. 

Post Office (PI. 6), Smaastrand-Gaden. Telegraph Office (PI. 2), at the 
back of the Exchange (p. 73). 

Shops. "Hammer, Strand-Gaden, Norwegian antiquities, modern silver 
ornaments, and pictures; Brandt, Strand-Gaden, furs; Kahrs, Strand-Gaden, 
fishing-tackle, travelling requisites, alpenstocks; Michelsen, Strand-Gaden, 
wood-carvings ; Giertsen, Ny gaard, and Flor, booksellers, all in the Strand- 

1. Banegaard 11. Bored -Biandvagi 

2. Borscn £ Telegraf )2..Forskjdmielsen 

3. Byens Srgehus 
\.EathoGl;e Ei-he 
5. Ereditbanken 

8. Solvit (Badehus) 

9. Stadsporteit 



BERGEN. 10. Route. 69 

Gade; also Th. Beyer (stationery), Strand-Gaden, 2. Vedeler, Torvet, figures 
in Norwegian costumes. (Hair-dresser, Andreas Pettersen , Olaf Kyrre's 
Gaden 6. — Spirits and Liqueurs at the not very numerous shops belonging 
to the company (Brcendevins-Samlag), which monopolises the trade in 
spirituous liquors. At some of the shops liquors are sold in hottles only, 
at others by the glass. The shopkeepers are the servants of the company, 
and derive no profit from the sale. After payment of a dividend of 
5 per cent, the surplus profits are paid to the municipality. The 'per- 
missive act' under which the company has bought up all the licenses 
to sell spirits, has been adopted by many other Norwegian towns and 
parishes, and is said to have produced most beneficial results. 

Banks. Norges Bank, Bergens Credit-Bank, and Privalbank, all in the 

Baths. Warm, in the Sygehus (PI. 3) in Engen and at Holdfs (PI. c). 
Sea-baths at the Selyst (PI. 8), by the fortress; for gentlemen 7-9 and 
3-S o'clock; for ladies 10-2 o'clock. 

Theatre, in Engen (p. 74). — Music in the Park several times 
weekly, 12-1, also 8-10 p.m. (adm. 10 «r.); also near Christie^ Statue. 

Consuls. British, Mr. II. D. Janson, Strand-Gaden, S.W. side, a few 
doors S.E. from the SmUrs-Almenning. American , Mr. F. G. Glide, 
Smaastrand-Gaden. German, Hr. C. Mohr. 

English Church Service in summer in the l Gamle MwsmnrrC school- 
house, on the N. side of the Lille Lungegaards-Vand, near the Park, and 
5 min. from Holdt's Hotel. 

Steamboats. To Stavanger (R. 8), several times daily, direct and in- 
direct; to the Hardanger Fjord (R. 9), five times weekly, to Christiania, 
six times weekly ; to the Sognefjord (R. 14), five times weekly ; to Thrond- 
hjem (R. 19), four times a week, &c. Comp. the 'Erindringsliste' in Norges 
Communication er. 

Bergen (N. lat. 60° 23'), one of the oldest and most picturesque 
towns in Norway, with 38,600 inhab., lies on a hilly peninsula 
and isthmus bounded on the N. by the Vaag and the By fjord, on 
the S.E. by the Lungegaards-Vand, and on the S.W. by the Pudde- 
fjord. In the background rise four mountains, about 2000 ft. in 
height, Blaamanden (Fleifjeldet) to the N.E., Vlriken to the S.E. , 
and Levstakken and Lyderhorn to the S.W. ; but the citizens, 
on the analogy of the seven hills of Rome , enumerate seven 
(Sandviksfjeldet, Fleifjeldet, Vlriken, Levstakken, Damsgaardsfjeldet, 
Lyderhorn, and the Askefjeld in the island of Aske to the N.W.). 
The armorial bearings of the town also contain seven hills (form- 
erly seven balls). The climate is exceedingly mild and humid, 
somewhat resembling that of the W. coast of Scotland; the frosts 
of winter are usually slight and of short duration, the thermometer 
very rarely falling below 15-20° Fahr., and the average rainfall is 
72 inches (in the Nordfjord about 78 in., at Christiania 20 in. 
only). The mean temperature of the whole year is 45° Fahr. 
(Christiania, 41°), and that of July 58° (Christiania, 62°). Owing 
to the mildness of the climate the vegetation in the neighbourhood 
is unusually rich ; flowers are abundant, while grain and fruit in 
ordinary seasons ripen fairly well. Like most of the Norwegian 
towns and villages, however, Bergen and its smiling environs are 
closely hedged in by sterile, rocky mountains. The town is rapidly 
extending to the S.E., towards the Lille and Store Lungegaards- 
Vand, picturesque sheets of water, which, however, are apt to have 

70 Route 10. BERGEN. History. 

an unpleasant stagnant smell in warm weather, especially at low 
tide. They are both connected with the sea, and each is crossed 
by a bridge at its outlet, the mouth of the latter being called 
Stremmen. The older and more interesting part of the town, which 
still bears traces of its antiquity, lies on the S. and E. sides of the 
Vmiy, a bay of the Byfjord, and the chief harbour of the town. 

The part of the town situated to the S.E. of the harbour, 
having been burned down in 1855, has been rebuilt in a hand- 
some modern style, but the other quarters (Kvartaler) consist of 
closely built wooden houses painted white. Many of the houses 
are roofed with red tiles, which present a picturesque appearance. 
The streets running parallel with the harbour are called 'Gader', 
the lanes and passages 'Sniuger' or 'Smitter', and these are inter- 
sected at right angles by wide open spaces called 'Almenningen', 
designed chiefly to prevent the spreading of conflagrations. Not- 
withstanding this precaution , Bergen has been repeatedly de- 
stroyed by lire, as for example in 1702, the disaster of which year 
is described by Peter Dass (p. 232) in two pleasing poems ('Samlede 
Skrifter', i. 1874). It is from these open spaces only, and from 
the Tydskebrygge, that a view of the harbour is obtained, the 
greater part of its banks being occupied by warehouses (Segaarde). 
A conduit now supplies the town with water from Svartediket 
(j>. 76) , affording much greater facilities for extinguishing tires 
than formerly existed. 

The inhabitants of Bergen, like theHorlaendingerandVossinger, 
are more vivacious in temperament than those of other parts of 
Norway, and are noted for their sociability and light-heartedness. 
On holiday occasions their merry songs and lively chat testify to 
the buoyancy of their spirits, while at the same time they are a 
sober and frugal race. Waterproofs and umbrellas are quite as 
much in vogue here as in England, and they are certainly far more 
necessary. — Most of the better-educated inhabitants speak Eng- 
lish or German, or both. 

Bergen (from Bjergvin, 'pasture near the mountains') was founded by 
King Olaf Kyrre in 1070-75 on the site of the old royal residence of Aal- 
rekstad, at the E. end of the present harbour, which at that period ran 
inland as far as the Cathedral. The town must soon have become an 
important place, as the greatest battles in the civil wars of the sub- 
sequent centuries were fought in its neighbourhood. In 1135 Magnus 
Sigurdssjim was taken prisoner here and deprived of his sight by Ha- 
rald Oille, who in his turn was slain by Sigurd Slembe the following 
year. In 1154 Harald's son Sigurd Mund was killed by the followers of 
his brother Inge on the quay of Bergen. In 1181 a naval battle took 
place near the Nordnass between kings Magnus and Sverre; and in 1188 
the Kuvlunger and 0skjegger were defeated by Sverre at the naval battle 
of Florvaag (near the Askp). Ten years later, during the so-called 'Bergen 
suuiiuer'', the rival parties of the Birkebeiner and the Bugler fought against 
each other in the town and neighbourhood. In 1223 a national diet was 
held at Bergen , at which Haakon. Haakvnseit's title to the crown was 
recognised (a scene dramatised in Ibsen's Kongsemnerne, Act. i.J. During 
his reign Bergen was the largest and busiest town in Norway, and boasted 


BERGEN. 10. Route. 71 

of no fewer than thirty churches and monasteries, and of many handsome 
buildings, of which but few traces now remain. For its subsequent com- 
mercial prosperity the town was indebted to the Hanseatic League, which 
established a factory here about the middle of the 15th century. From 
the Comptoir of the factory the German merchants were known as Ron- 
torske, and the nickname o"f Garper (probably from garpa, 'to talk loudly), 
was also applied to them. These settlers having obtained -various privi- 
leges from the Danish government, gradually succeded in monopolising the 
whole trade of northern and western Norway, and in excluding the Eng- 
lish, Scottish, and Dutch traders , and even the Norwegians themselves, 
from all participation in their traffic. These foreign monopolists, how- 
ever, after having wielded their authority with great oppressiveness for 
upwards of a century, were succesfully opposed by Christopher Valken- 
dorf in 1559, after which their power gradually declined. Their 'Comp- 
tuir' continued to exist for two centuries more, but at length in 1763 the 
last remnant of their property was sold to a native of Norway. 

Down to the beginning of the 17th cent. Bergen was a much more 
important commercial place than Copenhagen, and even at the beginning 
of the 19th cent, it was more populous than Christiania. (At the present 
day Christiania carries on 32 per cent of the whole trade of Norway, 
while Bergen's proportion is 16 per cent only.) 

Among the natives of Bergen who have attained celebrity may be 
mentioned Ludwig Holberg, the traveller, social reformer, and poet (d. 1754), 
Johan Welhaven, the poet (d. 1873), J. G. Dahl, the painter (d. 1857), and 
Ole Bull, the musician. 

Fish has always been the staple commodity of Bergen, which 
is the greatest fish-mart in Norway. The Hanseatic merchants 
compelled all the northern fishermen and traders to send their flsh 
to Bergen, and down to the present day the trade still flows mainly 
through its old channels. In May and June occurs the first Nord- 
far-StcBvne ('arrival of northern seafarers'), when the fishermen of 
the N. coasts arrive here with their deeply laden Jcegter, vessels 
which still retain the shape of the ancient dragon-ships of the 
Vikings. Their cargoes consist chiefly of train-oil (manufactured 
from the liver of the cod or the torsk, and either 'blank', i. e. co- 
lourless, 'brun-blank', or 'brun') and roe (Rogn) ; and in July and 
August (the second l Stmvne , \ they bring supplies of 'Kliplisk' 
and 'fiundfisk' (comp. p. 242). Bergen also possesses a consid- 
erable mercantile fleet, and the largest shipbuilding yards in Nor- 
way (as that of Brunchorst § Deekes on the Puddef jord ; Braadbanken, 
by the Tydskebrygge ; Marten Otien at Laxevaag ; and a Mekanisk 
Varksted or engine-factory on the Solheimsvik). 

Public Buildings . The most interesting are the Kongshall 
and Talkendorfs Taarn near Bergenhus. (Permission to be 
obtained from the commandant ; fee to the soldier who acts as a 
guide, !/2-l kr.). The historically interesting hall, erected in the 
13th cent., and once a royal banquet-room, was long sadly neglect- 
ed but has recently been restored. Valkendorfs Tower, also 
known as the Rosenkrantz Tower, originally built by Haakon 
Haakonsen in the 13th cent., was enlarged by Rosenkrantz in 
1565, and restored in 1848. The name includes two towers, 
of which the older is on the S. side. The interior, which con- 
tains several handsome chimney - pieces , is now used as an 

72 Route W. BERGEN. Churches, 

Arsenal (interesting flags). The gallery at the top commands an 
excellent survey of the harbour and the town. The parapet bears 
the inscription: 'Patientia fertilis arbor'. — The adjoining fortress 
of Bergenlius contains the House of Correction ('Slaverief), to the 
N. of which is the ancient *Sverresborg , now converted into a 
pleasant promenade. 

Off the fortress of Bergenlius a naval battle took place in 1665 be- 
tween an English fleet of fourteen frigates, commanded by Admiral Thomas 
Tidiliinaii , and a Dutch mercantile fleet of sixty East Indiamen, under 
the command of Admiral van Bitter. The Dutch vessels had sought refuge 
under the guns of the fortress, the Danish commandant of which, den. 
I'icignon, without special instructions, took the part of the Hollanders. 
The English vessels were ranged in a semicircle extending from Bergen- 
lius to Nordnass , while the Dutch lay between Braadbsenken and the 
Nykirke. After a contest of three hours, during which several cannon- 
balls (now gilded) struck Valkendorfs Tower, the Cathedral, and the 
Stadport, the united Dutch and Danish arms were victorious, and the 
British fleet was compelled to retreat with a loss of 600 killed and wounded. 

On the hill on the opposite side of the harbour rises Fort 
Frederiksberg, now a Brandvagt or fire-station, adjoining which is 
the Observatory. On this hill there are also several excellent 
points of view , one of the finest being the neighbouring For- 
skjennelse , between the Nykirke-Almenning and the Holbergs-Al- 
menning. The latter 'Plads' derives its name from Ludvig Holberg, 
the poet (p. lxxv), who was born in a house here (now demolish- 
ed) in 1684. 

Churches. Bergen is said to have once boasted of no fewer 
than 32 churches, the largest of which were the Christkirke, in 
which Haakon Haakonsen (1264) and other Norwegian kings are 
interred, the Apostelkirke, an imitation of the Sainte Chapelle at 
Paris, St. Olafs, St. Nicholas's, and St. Columbus's. It also 
possessed several monasteries , including that of Munkliv on the 
Nordnses , the foundations of which were recently discovered in 
the Plads called Klosteret, but are not now visible. None of these 
buildings, however, now exist, and there are four or five churches 
only worthy of notice. The St. Maria: Kirke, or Tydsk Kirke, to 
the E. of Bergenhus, built in the 12th cent, and extended in the 
13th, has a Romanesque nave, a Gothic choir, and two modern 
towers, and contains an interesting pulpit and altar. For a long 
period the services in this church were conducted in German ex- 
clusively, afterwards in German and Danish alternately, and now 
in Danish alone. Several of the interesting Tombstones bear 
German names, some of which date from the first half of the 
present century. "When the Kuvlunger were dispersed by King 
Sverre in 1188, Jon Kuvlung , their chief, was slain, and his re- 
mains were buried in this church. In 1206 the Birkebeiner 
(Haakon Jarl and Peter Steyger) signally defeated the Bagler (Philip 
Jarl and Erling Steinvcey) on the ground between this church and 
that of St. Lawrence, a little to the N., and a number of the 
latter were also interred here. 

Tydskebryggen. BERGEN. 10. Route. 73 

The Cathedral, or St. Olaf i Vaagsbunden ('at the head of the 
creek'), originally a monastery-church, erected in 1248, was 
rebuilt in 1537 and restored in 1870. The interior, consisting of 
a nave with a single S. aisle, contains nothing worthy of notice. 
The Gothic windows and the portal in the lower story of the tower 
are interesting. The font consists of a basin inserted in a laurel- 
wreath borne by an angel suspended from the ceiling. — Near the 
Cathedral are the Kathedral-Skole, or Latin-Skole, the Sefarendes- 
Fattiyltus (sailors' hospital), and the Spetal, or St. Jergen's Hospital, 
for the reception of 'Spedalske' or lepers. 

The Korskirke, or Church of the Cross, in the Hollaender- 
gade, where Nils Klim, famous by Holberg's' Subterranean Journey' 
(p. lxxv), was once sacristan, is uninteresting. — In the neigh- 
bourhood are the streets of the Skomagere, Skinnere, Bagere, 
Guldsmede , and Barberer , deriving their names from the 'fif 
Amten' or Ave handicrafts of the German artizans once settled 
here. The great Are of 1855 extended to this point. ■ — The 
Nykirke on the Nordnses is a plain edifice, but the Roman Catholic 
St. Paulskirke (PI. 4) deserves notice. 

At the head (S.E. end) of the harbour, lies the Torv, or 
Market Place, adjoined on the N. by the Vitterslevs-Almenning, and 
on the S. by the Torve-Almenning. In the former is situated the 
new Covered Market, usually known as the Basar, a handsome 
edifice in brick and stone, completed in 1877. From this point a 
winding road ascends to the spurs of the Fleifjeld , or we may 
proceed to the left through the 0vre Gade to the Mariaekirke. In 
the opposite direction is the Torve-Almenning, ascending to the 
S., and containing the handsomest modern buildings in the city, 
including the Exchange (PI. 2), the principal banks, and some of the 
best shops. At the top of the hill rises the -Statue of Christie, the 
president of the first Norwegian Storthing , which concluded the 
convention with Sweden in 1814 (comp. p. 115). The statue is by 
Borch. The right hand holds a scroll bearing the words, 'Norge 
Riges Grundlov' ('fundamental law of the Kingdom of Norway'). At 
the S. end of the Plads is the Town Library. — From the Torv, at 
the head of the harbour, projects a pier called Triangelen from 
its shape, at which the fishermen of the neighbourhood , called 
Striler, and said to be of Scottish origin, usually land their fish. 
The *Fish Market held here is very interesting, especially on 
Wednesdays and Saturdays, from 8 to 10 o'clock. 

To the N. of the Torv, on the N.W. side of the harbour, ex- 
tends Tydskebryggen, or the German Quay, bordered with a long 
series of warehouses, painted white, with large windows. In front 
of each rises a wooden Vippebom, or crane of simple and primitive 
construction, used in unloading the fish brought to Bergen by the 
Northmen's smacks. The Tydskebrygge , the ancient Hanseatic 
quarter, assumed its present form after the fire of 1702. Here 

74 Route. 70. BERGEN. Museum. 

resided the clerks of the Hanseatic merchants of Bremen, Liibeck, 
and other towns belonging to the League. Owing probably to the 
jealousy subsisting between the rival nations, these clerks were for- 
bidden to marry. There were sixteen different gaards, named as 
follows (reckoned from the Torv) : Finnegaarden , Dramshusen, 
Hratten, Leppen, Rcevelsgaarden, Solegaarden, Kappen, Kjalderen 
(which contained the old Exchange), and the Holrnedals, Jacobs, 
S rends, Enhernings, Hreds, Bue, Engel, Sester, and Ouldsho Oaarde. 
Each gaard was subdivided into Stuer, or suites of apartments, 
belonging to different proprietors, who met on certain occasions 
in their Skyttningsstue, or council-room. A chamber of this kind 
is still preserved in the Dramshus. In the Klever, or small rooms 
on the second or third floor, were lodged the servants of the 
establishment. Yngvar Nielsen, in his history of Bergen (Christia- 
nia, 1877), points out that the Skyttningsstue and the whole ar- 
rangement of these gaards are of genuine old Norwegian origin, 
and were not imported from Germany. Each gaard was presided 
over by a Bygherre, and each merchant had a clerk and one or 
more servants (Byleber) resident here. 

Mr. J. W. Olsen's Hanseatic Museum in the Finnegaard gives an ex- 
cellent representation of the manner in which the Gaards were fitted up 
and contains also a collection of articles belonging to the old Hanseatic 
merchants, including furniture, weapons, and lire-extinguishing apparatus, 
mostly dating from the latest Hanseatic period. On the Geound-Flook 
were the warehouses; on the First Floor is an outer room leading to 
the ^Stavei?, or office of the manager, with his eating and sleeping apart- 
ment behind; and on the Second Floor are the i Kldven\ or sleeping 
apartments of the clerks and servants. — As the use of fire or light in the 
main building was forbidden, a common room (Skjotstuen) for the use of 
all the inmates of each Gaard, was erected at some little distance behind 
it, near the vegetable gardens. The remains of only a few of these are 
now extant ; but one has lately been restored in the Dramshus. 

On the peninsula of Nordnses , extending from the Torve- 
Almenning to the N.W., lies the greater part of the town, the 
principal streets in which are the long and busy Strand-Qade and 
Markevei. In the Muralmenning is an old building called Muren 
('the wall'), with a passage through it. One of the finest views in 
Bergen is obtained from the Frederiksberg (p. 72), the highest 
part of the Nordnfes. At the S.E. end of the Nordnses, and a little 
to the W. of the Torve-Almenning, lies Engen (formerly JonsvolS), 
the largest 'Plads' in the town, where the Theatre (W. angle) and 
the Picture Gallery of the Kunstforening (near the E. corner) are 
situated. The latter chiefly contains modern works, including a 
number by Tidemand, Bodom, and Eckersberg. Among the older 
pictures are : Mary, Princess of England, by VanDyck; an En- 
tombment, by T. Mengs; and the Riigianer seeking to purchase 
their liberty from the Holsteiners, a drawing by Carstens (1779). 

The Museum, a handsome building completed in 1865, on 
the Sydnwshoug, a hill rising to the S. of Engen, contains several 
valuable collections. It is reached either by following Olaf 


BERGEN. 10. Route. 75 

Kyrre's Gaden, which passes on the left the large and handsome 
building of the Arbeider- Forming (artizans' club), and then turn- 
ing to the left into Christie's Gaden; or by the latter street, which 
passes the Lille Lungeyaards-Vand, the Railway Station (PI. 1), 
and the tastefully built Roman Catholic church (p. 72) on the left. 
The Museum is open to the public on Mondays, Wednesdays, and 
Fridays, 11-1 o'clock ; on Sundays 11.30 to 1.30 and (in summer) 
4-6 ; at other times admission 25 e. each person. On the ground- 
floor is the Library (Tues., Thurs., Sat., 11-1). 

In the entrance-hall, to the right, are two carved wooden Church- 
portals from Sognedal, probably 16th cent., and several Kunic monuments. 
The Antiquarian Collection (good catalogue by Lorange, 50 0), on the ground- 
lloor, consists chiefly of tankards, and carved cabinets, wardrobes, and 
beds, including a handsome bedstead of the 17th cent., probably of Dutch 
workmanship, and a curious writing-desk of, the same period. — The 
Ethnographical Collection comprises china, drinking-horns, guns, early 
frescoes , well-preserved ecclesiastical vessels, fonts in soapstone, and a 
fine altar-piece in carved oak with wings, probably Cologne workmanship 
of the beginning of the 16th cent. ; also implements of the flint and early 
iron periods. 

The Natural History Collection (first floor; catalogue 25 0.) comprises 
an interesting and very complete set of specimens of Norwegian fish and 
marine animals (several fine seals and walruses , curious sun-fish, etc.), 
all of which are labelled with the Norwegian and the Latin names. 

The prettily laid out grounds behind the Museum command 
fine views, and are provided with benches. 

Walks. One of the most interesting walks in the immediate 
vicinity of the town is afforded by the *Fjeldvei, a new road 
running along the side of the Fleifjeld, to the N.E. of the town, 
and commanding an extensive view of the town and environs. 
We may ascend to it either from the N. of the town, near Fredens 
Bolig, or from the Vitterlevs-Almeiming, passing the Brandvagt. 
Near the Brandvagt is a lime-tree out of which grows a mountain- 
ash. The Fjeldvei is to be prolonged to Svartediket (p. 76). — A 
more extensive view is gained from the iron vane, or FLeien, at the 
top of the hill (820 ft.), to which it has given its name. 

Another interesting walk may be taken to the N. of the Marise- 
kirke, passing to the E. of the Sverresborg, to Skudeviken, and 
along the coast to Sandviken, with theStoremelle. We may return 
thence by ascending the bank of the Mulelv, which issues from 
the Skradderdal, as far as Smaamellen, and crossing the hill by a 
road which passes the Rothoug. A number of pleasant villas are 
passed, and a fine view obtained of the Skjsergaard ('belt of 
islands', of which the Aske is the most important) and of the 
mountains to the S. of Bergen. 

A very favourite walk is from the Cathedral by Kong Oscar's 
Gaden, past the pretty Cemetery of St. Jacob, which contains a 
monument to Christie, to the Stadsport (PI. 9), where the municipal 
archives are preserved. To the right , farther on , is the finely 
situated Cemetery, whence we obtain a beautiful view of Vlriken, 
Lerstukken, and other hills rising beyond the Store Lungegaards- 

76 Route 10. BERGEN. 

Vand. To the left, at the base of the Fleifjeld, amid rich vege- 
tation , are a number of pleasant villas. We next observe the 
public promenade called Forskjennelsen (PI. 12), and on the right the 
Fleiestiftelse for lepers and Lungegaards Hospital. About 10 min. 
walk from the Stadsport is Kalfartt ('Calvary' ; connected with 
which there was formerly a 'Jerusalem' and a 'Nobiskrug'). The 
road in a straight direction leads to Fleen and Mellendal. That 
ascending to the left leads into the Kalvedal (refreshments). 
Farther on, about i l fe Engl. M. from the gate, is *Svartediket, 
formerly called Aalrekstadvand , a lake enclosed by barren rocks, 
whence Bergen is supplied with water. The Ulriken is a very con- 
spicuous object from this point. The scene here is so bleak that 
it is difficult to believe that we are almost within a stone's throw 
of rich vegetation. 

We may now cross the outlet of the lake , proceed to the right to 
Mellen, and descend by a beautiful shady road to the Store Lungegaards- 
Vand (formerly Aalrekstadsvaag), whence a road leads back to Kalfaret, 
while another leads to the S. round this picturesque sheet of water to 
the Nygaardsbro, the bridge crossing the Store Strem. This 'stream' con- 
nects the Lungegaards-Vand with the Solheimsvik (and the Puddefjord), 
and the tide which flows in and out serves as a motive power for several 
mills, which are thus always kept going except at high and at low water. 
A pleasant avenue called the Nygaards-AUee (planted in 1750) leads from 
the Nygaardsbro past the Museum into the town. 

A short excursion may be taken from Nestet, to the W. of Engen, 
by a small steamer which starts from the landing-place here every '/4 hr., 
across the Puddefjord to Laxevaag , with its large shipbuilding-yards 
and dry docks. We then walk to the pretty Qravdal at the foot of the 
Lyderhom (1350 ft.), which may easily be ascended from this point, or to 
the E. along the bank of the fjord, passing pleasant villas, to Solheims- 
viken, with its extensive Mekanisk Vwrksted, and to the Nygaardsbro (see 

Excursions to Fjesanger and the estate of Fantoft see below. 

A pleasant trip may be taken in the small steamer which plies on 
the two Lungegaard Lakes (every l /t hr.). A visit may also be paid by 
steamboat to Ask#en, the large island in the Skjsergaard to the N.W. of 
Bergen (1 hr.); the Udsigt (Dyrteigen, l l? hr.) here commands a splendid 
panorama of the sea and coast. 

1 1 . From Bergen to Vossevangen and on to Eide on the 
Har danger fjord or to Gudvangen on the Sognefjord. 

The Eailwat ('Vossebane'') from Bergen to Vossevangen (108 Kil. or 
G6 Engl. M., in 4 hrs. 25 min. ; fares 7 kr. 70, 3 kr. 85 0.), opened in 1882, 
has greatly facilitated access to the inner ramifications of the Hardanger- 
fjord and the Sognefjord. — From Vossevangen to Eide, 30 Kil. (19'/'.' 
Engl. J[.), road with 'fast' stations. — From Vossevangen to Gudvangen, 
44 Kil. (28 Engl. M.), also with 'fast' stations. — Diligence, see p. 78. 

Bergen, see R. 10. — The railway (station, see p. 68; best 
views to the left) passes through a short tunnel immediately after 
leaving Bergen, crosses the Store Strain and runs towards the S., 
skirting the base of the Ulriken, which here rises to the left. — 
6 Kil. Fjesanger, with pretty villas, on the Kordaasvand, adorn- 
ed with its verdant islets. Near the station is the beautiful estate 

VOSSEVANGEN. //. Route 77 

of Fantoft, belonging to Mr. Gade, the American Consul. Visitors 
are freely admitted to the grounds, where an old 'Stavekirkc' 
(p. 22) has been re-erected. 

The railway then gradually ascends to (10 Kil.) Nestun or Nedsl- 
tun, near Midtunbro, which possesses some marble-quarries. The 
station commands a splendid view over the surrounding country. 

The train now turns suddenly to the N.E., crosses the Nestun- 
Elv several times and enters the Langedal, passing through 
five tunnels and skirting the W. bank of the (frimen-Vand and 
the Haukelands-Vand. 19 Kil. Haukeland-Lone, at the N. end 
of the latter lake, on the banks of which there are several gaards. 
26 Kil. Ame, with a church, at the S. end of the Arnefjord, a 
narrow branch of the Serefjord. 

30 Kil. Garnses (69 ft.), on the Serefjord, opposite Hausviken. 
The train now descends along the S. bank of the lake. The con- 
struction of the railway here is of considerable interest ; no fewer 
than ten short tunnels are traversed before the next station. The 
N. bank of the fjord is formed by the island of Ostere. 

41 Kil. (2oEngl. M.) Trengereid. The train passes through 
three more tunnels and runs to the N. along the E. bank of the 
Osterfjord, affording a view of the Oster» and the church of Brud- 
ink. On the pretty Ulfsnms-0 a new boarding-school has been built. 
Piercing several tunnels, the train crosses the Vaxdal-Elv and 
reaches (52 Kil.) Vaxdal, with a large mill. Then, after six tunnels, 
(60 Kil.) Stanghelle, where the train crosses the Stanghellestrmn, 
descending to 'the Osterfjord from the Dalevaagen. Tunnel. 
Between (68 Kil.) Dale (short branch to the Dale Fakriker) and the 
next station nine tunnels are passed. The train now reaches the 
S. bank of the Bolstadsfjord, an arm of the Osterfjord. 

78 Kil. Bolstad (Inn), at the E. end of the fjord of that name, 
almost entirely enclosed by rocky hills, is visited several times 
weekly by the Bergen steamers. The train passes through seven 
tunnels, ascends the left bank of the Vosseelv, which here forms 
several rapids, and then skirts the S. bank of the Evangervand. 

89 Kil. Evanger, at the head of the lake of that name. The 
village, with the church and inn, lies opposite the station, on the 
N. bank of the Vosseelv, which here enters the Evangervand. To 
the S. towers the Myklethveiten (3753 ft.), which may be ascended 
from Evanger in 2-3 hrs. and commands an extensive view of the 
Hardanger. — Further on the train follows the left bank of the 
Vosseelv, which expands at places till it looks more like a lake 
than a river. Crossing the river it runs past (100 Kil.) Bulken, 
and along the N. bank of the picturesque Vangsvand (120 ft.), to 
(108 Kil., 65 Engl. M.) Voss or — 

Vossevangen. — Hotels. 'Fleischer's Hotel and Station, near the 
station and lake, comfortable, R. 1 kr. 20 0., D. 2kr.; "Vossevangen Hotel, 
kept by Dykeaten, in the village, unpretending (good cuisine). 

78 Route 11. SKJERVET. 

Carriages. It is usual to engage carriages here (at the skyds charge 
of 17 0. per Kil.) for the whole route to Eide nr Gudvangen , as much 
time is otherwise lost in changing horses. 

Diligence to Bide daily, in 3 hrs., starting generally at 3 p.m. (fare 
4'/2kr.); in the reverse direction in 3'/2 hrs., leaving Eide at 8.30 a.m. 
(fare 4 kr. 95 #.). — To Gudvangen, every week-day except Thursday, in 
b' hrs., starting at 3 p.m. (fare 7 kr.). 

Vossevangen is charmingly situated at the E. end of the Vangs- 
vand, and is admirably suited for a prolonged stay. It commands 
a view to the S. of the lofty and imposing Graasiden (4250 ft.). 
The stone Church, dating from the 13th cent., contains an ancient 
altar-piece, several memorial tablets of the 17th and 18th cent., 
a candelabrum of 1733, and a Bible of 1589. (The 'Klokker', or 
sacristan, lives in the house to the N.W.) L. Holherg, the Danish 
poet, was tutor at the parsonage in 1702. The admirably cultivated 
environs of Vossevangen may be termed the kitchen-garden of Ber- 
gen . Large farms lie on every side , exhibiting an area of tilled 
land very unusual in Norway. 

From Vossevangen to Eide (30 Kil. ; fast stations ; carriole 
17 0. per Kil.). The road leads to the S.E. , at first skirting the 
Vosseelv, and then gradually ascending to its highest point(858 ft.). 
The country is pretty and well cultivated , but somewhat mono- 
tonous. The silver fir is seen here at intervals. The road then 
descends gradually and crosses the boundary of the Hardanger 
('llarang') district. A number of marshy ponds impart a dark 
brown colour to the water of the Skjerveselv, which flows southwards. 
The upper part of the valley terminates suddenly (as at Stalheim, 
p. 79) , and the road descends in zigzags into the profound and 
picturesque valley known as *Skjervet, flanked with imposing 
rocks. On the left the Skjervefos is precipitated in the form of. a 
veil over the black slate rock. The vegetation becomes richer as we 
descend, the lime and the ash occurring frequently here. Farther 
on we pass a number of old moraines. On the left is the Skorvefos. 

12 Kil. Seim i Graven, or 0vre Vasenden (tolerable station ; 
another inn a little farther on), is prettily situated on the Gravens- 
vand, the E. bank of which is skirted by the road. Opposite 
rises the lofty Ncesheimshorgen. From Gravens-Kirke, about half- 
way between Vasenden and Eide, a very steep and hilly road crosses 
the mountain to (17 Kil. ; pay for 29) Vlvik (p. 59), a beautiful 
walk or ride of 4i/ 2 hrs., but hardly suitable for driving. We next 
pass Nedre Vasenden, at the lower end of the Gravensvand, pass 
through a rocky defile, and soon reach — 

8 Kil. Eide (see p. 58). 

From Vossevangen to Gudvangen, 46 Kil., a drive of about 
6 hrs. (carriole 17 e. per Kil.; fast stations, see p. 76). The road 
threads a picturesque ravine, ascends the Vossestrands-Elv, and 
skirts the E. banks of the Lundarvand and Lenevand, from which 


that river issues. Fertile, wooded district. To the left towers the 
precipitous Lenehorgen (4570 ft.) , to the right the horn-shaped 
Hondalsnut (4990 ft.), each of which maybe ascended from Vosse- 
vangen in 5-6 hrs. (almost the whole way on horseback). 12 Kil. 
(pay for 15) Tvinde i Voss (2*26 ft.), a poor station. To the left is 
the beautiful Tvinde fos. The road now becomes steeper, and 
crosses the river twice. The valley is shut in by lofty wooded 
cliffs. About '/ 2 nr - before Vinje the Vossestrands-Elv receives 
the Mvrkadalselv, along which a well-trodden path leads to Aarmot 
and Vik (10-12 hrs. ; p. 113). 

10 Kil. (pay for 14) Vinje i Vossestranden (900 ft.), tolerable 
station, situated in the midst of pleasant scenery. The road now 
runs to the E. to the Opheimsvand (970 ft.), which contains abund- 
ance of fish, and passes the Opheims-Kirke, picturesquely situated 
on the bank of this lake (the landhandler Sjur's Inn is recom- 
mended for a short stay). The ring of lofty mountains here, con- 
sisting mainly of light grey felspath, produces a curious effect. To 
the S. rises the Malmagremmaave (3600 ft.), to the E. the Aaxlen 
and Kaldafjeld. 

We now cross the watershed between the Bolstadsfjord and the 
Sognefjord, and reach the Nceredals-Elv, which flows into the latter, 
not far from the former station Stalheim i Vossestranden , near the 
top of the magnificent Stalheimsklev (1120 ft.; new Hotel), a pre- 
cipitous slope which the road descends in windings to the Nceredal 
(275 ft.), commanding a magnificent view (see p. 109). 

23 Kil. (pay for 32) Oudvangen, see p. 109. 

12. From Christiania through the Hallingdal to 
Laerdalseren on the Sognefjord. 

The chief land-routes from Christiania to Bergen are three in num- 
ber. One of these, via Kongsoerg, or via Skien, and Odde on the Har= 
danger Fjord, has already been described. The two others lead through 
the Hallingdal and Valders respectively to LserdalsOTen on the Sognefjord. 
The route via Odde, although exceedingly attractive, is comparatively rarely 
selected, as one of the stages has still to be performed on horseback or 
on foot. By either of the two others the traveller is conveyed the whole 
way to Bergen -by train, steamer, and carriole. By the Hallingdal route 
it is possible to perform the whole journey to Bergen in 5-6 days, but 
for any of the other routes 6-7 days at least are required. 

The Hallingdal route to L8erdals0ren takes 4 days. The grandeur of 
the scenery between Christiania and the Sognefjord increases as the 
traveller proceeds from E. to W. , so that either the route through the 
Hallingdal or that through the Valders (R. 13) should be selected ingoing 
to Bergen, while the return-journey may be made either by way of the 
Komsdal (E. 15), or by Throndhjem and the railway (E. 26), or by sea 
round the S. coast. 

350 Kil. (217 Engl. M.). Kailway to (122 Kil.) Krederen, express in 
4 3 /i hrs. (fares 6 kr. 55, 4 kr. 15 0.), ordinary train in 5 3 /4 hrs. (fares 
6 kr., 3 kr. 75 0.). Steamer thence to (38 Kil.) Gulsvik twice daily in 
2'/2-3 hrs. (fare 2kr. 600.). Thence by a good, but at places very hilly 
Eoad to (190 Kil.) L&rdalseren, in 2-3 days. The pleasantest way of dividing 
the journey is as follows: (1st Day) From Christiania to Gulsvik. (2nd) From 

80 Route ll>. KR0DEREN. From Christiania 

Gulsvik in Rvl/shus. (3rd) From Rolfshiis to Breistelen or Hag. (4th) Thence 
to Lcerdalseren. Or the first night may be spent at Na.'$, the second at Bje- 
berg, and the third at Lcerdalseren. If, however, the traveller is much 
pressed for time, it is possible, by travelling 14-18 hrs. a day, to reach Lser- 
dalsjwen in 2 days (spending the night at Rolfshus). As almost all the 
stations on this and the following route are either comfortable or at least 
very tolerable, the traveller may divide the journey as best suits his con- 
venience. The stations to be avoided as affording little or no accommo- 
dation are Aavestrtid, Bortnws, and Kleven. The charge for a horse and 
carriole is 17 0. per Kil. at all the stations on this route. Adding to this the 
usual gratuity of 15 0. per 10 Kil. , the total cost of horses and carrioles 
from Gulsvik to Lserdal is about 38 kr. for each person. For a carriage 
with a hood, and a pair of horses ('Caleschvogn'), for two persons, 100 kr. 
is the usual fare, to which must be added a gratuity of 5-6 kr. 

The most direct route from Christiania to the Sognefjord is through 
the Hallingdal, and the new Bergen and Vossevangen railway is to be 
continued through this valley ; but the scenery is inferior to that on the 
Valders route. The lower part of the Hallingdal is somewhat monotonous 
in character, while the greater part of the Hemsedal is very bleak and 
dreary. From the upper ramifications of the Hallingdal diverge several 
wild mountain-passes to the Sognefjord and Hardanger Fjord, hut the 
traveller who crosses them must be prepared for privations. The name 
of Hallingdal is applied not merely to the valley itself, but to all the 
numerous lateral valleys from which streams descend to the Hallingdalselv, 
that is, to the entire district which is bounded on the N. and E. by 
Valders, cm the S. by the Numedal, and on the W. by the Hardanger region. 

Owing to the long isolation of this district, and especially of its side 
valleys, from the rest of the world, many of its old Norwegian charac- 
teristics have survived ; and the traveller will often meet with curious old 
buildings, carved wooden tankards and furniture, and picturesque costumes. 
The people are remarkable for the tenacity with which they adhere to 
their ancient customs and numerous traditions, many of which may here 
be traced to their historical origin. Of this district it has been said that 
'the knife lies loosely in its sheath', and the inhabitants unfortunately 
still sometimes betray the irascible and passionate disposition which used 
to find vent in the 'girdle duel', where the combatants CBaUespcendcv'') 
were, bound together with their belts and fought with their knives (p. 337). 
As an outcome of this excitable temperament may be mentioned the wild 
Ilallingdans or Springdans, accompanied by a weird kind of music CFani- 
Inllen') which has been ascribed to satanic influence. — In connection with 
this subject the reader is referred to the following works : 'Norsk Lyrik\ 
Christiania, 1874, containing 'Asgaardsrejen', a poem by Welhaven, and 
'Fanitullen' 1 , another by Moe; 'S0gnir fra Hallingdar by E. Nielsen; and 
•Norske Bygdesagn'by L. Daae. 

Railway from Christiania to (96 Kil.) Vikersund, see R. 2. 
A branch-line (carriages changed) leads hence to (12 Kil.) Snarum 
and (26 Kil.) Krtfderen (Restaurant; *Inn, opposite the station, 
clean and comfortable), prettily situated at the S. end of lake 
Kr«deren (430 ft.), and near the efflux of the Snarumselv, which 
falls into the Drammenselv neaT Aamot. The steamboat-pier is 
10 min. walk from the station and inn. The lower part of the lake 
is narrow and shallow, and its banks are smiling and tolerably well 
cultivated ; but it afterwards expands, and the scenery assumes a 
more mountainous character, especially beyond Nas, where the 
imposing Norefjeld rises on the left, nearly 5000 ft. above the lake. 
Seen from Krogkleven (p. 14), this mountain forms a conspicuous 
object in the N.W. horizon. The district traversed between Dram- 
men and this point is that of Buskerud, and shortly before reaching 

to Lcerdalseren. N^ES. 12. Route. 81 

Gulsvik we enter the Fogderi Hallingdal. From 2yg to 3*^ hrs. 
after leaving Krederen the steamer reaches — 

Gulsvik (159 Kil. from Christiania). The skyds-station (good 
quarters) is about ^Engl. M. from the lake, and prettily situated 
50 ft. above it. In the neighbourhood are the Monsastue , a tine 
old timber-built house ('Bjelkestue') , and several other buildings 
of the 16th and 17th centuries. Gulsvik, though presenting no 
particular attraction, is a good place for spending the night. The 
next suitable station, to which travellers arriving about 3.30 p.m. 
may drive the same evening (in about 5 hrs.), is Nats (see below). 
The road follows the W. side of the valley of the Hailing dalselv. 
It is nearly level all the way to Nses, and the greater part of it is 
new and well constructed as far as Tuf. 

14 Kil. Aavestrud. The scenery is pleasing, though somewhat 
monotonous. The road passes several lake-like expansions of the 
Hallingdalselv , on one of which, known as the Brurnmavand 
(575 ft.), upwards of 10 Kil. long, is situated — 

17 Kil. Bartnces. At the upper end of the lake we next reach — 

11 K\\. Uses (*Station), a considerable village, with a hand- 
some church, a jail, and a number of shops. [In the reverse direc- 
tion travellers may also descend the river from Naes to Gulsvik by 
boat (6 hrs. ; 8-10 kr.). In spite of the numerous rapids, the trip 
is unattended with danger when the river is moderately full.] 

From ~Sms to Lake Spirillen, about 45 Kil., a walk of 10-11 hrs. (guide 
unnecessary). A well-defined sseter-path ascends to the E. to Lake Streen, 
which affords good fishing (quarters for the night at one of the sseters) 
in 3-4 hrs., and by Djupedalin 3-4 hrs. more to Ildjemstad (p. 86), whence 
Noes in the Aadal, at the head of Lake Spirillen, is about 20 Kil. distant 
(comp. p. 86). 

Another sseter-path ascends the mountains to the W. of Nses to the 
Tunhavd-Fjord in about 6 hrs. (p. 25). 

Above Nses the scenery continues to be of a pleasing character. 
About halfway between Nses and Viko the road crosses to the left 
bank of the river. Near Viko the valley trends towards the W. 

20 Kil. Viko (700 ft.), beautifully situated on the Halling- 
dalselv. Adjoining Viko is *Kolfshus (*Serensen's Hotel and Pen- 
sion , with garden ; civil landlord, who speaks English), a pleasant 
resting-place. The river affords tolerable fishing here , and the 
Tesleid-Vand, a large lake among the mountains, 13 Kil. to the N. 
(see below), is said to be abundantly stocked with trout. 

From Viko to the Valders Route (10-12 hrs.). The path ascends 
very steeply for 3 /t hr., and then gradually for 3 hrs. more to the Fjeld- 
vidde ('table-land'), passing several sseters. The Tesleid-Vand (2800 ft.; 
about 8 Engl. M. in length), a lake which here forms the boundary between 
the Hallingdal and Valders districts, is then crossed by boat, after which 
we descend to (6 hrs.) Slende, a farm-house on the Strandefjord, cross the 
lake by a long bridge to Ulnms-Kirke, and proceed thence either up the 
Aurdal to (2 hrs.) Hande, or down the valley to (1 hr.) FageHund (p. 91). 

About 2 Kil. above Rolfshus the Hallingdalselv is joined by 
the Hemsila, descending from the N.W., while the former river 
descends from the Upper Hallingdal, from the W. (p. 83). The 

Baedeker's Norway and Sweden. 3rd Edit. 6 

82 Route IS. TUP. From Christiania 

road soon crosses the Hemsila, which here forms a fine waterfall, 
beyond which, near the church of Gol, our route quits the Halling- 
dal and ascends the Hemsedal , or valley of the Hemsila , mount- 
ing the tedious Golsbakker in long windings. Beyond (10 Kil.) 
Lestegaard (1440 ft.) the road crosses the river and follows the E. 
side of the valley , passing several farms. The W. side and the 
bottom of the valley are uncultivated. About 5 Kil. farther on we 
reach the poor station of — 

16 Kil. Kleven i Qol (tolerable quarters), where the scenery 
becomes uninteresting, and 4 Kil. beyond which is Ekre (2600ft.). 

From Ekke to the Valdees Route (10-12 hrs.). A rough sseter- 
path ascends from Ekre to the l Seier\ passes the Vannen- Vand and the 
Storsje at the base of the huge Skogshom (5650 ft.), traverses the district 
of Lykkja, with its scattered houses , and leads to the (5 hrs.) Fosseim- 
sseter, at the S. end of the long Svensken- Vand (2860 ft.; good fishing), 
built for the use of travellers and anglers. Crossing the lake by boat, 
and passing several sseters , we then descend to the Fosseimgaard in 
Valders and cross the bridge to (6 hrs.) Hcmde (p. 92). 

Another route to Valders diverges from our road at Ulsaker, between 
Ekre and Tuf, ascends past the base of the Skogshom (5625 ft.) to the Hel- 
sinyvand, skirts the E. bank of the Hundsendvand, and leads to the Qrunken- 
Qaard, where it crosses the river falling into the Svensken-Vand. It then 
leads along the Smaadela, past the base of the Orindefjeld (5600 ft.) to 
the N. end of the Helevand and the Vasends-Sater, and descends to Oriv- 
daheim (p. 93), about 13-14 hrs. distant from Ekre. 

Beyond Ekre, on the opposite bank of the Hemsila, we observe 
a frowning and furrowed spur of the Eeensfjeld (6000 ft.), over 
which are precipitated four small waterfalls , descending from a 
mountain-lake, and uniting into a single imposing cascade during 
the melting of the snow. The road passes through Kirkebe , an 
uninviting village clustered round the dilapidated red wooden 
parish church (Hemsedals- Kirke), and 7 Kil. farther reaches the 
station of — 

20 Kil. Tuf (*Station, moderate; Gaard Fauske, 3 min. from 
the road, a fair country inn), at the confluence of the Grm- 
dela and the Hemsila. The rivers, and a lake 5 Kil. distant, afford 
tolerable fishing, and reindeer abound among the neighbouring 

From Tdf to Nystuen (15-16 hrs.). A tolerable road ascends the 
Grendal , the valley of the Gr0nd#la opening on the N., after which a 
bridle-path, passing several sseters, traverses the Merkvanddal and crosses 
the mountains, where reindeer are frequently seen, to Nystuen on the 
Valders route (p. 94). 

Near Tuf the Hemsila forms the Rjukande Fos ('foaming fall'). 
All traces of cultivation now cease, and a few scattered ssters 
replace the farms of the lower part of the valley. The road as- 
cends rapidly, and traverses an exceedingly bleak and desolate 
region , this part of the valley of the Hemsila being called the 
Merkedal. This stage, being unusually long and hilly, takes 
fully 3 hours. 

20 Kil. (pay in the opposite direction for 30) Bjwberg (3320 

to Lardalseren. UPPER HALLINGDAL. 12. Route. 83 

ft.; Station, small and primitive; civil people and good food; 
excellent headquarters for reindeer - stalking ; pair of antlers 
8-10 kr.), the last station in the Hallingdal, is a solitary gaard in 
a wild and dreary situation, at the foot of the Hemsedalsfjeld. About 
8 Kil. farther on we pass a column marking the boundary between 
the 'Stift' of Christiania and that of Bergen , beyond which we 
skirt the precipitous Kjelberg on the left and the Eldre-Vand on 
the right. To the N.E. rises the Jukulegge (6290 ft.). The road 
now soon reaches its culminating point (3780 ft.), and then de- 
scends rapidly to — 

15 Kil. (pay for 22 in either direction) Breistelen [Station, 
unpretending, but good), beyond which there is an almost con- 
tinuous and latterly steep descent, passing several waterfalls, to the 
bridge of Berlaug on the Valders route (p. 95). From Tuf over 
the Hemsedalsfjeld to this point (about 40 Kil., for which 7-8 hrs. 
should be allowed in either direction) the scenery is very wild and 
bleak , but the road now enters the highly picturesque valley of 
the Lardalselv. A little below the bridge is — 

12 Kil. (pay for 15, but in the opposite direction for 19) Haeg 
(*Station), see p. 95. — From Haeg to Lcerdalseren, see pp. 95-97. 

Upper Hallingdal. 

The Hallingdal in the narrower sense, or main valley (Hoveddal- 
feret), ascends to the W. from Viko (p. 81) to the wild and desolate re- 
gions of the Hailing skarven, the mountains forming the S. prolongation of 
the Fillefjeld and the Hemsedalsfjeld, and across which paths lead N.W. 
to the Sognefjord and S.W. to the Hardanger Fjord. With this district 
are associated some of the most famous of Norwegian sagas, such as that 
of the Villand family , and the inhabitants retain more of their ancient 
characteristics than those of almost any other part of Norway. With the 
exception of the higher mountains, however, the scenery is neither very 
picturesque nor imposing. 

About 8 Kil. above Viko a halt of 72 nr - is made at Ellefsmoen, 
beyond which we reach — 

15 Kil. (from Viko) Nubgaarden i Torpe, near which is the old 
timber-built Church of Torpe. 

11 Kil. Sundre i Aal (a very fair station). In the vicinity are 
the interesting Church of Aal and the curious old houses known 
as the Gretastue and Thingstue. The road then skirts the Stran- 
defjord (1480 ft.), to the S. of which rises the Sangerfjeld (3855 
ft.), and then divides into two branches. The branch to the S.W. 
leads to the Hardanger, while the branch to the N.W. leads to the 
station of (6 Kil.) Neraal, with the church of Hoi, from which 
there is a path to the Sognefjord (p. 85). 

1. Route to thb Hardanger (45-50 Kil.). Near (&Ki\.)Ham- 
mersbeenis the Raaen-Oaard (good accommodation), the property 
of Sander Raaen, who is said to have collected no fewer than 6000 
of the old Norse words to be found in Ivar Aasen's dictionary. 
From Hammersb0en we ride or walk up the Ustadal to (17 Kil.) 


84 Route 2?. UPPER HALLINGDAL. From Christiania 

Tufte (2755 ft.) , the highest gaard in the valley (unpretending 

The huge Hallingskarven is sometimes ascended from this point. The 
E. peak (6330 ft.) is reached by ascending the course of the Eimeheia, 
while the W. peak (6440 ft.) is scaled from the W. end of the Ustavand. 
View not picturesque, but very extensive, especially from the latter, 
embracing the Hardanger Vidda (p. 63) and other mountains. 

Two paths, the Northern and the Southern, lead from Tufte to 
Maursat, the highest gaard on the Hardanger side. The latter is 
the shorter, hut the sreters are farther apart. By either route the 
journey may be performed in one day. 

Northern Route. The well-defined s«ter- track ascends the 
course of the Vstaelv, crosses it l^Kil. below its efflux from the 
Ustavand, and leads to the Rennesdals-Sater and Hornebe-Sater. 
Pedestrians had better sleep at the latter, and start thence early 
next morning. Imposing view of the Hallingskarven with its bold 
precipices. We now follow the Skarvaa and skirt the Monsbuheia, 
commanding a view of Monsnuten, round which the path leads to 
a hut on the 0rterenvand. We cross the river and follow the 
Krcekjaheia to a ford (' Vadested') between the Store and the Vesle 
Krakjavand, skirt the Halnekolle (see below) on the N. side, cross 
the boundary of Bergens Stift , and reach the Olafsbuvand. The 
path then follows the Kjelda to the Indstesater on the Sysenvand, 
whence it leads to the gaards of Maursat and Hel , from which 
last (p. 62) the Veringsfos may be visited. 

Southern Route. This track crosses the Vstaelv to the S. of 
Tufte and leads past the Brendesceter, on the Halvorvand, and the 
Tuvesceter to the new Tourists' Hut, where the night is spent. It 
then leads towards the W. to the Qronaelv, and crosses the Krcekja- 
heia to the ford between the Krcekjavand and Krakjatjarn {Tjcern 
or Kja>rn, 'pond'), near which is the Halnekolle, with two miserable 
cattle-huts ( Passing the Dyretjam, we may now either 
cross the Ojerenut (commanding an extensive view), or go round 
its base, to the Storliensater on the Bjmreia. The path follows the 
latter, crosses the Leira which descends from the Sysenvand, and 
descends to Maursat. This route also commands a grand view of 
the Hallingskarven and the Hardanger- Jakul. — From Maursaet to 
the Hel Oaard, above the Veringsfos (p. 62), 6 Kil. 

2. Route to the Sognefjord (about 85 Kil. ; 1 l /% days). This 
is one of the finest mountain-expeditions in Norway. We start 
from Neraal (or Nedreaal; see p. 83), with the interesting church 
of Hoi, situated between the Holsfjord and the Heivelfjord. To the 
W. towers the Hallingskarven. The church of Hoi should, if 
possible, be visited on a Sunday, when many picturesque old- 
fashioned costumes are still worn by the peasantry. At the end 
of the Hevelfjord lies the Oaard Villand, the ancient seat of the 
famous and turbulent family of that name (the Villandsal), who had 
another residence at Tufte ('Villandstufte'), the place mentioned 

to Lar&aUeren. UPPER HALLINGDAL. 12. Route. 85 

above. About 6 Kil. above Villand the road turns to the W. and 
leads past the Sunddalsfjord to the Gudbrandsgaard (2550 ft. J, 
to which driving is practicable (good quarters). The s;eter track 
leads hence to the Oarlidsater, and along the 0vre Strandefjord, a 
lake 11 Kil. in length, on which are several saeters, to Myrestelen 
(tolerable quarters), the last regularly occupied Hallingdal sseter. 
The Hallingskarven remains in sight the greater part of the way. 

The actual mountain-pass to the Sogn district, about 17 Kil. 
in length , begins here. It is probable that the original in- 
habitants of the Upper Hallingdal crossed the mountains thither 
from the coast, just as Valders was originally peopled from L;erdal. 
These valleys therefore belonged to the ancient jurisdiction of the 
(iulnthingslag (p . 114). The path passes Vlevosbotten, Vierbotten, and 
a third sster with a herd of reindeer watched by Lapps from Reros, 
and then ascends rapidly to the Skard ('gap') between the Ulevas- 
nut on the E. and the Sundhellerfjeld on the "W., crosses the 
Bolhmvde , where the direction is indicated by heaps of stones, 
and leads to the Steinbergdal in the Vasbygd. The first night had 
better be spent at the 0je-Sseter here (2933 ft. ; good quarters). 
Passing the Nesetsater , we next pass the mountain - hamlet of 
Aurland , and descend the formidable pass of the *N(Bsbegalder, 
paTtly by a perpendicular ladder, and partly by a path borne by 
iron rods driven into the rock , to Gaard N&sb0. The route then 
follows the Ncesbedal (or a short-cut may be taken by the dizzy 
Bjellstig) to Gaard Sennerheim (second night). — On the third 
day the path leads in about 5hrs. down the Sennerheimsgalder and 
along a rapid stream to the Vasbygdvand, which we cross by boat. 
From Vasenden to Aurlandsvangen is about 6 Kil. more. See p. 107. 

13. From Christiania through the Valders to Laer- 
dalsoren on the Sognefjord, 

To the N.W. of Christiania lie the three important lakes Kw- 
deren (p. 80) , Randsfjord , and SpiriUen , running from N. to S. 
and nearly parallel with one another. The S. end of each of 
these lakes is reached from Christiania by railway. The steamer 
on Lake Kraderen then conveys us to the beginning of the Halling- 
dal route (R. 12), while the great high-road through the Valders 
passes near the N. ends of the other two. Of all the routes between 
Christiania and Bergen (comp. p. 79) that through the Valders, 
either via the Spirillen or the Randsfjord , is the finest in point 
of scenery and the most comfortable in respect of accommodation. 
The road by the Spirillen is perhaps preferable to that by the 
Randsfjord, but between the lake and Frydenlund the station-mas- 
ters have only a limited number of horses. The most frequented 
route is that by the Randsfjord. By either of the Valders routes it 

86 Route 13. LAKE SPIRILLEN. From Christiania 

is possible to reach Laerdalsaren in 3 days, but is is better to allow 
four or five. 

In the height of the travelling season an early start should always be 
made in order that the station where the night is to be spent may be 
reached as early as possible, with a view to secure rooms, or, if neces- 
sary, to go on to the next station. Among the pedestrians who traverse 
the favourite Valders route a considerable number of Norwegian ladies 
will be observed. 

a. Via Lake Spirillen to Frydenlund. 

238 Kil. (149 Engl. M.). Railway from Christiania to (131 Kil.) Heen, 
express in 4>/ 2 hrs. (fares 7 kr., 4 kr. 40 0.), ordinary train in G hrs. (fares 
6 kr. 45 0., 4 kr.). — Steamboat from Heen to (56 Kil.) Sentm daily, 
except Sun., in 5 l /2 hrs. (fare 3kr.); or, when the river is low, to Nces 
( Granum) only, in 4'/2 hrs. ; returning from S0rum or Nses on the follow- 
ing morning. Through-tickets to S#rum are sold at Christiania. — Road 
from Surum to Frydenlund 51 Kil. (from Granum 62; Skyds 17 0. per 
mile); thence to Lcerdalseren, 157 Kil. 

Railway to Heen, see R. 2. The steamer usually starts about 
an hour after the arrival of the train, giving time for luncheon 
or early dinner at Dahl's Inn , or (better) in the house of the 
captain of the 'Baegna' (order beforehand of railway-guard). There 
is also a restaurant on board the steamer. It then ascends the 
Bagna or Aadalselv, with its occasional lake-like expansions. The 
navigable channel , indicated by wooden buoys (Beier) is some- 
what intricate. On the right we soon pass Hallingby , a 'skyds- 
station', with a pretty church. Higher up the river the stream 
becomes very rapid, and the engines are required to do their ut- 
most. We next pass the pleasant-looking farm of Bergsund on 
the left. The course of the vessel is often obstructed by floating 
timber (Temmer), through which it has to force a passage. The 
rapid Kongstrem, which intersects an old moraine, is now ascended, 
and we enter (18 Kil. from Heen) — 

*Lake Spirillen (probably derived from spira, 'to flow rapidly'), 
a beautiful sheet of water, 17 Engl. M. in length, surpassing the 
Randsfjord in picturesqueness. The banks are well cultivated at 
places, and at others mountainous and severe. The principal place 
on the W. bank is Aadalen, with a church, and on the E. bank 
Enger , a picturesque gaard and posting-station. To the left, 
farther on , the mountains become more imposing [Gyranfisen, 
3532 ft.). On the opposite bank lie several farms with a plea- 
sant sunny aspect ('paa Solsiden'). The large blocks of stone 
on the banks have been left in their present position by the ice 
with which the lake is covered in winter. After passing the preci- 
pitous rocks on the left, the steamer comes in sight of — 

Naes, or IVasmoen, at the head of the lake, with its church and 
wild mountain-background. 

To the W. of Nses is the entrance to the Hedal, through which a 
rough road ascends to 0vre Hedal , with the interesting timber-built 
church of Ildjernstad, about 25 Kil. distant. According to tradition the 
whole population of this valley died of the plague in 1349-50 ('den store 
Manded0d\ '■Dauden', or 'den sorte Ded"). When the church was after- 

to Lardalseren. GRANUM. 13. Route. 87 

wards discovered by a hunter, he found a bear installed by the altar, in 
proof of which a bear's skin is still shown. Similar traditions also exist 
with regard to other places in Norway and Denmark. — From Ildjern- 
stad a road crosses the hill to Dokken (see below). 

When the river above Nses is too low to be navigable , the 
steamer does not go beyond this point, in which case the trav- 
eller crosses the bridge to the(10 min.) skyds-station Granum (good 
quarters), whence he may drive the same evening to Dokken or even to 
Storsveen. Or (more usual) he may pass the night at Granum and go on 
next morning in a smaller steamer to ^l 1 / 2 lir.) Serum. In summer, 
however, the Lake Spirillen steamer usually ascends the rapid 
and picturesque Baegna to Serum. The banks are at first wooded 
and somewhat monotonous. On the left rises the precipitous 
Bjembratbjerg , and farther on is the Haraldshoug , a hill with 
several farms, which commands a fine view of the valley. On 
the right towers the imposing Valdershom , and on the left the 
Serumfjeld. We now cross the boundary between the districts 
(Fogderier) of Buskerudsamt and Christiansamt. The mutilated 
birches here have been stripped of their foliage to provide fodder 
for the cattle. Strmnmen is prettily situated on the right. 

Serum (skyds-station and tolerable quarters), a prettily situated 
gaard with a steamboat-pier, 11 Kil. from Nses and 56 Kil. from 
Heen, is the terminus of the steamboat-route. To the right lies 
Onarden Hougsund, one of the largest farms in Valders. Farther 
on, to the left, is the Tolleifsrudkirke, where our road is joined by 
that from Ildjernstad in the 0vre Hedal (see above). Passing 
Gaarden Docka, we soon reach • — ■ 

18 Kil. (from Granum) Dokken i Sendre Aurdal (*Station). To 
the left diverges the old road, now a saeter-track only, to the Hedal 
(see p. 86) ; and on the same side of the road we afterwards pass 
the huge rocky precipice of Morkollen. From the left, farther on, 
descends the Muggedals-Elv. To the right, on the opposite bank 
of the Baegna, Gaarden Grimsrud. Scenery picturesque and pleas- 
ing, particularly in the neighbourhood of the Sendre, Midt, and 
Nordre-Garthus farms. 

16 Kil. Storsveen. (*Station). To the left, farther on, rises 
the Thronhusfjeld , and on the right the Fonhusfjeld. The road 
then crosses the Helleraa, where there are several mills, and 
passes a pretty school-house (Skolegaard), a number of thriving 
farms , and the Grand ('hamlet') Kobbervik. The Baegna ex- 
pands at places into the form of a lake. In front of some of the 
houses a Maistang ('may-pole') and a Julebaand ('Christmas sheaf 
for the birds) form memorials of the local customs. — At Sund- 
stad , where the Baegna contracts , are the ruins of a bridge by 
which the road formerly crossed to the E. (left) bank of the river, 
leading thence to Bang. The new road , completed in 1877, now 
follows the W. (right) bank, and skirts the Svartvikfjeld, with its 
overhanging rocks and. 'giant cauldrons' (hollows formed by the 

88 Route 13. VOLD. From Christiania 

action of water). The Soleiblomst or Smeirblomst (a kind of ranun- 
culus) is frequently seen by the wayside. We now reach the large 
basin of Bang i Sendre Aurdal, with its numerous farms, its church, 
and parsonage, all on the opposite bank of the river, and soon 
arrive at Void. — A good road, passing Krammermoen (formerly 
the station), leads to Oravdal and (11 Kil.) Sveen (see p. 90). 

12 Kil. Fjeldheim, close beside the beautiful waterfall of the 

On the left, beyond Void, rises the pointed Hullekollen, at the 
base of which is Reinlid, with its ancient Stavekirke (p. 22), the 
road to which diverges to the left near the Baegna bridge (1 hr.). 
Our road crosses the bridge and turns to the left, entering the upper 
region of the valley of the Baegna, while the road to the right leads 
to Krsemmermoen, Bang, and Sveen. Fine mountain-scenery. The 
road soon quits the valley and ascends the Jukamsklev in long 
windings, whence we obtain a striking view of the rapid river 
below. To the right, at the top of the hill, is Gaarden Jukam, which 
we afterwards pass on the left. The road affords a good survey of 
the Reinlidsbygd with the Stavedalsfjeld, the mountain range of 
which Hullekollen is a spur. — Beyond 'Plads' Hengen we obtain 
a noble "View of the snow-mountains of Jotunheim bounding the 
valley of 0stre Slidre , the Kolvaahegda, the Thorflnstinder, and 
the other mountains near Lake Bygdin (p. 137). On the right we 
observe the road which crosses the wooded Tonsaas to Gravdal 
(p. 90). The road then descends to Oaarden Motet (or Medtes). 
Over the door of the gaard are the quaint verses — 

'Stat her mit Huus i Fred 'Her seder jeg mit Brud, 

For hveert Misundheds 0ye, Her frygter jeg min Gud; 

Thi den misundte Jord Velsignet er hver den 

Den lser sig ogsaa pl#ye.' Som her gaar in og ud.' 

[May my house stand here in peace from every eye of envy ; (hut I care 
not) for the envied earth can equally well be ploughed. Here I eat my 
bread and fear my God. Blessed be every one that passes in and out.] 
The scenery beyond this point is less interesting. The road 
runs chiefly through wood, and again ascends, soon uniting with 
the road from Gjavik and Odnses , which descends from the Ton- 
saas on the right. 

16 Kil. Frydenlund {^Station; see p. 91) lies on the old road, 
to the left of the new, and about 200 paces below it. 

b. Via the Randsfjord to Odnjes and thence by carriage to 


434 Kil. (269V2 Engl. M.). Railway from Christiania to (142 Kil.) Rands- 
fjord in 6'/ 4 hrs. (fares 6 kr. 85, 4 kr. 20 0.). Steamboat ('Harald Haar- 
fagre' and 'Oscar II.') from Randsfjord to (72 Kil.) Odnces daily (corresponding: 
with the early train from Christiania) in 5 l /2hrs.; returning from Odnses in the 
morning, in time for the second train to Christiania (fares 4 kr., 2 kr. 80 0.). 
Road from Odnses to (220 Kil.) Lcerdalseren, with fast stations. The charge 
for a carriole and horse for one pers. is 17 0. per Kil., carriage and 
horse for 2 pers. 25 0. per Kil., with a gratuity of 15 0. per station. For 

to LardaUmen. RANDSFJORD. 13. Route. 89 

the whole distance a carriole costs about 45, a carriage for 2 pers. about 
65 kr. With 'Skyds' about 6-7 Kil. can be accomplished per hr., or about 
80 kil. per day in summer, when the days are long. 

The so-called 'Diligence', which plys 4 times weekly between Od- 
nres and Lferdals0ren, consists of one or more carriages, each drawn by 
two or three horses, and with seats for 4-5 passengers. In summer 1884 
the diligence left Odnees on Sun. and Frid. at 7.30, on Tues. and Thurs. 
at 8 a.m., and arrived in LaerdalsjJren on Tues. at 5, Thurs., Sat. and Sun. 
at 6 p. m., the nights being spent at Hande-Marisluen, Fagemces-Jfystuen, 
or Fagemms-Hande. [From Lserdals0ren on Sun. at 10 a. m., on Tues. 10. 
30, on Thurs. 8 a. m., on Frid. 2 p. m., arriving at Odnses on Tues. and 
Thurs. at 5.15 p. m., on Sat. and Sun. at 5.45 m., with Nystuen-Fryden- 
lund or JIaristuen-Fagernaes as night quarters.] The fare for one person 
is 34 kr. Each passenger is allowed 40 lbs. of luggage. Seats may 
be engaged a fortnight in advance by writing to Hr. Expediter Wis- 
ting , Odnses, or to Hr. Lensmand Andresen, Lserdals0ren, and at the 
same time prepaying the fare. In the height of the travelling season 
the diligences are often full, and the small inns where they stop for 
dinner or put up for the night are of course crowded. They can there- 
fore only be recommended either at a very early or late period of the 
season , or when a party of 2-4 persons engages all the seats in one 
vehicle for the whole journey (in which case the driver may be induced 
slightly to modify the usual time-table). The advantages of the diligence, 
besides the trifling pecuniary saving, are its expedition and the fact that 
comfortable meals and beds are kept in readiness for the passengers. These, 
however, are more than counterbalanced by the loss of independence and 
diminution of comfort. 

The pleasantest way of driving from Odnses to Lserdalsgfren is to hire 
a Private Carriage. A carriage-and-pair with a hood ('Caleschvogn') for 
2-3 pers. costs 110-130 kr., with a gratuity of 4-6 kr. Travellers pressed 
for time are cautioned against engaging horses for the whole distance, in 
which case 60 Kil. only can be accomplished each day. Speed and com- 
fort are best combined by hiring a carriage or a 'Trille' (a four-wheeled 
carriage without a hood) and a driver for the whole journey, stipulating 
for a change of horses at each station. The arrangements with the driver, 
who is generally apt to be somewhat independent , should be made very 
carefully, especially as to the hours of starting and arrival, the stations 
for halting for dinner, and the change of horses. 

As almost all the stations are fairly good, the traveller may divide 
his journey in any way he pleases, but he should avoid those stations 
where diligence-passengers spend the night. With skyds the drive from 
Lserdalsjjren to Odnees generally takes 3 days , the nights being spent at 
Fagerlund and Nystuen or at Frydenlund and Skogslad. In midsummer 
it is possible to perform it in 2 days, as the steamer arrives at 7 p.m. 
and twilight lasts till 11 p.m.' In this ease the night is passed at 
Tomlevolden or Sveen. 

The Scenery is beautiful almost the whole way from Christiania to 
Lferdals0ren , and at places exceedingly picturesque and striking. The 
finest part of the route , which will even reward the pedestrian , is from 
Frydenlund to Husum (140 Kil. or 87 Engl. M.). 

Railway from Christiania to (142 Kil.) Randsfjord, see It. 2. 

Randsfjord Station (*lnn) lies on the left bank of the Rands- 
elv, near its efflux from the Randsfjord. A bridge crosses the broad 
river to Kokkerstuen or Hadelands Glasvark, in the district of 

The Randsfjord (steamboat-pier near the station), a lake 420 ft. 
above the sea-level, 44 Engl. M. in length, and l-2'/ 2 M. only 
in width, is the largest in S. Norway after Lake Mj»sen (p. 115). 
It is bounded on the B. by the well-cultivated and populous district 

90 Route 13. GRAVDAL. From Christiania 

of Hadeland, and on the "W. and N. by the districts of Valders and 
Land. The banks, rising gradually to a height of 2000 ft., and 
well cultivated at places, are somewhat monotonous and uninterest- 
ing, though well-wooded at the top. The lake is generally so narrow 
as to resemble a broad river. The steamer (one daily in each 
direction ; see above) performs the trip to Odnces in & l /% hrs., 
stopping at numerous stations on the way. By the church of 
Fluberg, on the right, near the N. end of the lake, are a number 
of fine weeping birches. 

Odnees (*Hotel) , situated to the left of the road, at the N. 
end of the Randsfjord, and 10 minutes' walk from the steamboat- 
pier. To the N. of Odnees, on the high-road from Lake Mjasen 
(diligence daily to Gj»vik; see p. 116), lies — 

3 Kil. Framnas (*Station ; carriages at the pier). Travellers 
spending the night here or at Odnses are recommended to leave 
very early next morning in order to get the start of the usual morn- 
ing stream of tourists, and they should also avoid spending the 
night at the same places as the diligence. — Beyond Framnaes the 
road ascends on the N. bank of the Etnaelv, which falls into the 
Randsfjord , and crosses the Dokka, an affluent descending from 
the Tight. The scenery , though enlivened with thriving farm- 
houses and beautiful birches, is somewhat tame here. 

14 Kil. Tomlevolden (*Station, good and reasonable) is situated 
in the district of Nordre Land. The station is a good specimen of 
a substantial Norwegian farm-house , with its \Stabbur' (store- 
house, usually provided with a bell) and other roomy outbuildings, 
almost entirely constructed of timber. About 7 Kil. from Tomle- 
volden the road crosses the Etnaelv by a bridge which affords a 
line view of the Etnadal, and begins to ascend the Tonsaas, a 
wooded hill with a level plateau on the summit (as is so frequently 
the case with the Norwegian mountains), 2300 ft. in height, which 
separates the valleys of the Etna and the Bsegna (p. 86). A little 
beyond the bridge we cross the boundary between Hadeland (p. 89) 
and Valders. 

17 Kil. (pay for 18) Sveen (* Station) is beautifully situated 
on the N.E. side of the Tonsaas. The road now ascends through 
fine forest-scenery, affording several picturesque views of wooded 
ravines, to Gravdal [Tonsaasen' s Sanatorium, a hotel and pension, 
110-120 kr. per month), 3 Kil. above Sveen, which attracts many 
visitors in summer for the sake of the fine forest- walks and 
beautiful views in the vicinity. [A road diverging here to the 
left crosses part of the Tonsaas , passes the church of Bang, and 
leads to (13 Kil.) Void on theBaigna, a station on the Spirillen 
route, p. 88. J 

A little higher up we reach the wooded plateau on the summit 
of the Tonsaas and pass two swampy lakes (a raft on one of which 
serves as a ferry-boat). To the N. we obtain a fine view of Bruflat 

to Lcerdalseren. FAGERN^ES. 13. Route. 91 

in the Etnadal. The road now gradually descends, and where it 
issues from the forest commands an imposing *Vibw of the beauti- 
ful and partially wooded valley of Valders, with the Strandefjord 
running through it, and the snow-capped Jotunheim Mountains, 
Galdebergstind, and Thorflnstinder in the background (see R. 17). 
The road soon reaches the Bcegnadal, where it is joined by the 
Spirillen road (p. 88), and, a little farther on, — 

18 Kil. (pay for 23) Frydenlund i Nordre Aurdal (*Station), 
a large village beautifully situated on the old road , to the left of, 
and 20 paces below the new. The Foged, or chief administrative 
official, the Sorenskriver, or local judge, and the Lensmand, or chief 
constable, reside here. In the vicinity are the church of Aurdal 
and the hamlet of Sofielund. 

Beyond Frydenlund the road, which is nearly level, runs high 
above the Bsegna, partly through wood, and partly through cultiv- 
ated land , and soon reaches the Aurdalsfjord, with its numerous 
islands, one of the series of long lakes from which the Biegna 
issues, and of which the Strandefjord and Vangsmj»sen are the 
principal. Another fine view is obtained at Onstad, where the 
forester resides. The road then passes the District Prison on the 
left. On the other side of the broad valley is the Aabergsbygd, 
watered by the Aabergselv, which forms the Kvannefos. To the 
right, farther on, is a fine waterfall, called Fosbraaten, and to 
the left is heard the roar of the Vaslefos, a picturesque waterfall 
of the Biegna, which may be visited from Fagernaes. We now reach 
the beautiful Strandefjord (1170 ft.), a narrow lake 17 Engl. M. 
in length, and soon stop at — 

13 Kil. Fagern&s i Nordre Aurdal (* Station ; the landlord 
speaks English), and a few paces farther the *Hot. Fagerlund (R. 
lkr. 20, D. 1 kr. 70».) where also skyds may be obtained, situated 
on the N. bank of the lake, and at the mouth of the Naselv, de- 
scending from0stre Slidre. This is a charming spot for a stay of 
some duration , affording attractions to artists and sportsmen 
alike, and the two names just mentioned ('fair promontory' and 
'fair grove' respectively) are by no means inappropriate. The lake 
and neighbouring streams afford good trout-fishing, and .wild- 
duck shooting is also obtainable. As, however, this is a favourite 
starting-place for an excursion to the Jotunheim Mts. (p. 135), the 
route to which diverges here, the inns are often full in the height 
of summer. 

The road crosses the Naselv, which forms some picturesque 
cataracts about 100 yds * above the bridge, and follows the bank of 
the Strandefjord, passing the churches of Svennas and Ulna's. To 
the S., on the opposite side of the valley, is seen the Vassetelv, 
which descends from the Syndin Lakes. To the W. rise the snow- 
mountains on the Vangsmjesen and a part of the Jotunheim range. 
Near Ulnaes-Kirke and at Oaarden Fosseim, beyond it, on the 

92 Route 13. L0KEN. From Christiania 

opposite bank, the lake is crossed by bridges, the part of it bet- 
ween them being called the Oraneimfjord. Mountain-passes from 
Ulnses and Fosseim to the Hallingdal, see p. 82. 

The road now gradually ascends the hill to — 

19 Kil. Hande (*Station, English spoken), near which is the 
Church of Been with its old Klockstapel (clock-tower); in the 
vicinity are numerous farms. About 6 Kil. beyond Hande we 
reach the beautifully situated Church of Vestre Slidre, which 
commands a fine view of the lake. Near this church a road 
diverges to the right, crossing the Slidreaas to (19 Kil.) Bogne in 
0stre Slidre (p. 136). 

A little before reaching the top of the hill which this road ascends, 
about 8-9 Kil. from the church, the traveller may diverge by a path to the 
right , leading in 25 min. to the "Hvidhefd ('white head') , an eminence 
which commands a striking view of the valleys of Vestre and J&stre 
Slidre , the Bitihorn , and the snow-mountains to the N. of Lake Bygdin 
and the Vinstervand. A few hundred paces to the W. of this point rises 
the "Kvalehegda, where an admirable survey of the whole of the Bygdin 
range, the Vangsmjjjisen, and the Hallingdal mountains to the S. is enjoyed. 

A few hundred paces beyond the church of Vestre Slidre a 
gate and private road on the right lead in 5 min. to 01ken 
(*Hotel and Pension, 3 J /2 kr. per day), a farm-house con- 
verted into an inn, beautifully situated on the hill about 300 ft. 
above the lake. As this house is a favourite summer-resort and 
attracts a considerable number of invalids and others, it is generally 
quite full in the height of the season. The 'Distriktslsege', or 
physician of the district, lives on the high-road near 01ken. Horses 
and carriages may be had here. The ascent of the Hvidhefd and 
Kvalehegda , mentioned above , is recommended (3 hrs. there 
and back). 

The scenery continues to be very attractive. In traversing the 
heights of Kvale we obtain a magnificent view of the Slidrefjord 
(1190 ft.), as the upper part of the Strandefjord is often called, 
with the mountains t« the "W. — Farther on we pass the church 
of Lomen. (Beyond this point the route is given on the Map, 
p. 132.) 

10 Kil. Ltfken (^Station, English spoken), at the W. end of 
the Slidrefjord. The road traverses wood the greater part of the 
way to the next station , ascending the left bank of the Bsegna, 
which, a short distance beyond Leken, forms a fine fall called the 
Lofos, a little to the left of the road. 

15 Kil. 0ilo (1475 ft. ; *Station, civil landlady) is a favourite 
resort of artists, some of whom have embellished one of the rooms 
with a number of paintings. The situation of the place presents 
little attraction, but it lies close to the *Vangsmj«sen(1540ft.), a 
magnificent lake, about 30 Kil. in length. The road follows the S. 
bank of the lake to Qaarden Kvam, near which it is carried past the 
Kvamsklev ('ravine cliff') by means of a gallery hewn in the 
face of the Hugakolle , resembling the Axenstrasse on the Lake of 

to Lmdalseren. GRINDAHEIM. 13. Route. 93 

Lucerne. In spring and autumn the safety of travellers is some- 
times endangered here by the falling of masses of rock. At the 
most hazardous point the road is protected by a roof. This is the 
most striking point on the whole of the Valders route , and com- 
mands a noble survey of the imposing lake and the mountains 
enclosing it. On the right rises the Vednisfjeld, on the left the 
Grindefjeld (see below), and opposite us the Skjoldfjeld. To the 
N. is the Dreisjafos. A little farther on, to the left of the road, is 
Tune i Vang. 

10 Kil. Grindaheim (*Vang Hotel, clean and reasonable ; the 
landlord , Ole For, speaks English), beautifully situated on the 
bank of the Vangsmjesen. Just before reaching the station we 
pass the Church of Vang , which replaces the old Stavekirke 
('timber church') purchased by Frederick William IV- of Prussia 
in 1844 for 320 kr. and removed to the Giant Mts. in Silesia. 
A stone in front of the church bears the Runic inscription : ' Qosa 
sunk ristu stin thissi aftir Ounar" ('the sons of Gosa erected this 
stone to the memory of Gunar'). To the S. rises the huge Grinde- 
fjeld (5590 ft.), which may be ascended hence in 4 hrs. — The 
road continues to skirt the lake , passing several farms (Hag- 
strand, Fertnces, Vierdok, and Sere) and the church of 0ye, near 
which is the beautiful Elvlunfos. Opposite to us rises the im- 
posing N. bank of the lake, on which tower the conspicuous 
Skodshom (similar phenomenon to that seen on the Lysefjord, 
p. 48) and the Skyrifjeld. 

From 0ye a mountain-path, passing to the S. of the Kvameneis (3900 ft.) 
and the Borrenes (4870 ft.), which latter may he ascended from the route, 
and skirting the Utrovand, leads to Nystuen on the Fillefjeld (see p. 94) 
in half-a-day. 

The road now ascends from the Vangsmjasen to the small 
Strandefjord (1604 ft.), which it skirts (not to be confounded with 
the Strandefjord lower down, p. 91). At the end of it is Kasa. 

From Kasa a path leads to the Jonskard-Sceters (4120 ft.) and thence 
to the N.W., passing the Flagersmtnes (5479 ft.) on the right, to the 0ian- 
gensja and Steiribodsje, and through the Gjelmandsdal to Lake Tyin (Tvinde- 
hoitg, p. 141) •, in all a good day's walk (guide 4 kr.). 

Beyond the Strandefjord the scenery assumes a more mountain- 
ous character, and a few farms are now seen on the sunny (N.) 
side of the valley only. 

19 Kil. Skogstad (1885 ft. ; a fair station, the landlady speaks 
English), a few min. to the right of the road, is a good starting- 
point for a visit to Jotunheim (R. 17). From this point to the next 
station there is a steep ascent of nearly 1400 ft., and the road is 
unpleasantly hilly at places, especially to persons descending. The 
scenery now loses its grand mountainous character. 

By making a slight digression from the high-road at Skogstad (about 
3 hrs.; guide necessary) a magnificent ''View may be obtained. The 
path passes the farms of Opdal, Elbjevg, and Flaten on the S. slope of 
the hill , and crosses the Troldhe (3207 ft.) to the Hagescet-Sceter in the 
valley of the Bjevdela, Which falls into the Bsegna lower down. The 

94 Route 13. NYSTUEN. From Christiania 

top of the kill commands a very striking survey of the Tyin Lake and the 
mountains of theKoldedal andMelkedal, with several considerable glaciers. 

11 Kil. (pay for 17) Nystuen (3252 ft. ; *Station, often crowded 
in the height of summer), which resembles on a^small scale some of 
the large Alpine hospices, stands on the barren Fillefjeld, above 
the Vtrovand. To the N. rises the Stugunes (see below), to theE. 
the Borrenes (4870 ft.). The landscape presents the desolate and 
somewhat monotonous character possessed by most of the higher 
Norwegian mountains. The gaard, an unpretending group of build- 
ings, is partly supported by government as a 'Fjeldstue\ or mountain 
refuge (comp. p. 204), and. is chiefly important in winter, when 
travellers have frequently been rescued from danger by the bravery 
of its inmates. [Knud Nystuen, the father of the present landlord, 
has been presented with the Norwegian silver medal 'for Borger- 
daad', i. e. for an act of heroism.) As the most violent winds 
blow from W. to E., all the buildings are erected with their nar- 
rower sides to the W., in order to present the smallest possible 
surface to the storms. — Route to Jotunheim, see p. 139. 

The ! Stuguiu8s (4827 ft.) may he ascended from Nystuen in 3 hrs. 
there and back by following the brook to the W. of the station and then 
going eastwards. Or the ascent may be made from Nystuen direct 
(somewhat steep). In either case a guide is unnecessary. The summit 
commands an uninterrupted survey of the Jotunheim range , from the 
Horunger on the W. to the Sletmarkhjsr on the E. — To the S. of Nystuen 
rises the Suletind (5813 ft.), an imposing mountain-top, 6 Kil. distant. 
On this mountain two Finns tend a herd of several hundred rein-deer. 
The excursion thither from Nystuen and back takes 5-6 hrs., presenting 
no difficulty; or the ascent may be combined with the journey to Mari- 
stuen by leaving the high-road at the Kirkestel, a sseter a little beyond 
Nystuen , and following the old road (den gamle Vei) to the S. Before 
Kirkestfl] the traveller requires to ford at about knee-deep the rapid brook, 
which has carried away the stone bridge. The view from the Suletind 
is one of the finest in Norway, but is rarely quite clear. 

From Nystuen to Aaedal (12-13 hrs.; guide desirable). The bridle- 
path, which is very rough and fatiguing at places, ascends gradually to the 
right from the Kirkestel (see below), leading between two small lakes to 
the watershed of the Fillefjeld (4'/2-5 hrs.), which commands a magnifi- 
cent view of Jotunheim, the Suletind, the Jostedalsbrse, and other moun- 
tains and glaciers, and also of the loftily situated Tyin-Vand (p. 140). In 
descending towards the N. we pass the Sleltemsl, a fisherman's hut at 
the W. end of the Torholmen-Vand, from which the Aardela issues. (From 
Sletterust to Breikvam and Eidsbugarden, see p. 100.) We then descend 
the seeter-track along the Aard^la to Moen, whence we row in 2'/2-3 hrs. 
to Aardal, see pp. 99, 100. 

The road from Nystuen to Maristuen reaches its highest point 
(3294') a little beyond the former, and descends the monotonous 
Smeddal , a mountain-basin without pretension to grandeur. The 
old road led over the shoulder of the Suletind and past the Sule- 
vand, which forms the source of the Lara, and then descended 
steeply to Maristuen, whence it presents the appearance of a grass- 
grown band ascending the mountain. Pedestrians are recommended 
to follow the old road, especially if they purpose ascending the 
Suletind (see above). 

At the Kirkestel ('church chalet') saeter. where the old road 

to Lcerdalseren. MAK1STUEN. 13. Route. 95 

diverges to the left, there formerly stood a church dedicated to St. 
Thomas, in which the pastor of Vang performed divine service on 
2nd July annually. Farther on we pass the Gremlidsceter and the 
marble Stette , or column, which marks the boundary between the 
0stenfjeldske Norge and the Vestenfjeldske Norge, and also that 
between the Christiania Stift and that of Bergen. The road then 
skirts the uninteresting Fillefjeldvand and Smeddalsvand (3120 ft.), 
both of which are drained by the Lara. Opposite to us rises the 
Sadel-Fjeld. We then ascend to the Brusesater (3243 ft.), and 
descend thence, partly through birch-plantations, with the foaming 
Laera below us on the right, to — 

17 Kil. (pay for 22 in the reverse direction) Maristuen (2635 ft.; 
*Station, good, though unpretending), the second 'Fjeldstue on 
the Fillefjeld, originally founded by the clergy as a hospice in 
1300. Notwithstanding the height of its situation, the air will be 
found perceptibly warmer than at Nystuen, as it not only lies 
lower, but is influenced by the more genial climate of the W. coast. 
The sceneTy, too, though still wild, is far richer and more pleasing 
than at Nystuen. Between this point and Hag the road descends 
1150 ft., and the valley soon becomes more attractive. At the 
Bridge of Berlaug, 2 Kil. above Haeg, the Valders and Hallingdal 
routes unite (see p. 81). "We soon stop at — 

17 Kil. Haeg (1482 ft. ; *Station, good, and more comfortable 
than the three last), where the grandest scenery of the *Laerdal, one 
of the most superb valleys in Norway, begins. The road follows 
the valley the whole way to L*rdals»ren. The finest par s of this 
most picturesque route are the ravine between the Church of Bor- 
gund and Husum, and the rock and river scenery between Husum 
and Gaard Saeltun. Between Haeg and Borgund the road is nearly 
level, traversing a basin which was once filled with a lake. At 
the S. end of this basin, about 10 Kil. from Haeg, rises the Vind- 
helle, a huge rocky barrier, through which the Laera has forced a 
passage. The new road, completed in 1872, leads through this 
ravine, at a considerable height above the wild, and foaming river. 
At various periods no fewer than four different old roads , still 
traceable, once traversed the Vindhelle itself. 

On the right, just before the road descends into the ravine, stands 
the extremely interesting *Church of Borgund, with its old Klock- 
stapel or belfry. (The Skydsgut will procure the key from the neigh- 
bouring farm of Kirkvold ; fee 40 m. for 1 or 2 pers. and 25 es. more 
for each additional pers.) This extraordinary , fantastic-looking '■Stave- 
kirke', the best-preserved church of the kind in Norway, is believed 
to date from the 12th cent., but is now disused, service being held 
in the New Church adjoining. It is now the property of the Anti- 
quarian Society of Christiania. Every part of it is curious and 
interesting: the external passages, the numerous gables, the 
shingle-covered roofs and walls, surmounted with dragons' heads, 

96 Route 13. LiERDAL. From Christiania 

the lofty portal , the elaborate ornamentation consisting of two 
entwined snakes, and the almost quite dark and windowless in- 
terior. On the W. door are the Runic inscriptions — 
Thorir raist runar thissar than Olau misso. 
(Thorer wrote these lines on St. Olafs fair.) 
Thittai kirkia a kirkiuvelli. 
(This church in the church-ground.) 
The church is described in the ' Turistbref fran en Resa i Norge' 
by Finn (Stockholm, 1876; pp. 93 et seq.), in 'Fahrten durch 
Norwegen' by Hartung 4' Dulk (Stuttgart, 1877; pp. 232 et seq.X 
and in several English works on Norway. Comp. the description of 
the similar church of Hitterdal, given at p. 22. 

The traveller is recommended to follow the old road from Bor- 
gund Church to Husum, a walk of */2 nr -i while his carriole takes 
fully as long to descend the ravine by the circuitous new road ; but 
before doing so, he should visit the entrance to the ravine, where 
the wild and imposing scenery is enhanced by a fine waterfall 
(Simrteyelfos). The high-road descends thence in windings through 
the picturesque ravine. Immediately above Husum is another 
picturesque waterfall of the LaeTdalselv (Holgruten). — The route 
now enters the district contained in the Map at p. 99. 

13Kil. Husum (*Station), being the central point of the finest 
scenery of the valley, is a good starting-point for excursions. 
Farther on lies another tolerably level basin, once likewise the bed 
of a lake, with the 0igaard, Kvanw, Hougen, and other farms. 
Immediately beyond it the road enters another grand ravine, 
which the old road avoided by traversing the dangerous Galder 
('cliffs', 'steep slopes') to the right. The new road crosses the river 
and skirts the overhanging rocks close to its bank, where the water 
has worn a number of more or less perfect 'Jcettegryder, or 'giant 
cauldrons', showing distinctly how much higher the level of the 
torrent must once have been. Atone point, not far below Husum, 
the old bed of the stream has even been utilised for the passage of 
the road, for which part of a 'giant cauldron' has also been hewn 
away, while the torrent now thunders along 100 ft. below. On 
the N. side of the ravine are Gaarden Oalderne and the Store Sokne- 
fos, a strange spot for human habitations. — As soon as the ravine 
expands we come in sight of Gaarden Sceltun, situated on the huge 
deposits (Skred) of a mountain-torrent. The valley is still confined 
between lofty and precipitous rocks. The road crosses the Lserdalselv 
and follows its right bank; it then intersects the deposits of the 
Jutulelv and traverses a broader part of the valley, from which the 
Opdal, closed by the snow-clad Aaken (5690 ft.), diverges. Several 
extensive moraine-deposits are passed on this part of the route. 

15 Kil. Blaaflaten (a poor station) lies a little to the left of the 
road, which is tolerably level for the rest of the way. The valley 
is still enclosed by lofty mountains, but the scenery is now com- 

to the Sognefjord. L^RDALS0REN. IS. Route. 97 

paratively uninteresting. Beyond the Bofoa , a waterfall on the 
left, the road crosses the river and passes the church of Tenjum. 
By the farms of JEri the valley suddenly trends towards the N., 
and we now obtain another view of the Aaken with its peculiar 
ridge resembling that of the Gausta in Thelemarken. The floor of 
the valley is well cultivated at places and sprinkled with farms, 
but the mountains are bare and rocky. The traces of numerous 
landslips and avalanches (Shred) are observable here. The valley 
tlnally turns towards the W., and we now pass on the right, near 
0ie, the picturesque Stenjumsfos, which descends in two falls from 
the Veta-Aas and Hegan-Aas. 

11 Kil. LeerdalSOTen. — 'Lindstk^m's Hotel and Station, two 
houses, newly fitted up, with 40 rooms and about 60 beds ; R. 1 kr. 20, 
B. 80«r. — 1 kr., I). 1 kr. — 1 kr. 60 0., S. 80 0., according to 'Priscourant'; 
LaudalsCkhns Hotel, kept by Knud Forlhun, newly built and fitted 
up, opened in 1885. English spoken at both hotels. 

L<rrdals0ren , generally shortened to Ltvrdal , the ' alluvial 
plain of the L.erdal river', lies on a broad, level, and somewhat 
marshy plain at the mouth of the Lara, shut in by rocky and 
barren mountains, and affording a very limited view of the arm of 
the magnificent Sognefjord on which it is situated. To the E., at 
the head of the Oftedal , Tises the Haugnaase (4075 ft.), and to 
the W. is the Freibottenfjeld. The village, which boasts of a hand- 
some new timber-built church, a telegraph-station, and a few 
tolerable shops, is a poor place with 800 inhab., deriving its sole 
importance from the fact that it forms the principal avenue of ap- 
proach on the land side to the Sognefjord (see pp. 99, 109). The 
steamboat pier is nearly 2 Kil. from the station (carriole 40-50 0. 
for each person, with luggage 60 0.). A pleasant walk may be taken 
along the bank of the fjord to ( '.^hr.) the winter-pier, used when 
the fjord is frozen, and on to Haugene in the Eierdal. 

14. The Sognefjord. 

Comp. the Maps p. 99 (the inner Sognefjord) and p. 10G (the middle 
Sognefjord), which join at the doited line on the right (eastern) side of the 

Steamboats. Although small boats are procurable at all the stations 
(fare 21, 31, 41 si. per Kil. fur 2, 3 or 4 rowers), travellers are cautioned 
against engaging thein for long distances, as their speed is usually slow. 
and the stations are very far apart. In making use of the steamers a 
careful consultation ui'Norges Cv/nmunicalioner' (under the heading 'Nordrc 
Bergenhus Dampskibe') is absolutely necessary, as several interesting 
points in the ramifications of the fjord are only called at two or three 
times a week. The steamers are all well fitted up and have good restaur- 
ants on board (which provide wine and beer, but no spirituous liquors), 
but the sleeping accommodation is limited. If a night or part of a night, 
has to be spent on board, the traveller should lose no time in securing 
a sofa or berth. The cabin fare is 40, the steerage 25, and the deck 
15 0. per sea -mile (.1 Engl. M.). The usual charge for a substantial 
breakfast with coffee is l'/2-2, for dinner 2, and for supper l-l 1 /^ kr. 
(fee discretionary, according to length of voyage). Comp. Introd. in. 
Baedekek's Norway and Sweden. 3rd Edit. 7 

98 Route 14. SOGNEFJORD. 

The * Sognefjord (from the old word 'Soyne, signifying a nar- 
row arm of the sea), the longest of all the Norwegian fjords, being 
170 Kil. (106 Engl. M.) long from Sognefest to Skjolden , and 
averaging 6 Kil. (4 Engl. M.) in width , forms one of the most 
important highways of traffic in Western Norway, and also one of 
the most convenient avenues to some of the grandest and wildest 
scenery in the country. At places it is nearly 4000 ft. deep. Like 
all the Norwegian fjords , it is unattractive at its entrance , where 
the rocks have been worn away, partly by the action of the waves, 
and partly by that of the enormous glaciers with which the whole 
country was once covered. The scenery gradually improves as the 
traveller proceeds from W. to E., until the fjord at length ter- 
minates in a number of long and narrow arms bounded by lofty 
mountains rising at places to a height of 5000 ft., from which 
numerous waterfalls precipitate themselves into the depths he- 
low. At the upper extremities of the N. ramifications of the 
fjord lie huge glaciers descending from the snow - mountains, 
including the Jostedalsbra ('Brse' or 'Brede' signifying glacier), 
probably the largest glacier in Europe. In other parts of the fjord 
again the banks present a smiling and genial character, being 
fringed with luxuriant orchards and waving corn-fields, and studded 
with pleasant-looking dwellings. At some points indeed (as at 
Balholm , Sogndal , Amble, and Skjolden) the scenery of the fjord 
is not unworthy of comparison with that of the Lake of Lucerne, 
or even with that of the lakes of N. Italy. In the majestic grandeur 
of its mountains and glaciers, the Sognefjord far surpasses the 
Hardanger, but its general character is severe and at places desolate 
and monotonous, while the waterfalls, as well as the softer scenery, 
of its southern rival unquestionably carry off the palm. — Up to 
the point where the great ramifications of the Sognefjord begin, 
the climate is the same as that of the W. coast , being rainy and 
mild in winter and usually damp and cool in summer; but the 
seasons in its long and narrow arms are more similar to those pre- 
valent in inland European countries. In winter a considerable 
part of these arms is usually frozen over , and although the ice is 
detached from the shore at its margins , being raised a couple of 
feet or more twice daily by the tide , it serves as a busy highway 
for sledge traffic. On these occasions the steamers of course cannot 
ply beyond the limits of the open water. 

The Inhabitants (Sogninger) of the banks of the fjord , which, 
with the adjoining country, are all embraced in the name of 'Sogri, 
appear to belong to two distinct races , those in the W. parts pos- 
sessing the placid Norwegian character, while those of the E. parts 
are Temarkable for their vivacity, which shows itself in their hur- 
ried and almost incoherent mode of speaking. All, however, will 
be found uniformly obliging and hospitable to travellers. 


AARDAL. 14. Route: 99 

a. Aardalsfjord. Vettisfos. 

Steamboats "Sogn' and 'L?erdar from Lferdalsareu to Aardal twice 
weekly (Mon. and Thnrs. morning, returning Thurs. and Sat. afternoon) 
in 2 hrs. — From Aardal to Marifjseren, see p. 101. 

Lwrdulseren, see p. 97. At first the scenery of the fjord is 
comparatively uninteresting. To the left rises the Glipsfjeld, on 
the W. side of which opens the Vindedal. To the right is the 
Vctanmise , with the promontory of Fodnces , round which the 
steamer steers. Farther on a fine view is obtained to the left of 
the Lysterfjord (p. 101), with the Haugmslen ; in the background 
the Jostedalsbra) (p. 103). To the S.W. towers the Blejan (p. 106). 
The steamer now enters the Aardalsfjord, the scenery of which 
is also somewhat monotonous. On the barren and rocky N. bank 
rises first the Bodlenakken and then the Drandhovd, between which 
lie the Ytre and Indre Oferdnl. On the wooded S. bank is the station 
of Nadviken or Vikedal. The Saheimadal now opens to the N., and 
a little later the imposing amphitheatre of mountains around ■ — 

Aardal or Anrdalstangen (*Jens Klingenbery's Inn, to the right 
of the bridge), a small village situated upon an old coast-line, 
now considerably elevated above the fjord. Opposite rises the snow- 
clad Slettefjeld or Middagshaugen (4435 ft.). Aardal is the starting- 
point for a visit to the beautiful Vettisfos Qfe-i day ; p. 100), for 
a mountain-walk to Nystuen (I-IV2 day; p. 94), and for a *Tour 
round the Horunger to Skjolden(4 days; comp. pp. 101, 160). Guide 
to Vetti desirable, and for the longer tours indispensable ; Jens 
Klingenberg jun. may be recommended (4 kr. per day). Comp. 
p. 151. For the longer tours provisions must be taken from Aar- 
dal, as Vetti is the only place where tolerable food can be procured. 

Passing the pretty church of Aardal and ascending along the 
Aardalselv, on the right bank of which lies the farm of Jlercid, we 
reach in '/^hr. the Aardalsvand (13 ft. above the sea), a beautiful 
lake, 19 Kil. (12 Engl. M.) long, surrounded by precipitous cliffs 
and profound ravines, in which bears are still found. A boat on the 
lake carries us in 2-2'/2 nrs - (1 P ers - 1 kr. 40, 2 pers. 2 kr. 20 0.) 
to Farnses, at theN.E. end. To the right we see theStegafjeld, with 
the precipitous Opstegene on its E. side ; beyond lies the Fosdnl 
with the Eldegaard, to which a zigzag path ascends past a waterfall. 
Farther on, high up to the right, is the Lest-Sater, beyond which 
is the Midntrshamer, with the Eldeholt. To the left rises the huge 
and precipitous Bottnjuvkamb ; to the right the 'Plads' or clearing 
of Ojeithus and the Raudnas. Then, also to the left, the Nondal, 
with several farms and the Nondalsfos. On rounding the Raudnas 
we see Farnas, whence a carriage-road ascends the Utladal to Gjelle. 

Fkom Farn^es to Foetcn (8-10 hrs. ; guide necessary, 4 kr..). From 
Farnses a bridle-path ascends to the N.W. through the Fardal or Lange- 
dal , passing the Aare and Slokke sseters, to the Muradn-Sceter, whence 
a path leads through the Lovardalsskard (4699 ft.), a 'gap' or depression 
at the foot of the Au&tabot-Tinder and Solei-Tinder, into the Berdal and 
to Oanrden Fuglsteg (2494 ft.) , which lies almost perpendicularly above 


100 Route 14. VETTISFOS. Soynefjord. 

the valley of Foi'tun (p. 160). The descent to Fortun is excessively steep, 
whence probably is derived the name of Fuglsteg, or k bird-path\ 

Pedestrians do not land at Farnaes but at the 'Plads' Vee, a 
little to the right , on the left bank of the TJtla , whence the path 
ascends to the (20 min.) 'Plads' Reti, where the Sitlefos becomes 
visible on the right and the junction of the Utla and the Aardela 
on the left. We cross the latter stream by ( [ / 4 hr.) an old Nor- 
wegian bridge and then ascend to (5 min.) the GaardMoen, where 
travellers bound for Nystuen (p. 94) or Eidsbugarden (see below) 
usually spend the night (native beer, coffee without milk, and 
sometimes fish are alone obtainable). 

From Moen to Eidsbugaeden, lOhrs., an unattractive route (ahorse 
should be taken as far as Breikvam). A sseter-track ascends past the 
numerous falls of the Aardela to the (2'/2-3 hrs.) fisherman's hut of 
Sletterutt, where the route to Nystuen mentioned at p. 94 turns to the 
S., while another path leads to the N. of the Torholmen Vand, at the S. 
base of the Mansberg, to (2-2'/2 hrs.) the 'Ffelseger' of Breikvam on Lake 
Tijhi. If a boat can be obtained we cross to Tvindehoug and reach the 
route to Eidsbugarden mentioned at p. 141 ; if not. we must walk round 
the N. end of the lake, fording the Koldedela. 

Our route continues to ascend. Below us to the left are the 
Utla and the farm of Volddal. "We then descend to the (^ hi.) 
farm of Svalheim and ascend the Utla to (40 min.) Gjelle, with 
the large Gjellefos. Here begins the Vettisgjel, a narrow ravine 
('gjel') 4-5 Kil. in length , bounded by cliffs of immense height, 
and endangered in winter and rainy weather by avalanches and 
land-slips. The bridle-path first descends to the left, crosses the 
river, and reaches Gaarden Skaaren , just beyond which there is 
another bridge ('Johannebro 1880'). Farther on the path and the 
turbulent Utla thread their way through a chaos of rocky debris. 
After 1 /i hr. we reach the *Afdalsfos (530 ft.), above which is a 
bridge. The scenery here is very imposing. The ravine ends 
3 /4 hr. farther on at the Heljabakfos, which is formed by the Utla 
as it bursts forth from a wall of rock. The steep path now ascends 
to the Heljabakken, from which we have a view of the 'Plads' 
below, the Gaard Vetti above, and also of three small waterfalls 
to the left. In 25 min. more we reach — 

Gaard Vetti (1092 ft.; capital accommodation atAnflnd Vetti' s). 
A rough path (guide unnecessary) leads hence, at first descending 
and then rapidly ascending, to (i/o hr.) the *Vettisfos, or Vettis- 
morkafoa , a fall of the Morkadela, about 900 ft. in height, the 
finest fall in the Sogne district. An eminence on the right bank 
commands an admirable view of the fall, but a closer approach 
may be made by crossing a somewhat precarious-looking bridge to 
the left bank. 

The ascent of the Store Skagastglstind (7875 ft.), formerly considered 
like that of the Matterhorn almost impossible, but now looked upon as 
comparatively easy, is usually accomplished from Gaard Vetti, with the 
assistance of Jens Klingenberg of Aardal as guide. The route crosses the 
Utla and then ascends the steep Stelsmnradal to the Maradals-Sceter, 
where the night is spent. Next morning we make an early start, cross 

Sognefjord. LYSTERFJORD. 14. Route. 101 

the 'Naes 1 into the Midtmaradal, and ascend this valley to the Midtmara- 
dalsbrce, 3 hrs. Our route then leads us over the glacier to its head 
(3600 ft.), also 3 hrs. After ascending for 1 hr. more we reach the vidge 
(5040 ft.) between the Midtmaradal and the Skagastelsdal , whence the 
linal and steep climb to the top of the peak takes 2-2 1 /-.; hrs. more. 

The "Cikcclae Touit round the Hokungek (with guide, see above 
and p. 152; a horse must be obtained at Farnses or Gjelle) is best arranged 
as follows. 1st Day: To Gaard Vetti, with a visit to the Vettisfos (see 
p. 100). 2nd Day : Via. the Vettismorka-Sceter and the Fleskedals-Scctrc 
(p. 156) to the Skogadalsbaen (p. 157) in 7-8 hrs., or in 3 /t hr. more to the 
highest Guridals-Sceter (p. 158). 3rd Day: Across the Keiser Pass (p. 154) 
to the Skagasteils- Setters (pp. 155, 161), and ascent of the Dyrhaugslind 
(p. 102). 4th Day: Via. Fortun to Skjolden, l'/i>-2 hrs. — Several moun- 
tain-ascents may be combined with this magnificent tour, such as the 
Store ftkagastelstind (p. 100) and the Stelsnaastind (p. 156) from Gaaid 
Vetti; the Styggedalstind (p. 158) from Skogadalsbuen ; the Fanaraak 
(p. 151) and the Slyggedalsboln (p. 162) from the Helgedals-Sseter. — Com- 
fortable accommodation is obtained at Vetti alone; but the sseters of the 
Fleskedal , Skagast0l , and Eiingadn are at least clean. A supply of pro- 
visions must he brought from Aavdal. 

b. Lysterfjord. Jostedal. 

Steamboats , 'Sogn' and 'Lserdal', two or three times weekly : from 
Lfcrdalseiren , on Mon. 8 a. m. and Thurs. 5 a. m. by Aardal, Offerdal, 
Solvorn , Marifjrvren , Dasen, to Skjolden , and on Sat. 8 a.m., touching 
only at Solvorn , Tfre Kroken, to Marifjtvren , returning in each cas:e in 
the afternoon. 

The *Lysterfjord, the N.E. and longest (25 Engl. M.) ramifi- 
cation of the Sognefjord, presents a series of wild mountain land- 
scapes, diversified by beautiful scenery of a softer type. On the 
W. side rises the precipitous Haugmcel (3811 ft.). In 2'^ hrs. after 
leaving Aardal the steamer reaches — 

Solvorn (*Hotel, R. 1 kr., S. 1 kr. 20 0.), a skyds-station, 
prettily situated on a bay in the W. bank of the fjord. The 'Se- 
renskriver', or district-judge, inhabits the large building to the 
left. In the background rise the snow-clad mountains encircling 
the Veitestrandsvand. 

A hilly road leads from Solvorn to the (2 Kil.) Hafslo-Vand, the bank 
of which is skirted by the road from Marifjffiren to Sogndal mentioned 
below. — About 2 Kil. to the N. of the point where the two roads 
meet lies Sillestad (poor station ; 4 Kil. from Solvorn, pay for 5) where, 
guides and horses are obtained for an ascent of the Molden. 

From Hillestad the road leads via Ilafslo, with a church and parson- 
age, to (8 Kil.) the S. end of the Veitestrandsvand (640 ft.), a lake 13 Kil. 
in length. We then row to the other end of the lake, where accommo- 
dation for the night can, if necessary, he obtained at the farm of Uegye- 
strand. Thence on foot across the snow-fields of the S. Jostedalsbra 1 
(p. 103) and through the Veitestrandsskard to the Suphelle- Sceter and on 
to Fjwrland (p. 112), a fatiguing tour of a whole day (guide and pro- 
visions necessary). 

On the promontory opposite Solvorn, in a charming situation, 
lies Urnas, with its ancient 'Stavekirke' and 'giant tumuli' (Kaem- 
pehouge). To the left towers the huge Molden (3665 ft.). On the 
right, about !/'2 hr. after leaving Solvorn, we pass the Gaard Ytre 
Kroken, famed for its orchards. A view is now obtained of the 
Hestebrtr, a part of the Jostedalsbrse to the N. W., to the left of 

102 Route 14. MARIFJjEREN. Sognefjord. 

which is the Leiimohovd and to the right the hills of the Krondal 
(see below). In 'A, hr. more the steamer touches at — 

Marifjaeren (* Jacob Thervi's Inn), prettily situated on the 
Oaupnefjord , a branch of the Lysterfjord , and the best starting- 
point for a visit to the Jostedal (l 1 /^-^ days ; see p. 103). A beau- 
tiful walk may be taken hence up the hill to the N.W. to the old 
church of Joranger , which commands a magnificent view of the 
fjord and the Feiyumsfos, a waterfall 720 ft. high on the E. bank. 
To the S. of Marifjieren is Oaarden Hundshammer, whence part 
of the Jostodalsbrae is visible towards the N. On the beach are 
observed a number of large stones, which have been forced up in- 
to their present position by the ice covering the fjord in winter. — 
At the N.W. extremity of the Gaupnefjord lies lleneid (p. 104), 
3 Kil. distant, reached by small boat in 1/2 hour, (or by road). 

Till! liOAD FKOM MAKIFJiEKKN to Sogndal (22 Kil., pay for 33) aft'nrd.s 
a beautiful walk (6-7 hrs.) or drive (4-5 hrs.). Horses must be ordered 
in good time, as the station is a 'slow 1 one. The hilly road passes the 
base of the Molden (see above), which is very steep and not easily as- 
cended on this side, and follows the course of the Bygdeelu. On the 
right, above us, lies Joranger. We pass a number of farms and cottages, 
chielly on the sunny side (Solside) of the valley, and plantations of birches 
and alders. A little to the right lies Fet , with its old church. At the 
highest point of the road (about 1200 ft.) we obtain a view of the distant 
snow-mountains to the S. of the Sognefjord, including the Fresviksbrse 
and the Rambra:. During the somewhat steep descent we obtain a 
magnificent "View of the scattered village of Hafslo with the Hafslovand 
and the mountains of the Sognefjord, and at our feet lies — 

8 Kil. (pay for 14) Ililleslad, see above. 

Beyond llillestad the road skirts the E. bank of the Hafslovand and 
traverses a pine-wood, through which glimpses are obtained of the lake 
and the Jostedalsbra: to the N. The Solvorn road diverges here to the 
left. — Beyond Gaarden Oklevig the road attains its highest point, and 
then descends the numerous zigzags of " Gildreskreden (Skreien), where 
great caution is necessary in driving. Near the beginning of them is 
St. Ola/skilde, a spring from which sick persons sometimes drink, de- 
voutly making the sign of the cross with two sticks. In descending we 
obtain a magnificent view of the fjord. On our right rushes the Orrei- 
elv, descending from the Veitestrand and Hafslo lakes, and forming the 
Helrr.trsfos and Fwtesprang. Below us lies Nagleren. The skirts 
the Barsnwsfjord. The glacier-worn rocks, with large isolated boulders 
resting on them at places, should be observed here. The vegetation gradu- 
ally becomes richer, and oaks, elms, and ashes begin to appear. Passing 
through the Beirhul, a curious aperture in the rock, the road ascends to 
the heights of Kvam, which afford another splendid view. At Gaarden 
Lvftenws, on the opposite bank, the fjord contracts to a narrow channel, 
and the Sogndals/jord now begins. We then reach Hofslund (good inn), 
the station for the adjacent Sogndal (p. Ill), 14 Kil. (pay for 19) from 

The upper part of the Lysterfjord is grand and picturesque, 
somewhat resembling the Lake of Lucerne. The steamer passes 
JVips, near the mouth of the Gaupnefjord, on the left, and the im- 
posing Feiyumsfos, a tine waterfall of two leaps, 1400 ft. in height, 
on the right, and next stops (1 hr.) at D«sen (*Jnn), charmingly 
situated on the W. bank, near the old stone church of Dale. 

From D^sen the traveller may ascend the Daledal by a horse-track, 
passing several farms and sitters, to (.laai'd Ailcn . hevond* which there is 

Sognefjord. SKJOLDEN. 14. Route. 103 

a steep climb over the Vidde of Storhougen (2600 ft.) to the Vigdals- 
Sccter. The path then descends to the W. through the Vigdal, passing 
the Buskrednaase on the right, to the gaards of 0vre and Nedre Vigdal. 
From the latter the path leads across a hill and then descends abruptly 
to the Orrnbergstel. We then cross the Jostedalselv to MyMemyr (p. 105) 
or proceed towards the N. to Gaard Ormberg and over the bridge (p. 105) 
to the road leading to the church of Jostedal (p. 105), 27 KM. from Dusen 
(a fatiguing walk of 9-10 hrs. ; guide necessary). 

From D»sen the steamer proceeds (twice a week ; at other 
times a rowing boat, 'Sexring', from Marifjaeren in 3 hrs.)in another 
hour to Skjolden (*Inn), prettily situated at the end of the Lyster- 
fjord. To the E. rises the snow-clad Fanaraak ; in the foreground, 
to the right, is Eide ; to the left is Bolstad. 

Skjolden lies at the entrance of the sombre Markereidsdal, which is 
about 12 Engl. M. in length and contains the pleasant farms of Stole, Bolstad, 
Thohaug, Moen, and Merkereid. Beyond these are several sseters: the Kni- 
vebakke-Saiter to the left, the Dul-Sater and the Dalen-Swter to the right, 
and then the Fosse-Swter and the Rausdals-Swter. On both sides lofty 
fjelds and glaciers rise abruptly from the valley (comp. the Map, p. 99). 
From the Rausdals-Sseter we may proceed to the W. over the Fjeld and 
through the Martedal and Fagerdal to the Gaard Faaberg (p. 106) in the 
Jostedal (one day). 

From Skjolden to the Fortundal , the Horunger , and to Rejshjem, 
see pp. 160, 152-149. 

Excursion to the Jostedal. 

This excursion takes 172-2 days. On arriving at Marifjairen (p. 102) 
the traveller should immediately order a carriage, and take dinner while 
it is being got ready. The drive to Sperle or Jostedal, where the night 
is spent, takes 5-6 hrs., while the walker can complete the distance 
in almost as short a time. On the following morning we walk or drive 
to Kroken (2 hrs.) and the Nigardsbrw, returning to Marifjseren the same 
afternoon. — As the stations of Marifjairen, Myklemyr , and Kroken are 
all 'slow', it is usual to hire the Stolkjserre for the whole tour (to 
Kroken and back 8 kr.). Eiding is not recommended (horse 7 kr.) 

Those who wish to pass from the upper Jostedal to the Nordfjord 
proceed from Kroken, after visiting the Nigardsbrse, to P/4 hr.) the Gaard 
Faaberg, where they dine and obtain a guide for the glacier. The night 
is spent in Faabergstel, and Gredung i Slvyti (p. 190) is reached next day. 
As the guides in summer prefer to cross the Jostedalsbrae at night, it is 
desirable to reach Faabergst0l early in the afternoon, so as to have time 
for several hours' sleep. Within the last few years the Jostedalsbrre has 
several times been crossed in the opposite direction via. the Bergsteters 
(p. 105; comp. p. 193). 

The *Jostedal, like almost all the Norwegian valleys, is a rocky 
rift or ravine in the midst of a vast plateau of snow and ice. The 
W. part of this plateau consists of the Jostedalsbra , the most 
extensive glacier in Europe (470 Engl. sq. M.), with its ramifi- 
cations the Hestebra, Tvardalsbrce , Vasdalsbra , and Reikedals- 
brce, while the E. half is formed by the Spertegbra and numer- 
ous snow - clad 'Nseser'. The sides of the plateau enclosing the 
narrow Jostedal, which is watered by the Jostedalselv, are usually 
almost perpendicular. At intervals they recede , forming wider 
basin-like openings in the valley , which are accompanied by 
barriers of rock running athwart the stream and indicating the 
different zones of the valley. The sides of the valley, sometimes 

104 Route 14. JOSTEDAL. Sognefjord. 

attaining a height of 3000 ft. , are generally wooded , and are 
often broken up by transverse rifts and crevices, from which 
mountain-streams and waterfalls descend into the valley. The 
glaciers ('Jakler') and snow-fields ('Fonner') are, however, scarcely 
visible, till we reach the head of the valley, where parts of the 
Jostedalsbra come into view. The Nigardsbrcs in particular pro- 
jects far into the valley near Kroken , and having been long 
known and frequently explored by Forbes, De Seue, Durocher, 
Ilohr , Ntiumann , and others , has made the Jostedal the most 
celebrated of the glacier-valleys of Norway. — The whole valley 
forms a single parish with a population of !S50 souls, most of 
whom live in rather prosperous circumstances. Lately, however, 
many of them have emigrated to America. Grain is cultivated as 
far as the Nigardsbrae. The heat in midsummer is excessive, and 
in winter the thermometer sometimes falls 30° below zero (Fahr.J. 

Murifjceren, see p. 102. The road skirts the base of the pre- 
cipitous mountains on the W. bank of the Gnupnefjord. 

3 Kil. Reoieid (*Jnrob Moland's Inn), which we may also reach 
by small boat ('/._> hr.). Carriages may generally be procured here. 
The delta which the Joale.dalselv here forms as it falls into the 
fjord contaiiis several small farms and the church of Gaupne. 
Above it rises the Ilaubergshollen. 

The road ascends the Jostedal on the right bank of the river, 
which is turbulent and muddy. Until late in the afternoon the 
road is quite exposed to the sun. The bottom and slopes of the 
valley are here carefully cultivated. The road skirts an old moraine 
and crosses the Kvcerne-Elv. At this point begins a series of huge 
and shapeless rocks , which flank the road all the way to Leirmo. 
In front of us rises the Leirmohovd. After crossing the Fondela, 
the road turns to the right to the gorge of Ilausadn ('Hausane', the 
houses), whence a retrospect is obtained of the twin peaks of the 
A xbjernnaase (5270 ft.). From the rocky wall on the right the Ryfos 
falls into the valley. A little farther on we reach the first of the 
curious basin-like expansions of the Jostedal (see above), which 
takes its name from the hamlet of Leirmo , on the hill to the left. 
(From Leirmo we may visit the Tunsberydalsbrce , 8 Engl. M. in 
length, the most important of the offshoots of the Jostedalsbra:. 
Comp. p. 105.) Our route crosses the foaming Tunsbergdals-Elv 
near a picturesque saw-mill. To the right towers the precipitous 
Kolnaase. The river now expands and a little farther up fills the 
whole floor of the valley. 

14 Kil. Alsmo, situated upon an old moraine ('mo'). Soon 
after the road ascends through the rocky and wooded Haugaasgjel, 
or gorge of the Hauyuusen, for about 300 yds. Almost perpen- 
dicularly below us, to the right, are the Jostedalselv and the 
Vigdeln, which here form several line falls. To the left a glimpse 
is obtained of part of the Jostedalsbra. A little farther on we 

Sognefjord. MIKLBMYR. 14. Route. 105 

obtain a fine *View of the deep and imposing basin of Myklemyr, 
formerly occupied by a lake ; to the right is the Ojel, used in win- 
ter by sledges, while to the left is the Hompekulen, above which 
lies the Hompedals-Sater. Directly opposite to us , to the right, 
is the Vangsen (see below), the loftiest mountain in the Jostedal. 
We now descend rapidly into the basin, which has been frequently 
devastated by the river, passing the farms of Myten, Teigla, and 
ffen. Then — 

22 Kil. Myklemyr (accommodation at Anders'; slow station). 
The route now traverses a narrower part of the valley, passing the 
large farm of Ormberg on the right, and then enters another small 
basin, with the farms of Fossen and Dalen. A narrow *Gorge, 
with a bridge leading to Ormberg (see p. 103), connects this basin 
with the next, which contains the Sperleeen on the left, and the 
farm of Aasen on the right. The road then crosses a rocky barrier, 
from the top of which a good view is obtained of the Liaxlen, the 
Joslcdnlsbroe, and the basin of Sperle. Passing a school on the 
right we now reach Gaarden Sperle (tolerable quarters), above which , 
to the left, is the waterfall of the same name, descending from the 
LixMsbrct. Beyond Sperle we ascend a steep incline, at the top 
of which we pass through wood and cross the Nedre Lid, where the 
'Ojel', or ravine, of that name opens to the right. In about 3 / 4 hr. 
we reach another beautiful basin, in which lies the — 

Jostedals-Kirke (658 ft.). Good accommodation is obtained if 
required at the house of the clergyman ('Sogneprest'), who, however, 
refuses all remuneration. Travellers who accept his hospitality 
usually show their appreciation of it by sending him a memento 
of their visit on reaching home. 

Beyond the church we pass, on the left, the Bakkefos, which 
descends from the Strondafjeld, and near it the 0vre Ganrd. An- 
other wide expansion is then reached, into which the Ojeitsdela 
precipitates itself in three beautiful falls. To the S.E. rises the 
imposing Vangsen (5712 ft.), with a large glacier on its N.E. 
slope, which may be visited from Jostedal (4 hrs.). Between the 
valleys of Vanddal and Qjeitsdal, which here open to the right, is 
the pyramidal peak of the Myrhorn, rising from the great Sperteg- 
brce behind. At the Oaard Ojeidet (1 hr. from the church ; milk), 
we cross the stream issuing from the Krondal, which is flanked 
on the right by the Haugenaase (4260 ft.) and on the left by the 
Vetlenibben and Orenneskredbrct. At the upper end of the Krondal 
lie the three Bergscetre, at which the route, mentioned at p. 193, 
from Naesdal over the Jostedalsbne ends. 

A path ascends hence through the Krondal and then to the left 
through the Rmkedal , crossing the height at the head of the latter , to 
the Tmisbergdalsbrce, whence we may descend to the Titnsberc/ihil and via 
Leirmv to the road in the Jostedal (see p. 104). 

Farther on the road crosses a hill, which affords a fine retro- 
spect of the part of the valley just traversed. In the other direction 

1 06 Route, hi. NIGARBSRRjE. Sognefjord. 

the view of the Nigardsbrai now opens before us, the best point of 
view being the bridge at the Berge-Sater. 

10 Kil. Kroken ('slow' station ; poor quarters), where guides 
for the glacier are procured (25-50 ».). From the bridge we pro- 
ceed to the left to the lowest gaard , and then on to the highest, 
named the Nigard. Hence the route ascends the old moraine ('Brse- 
Vor), which commands a magnificent view of the *Nigardsbrae, a 
huge stream of ice between the (4260 ft.) and the 
Linxlen. A descent to the edge of the glacier is not recommended. 
The walk from Kroken to the moraine and back occupies 1 hr., 
that to the margin of the glacier and back the same time. 

From Krokkn across tiiic Jostedalsbr*: to Grkdung i Strtn (on 
the Nordfjord), 12-14 hrs. (guide 16-24 kr.). A good saeter-track ascends 
to ( 3 /t hr.) Gaard Faaberg (1314 ft. ; tolerable quarters), where Rasmussen 
Larsen Faaberg, the best guide, lives. The traveller should find out in 
.Jostedal or Kroken whether he is at home, and if not should hire another 
guide at Kroken. [From Faaberg a path leads through the Fagerdal to 
the M^rkereidsdal, see p. 103.1 

The path then aseends, between the LiaxUn and the Hamrene , to 
the Bjernestegadn-fiwter in the Stordal and (l'/j hr.) the sajter Fa&berg- 
shal (1870 ft. ; tolerable quarters), where the night is usually spent. To 
the W., immediately above the sseter, extends the Faabergsteilbra?. 

AVe now ascend the desolate Stordal, passing the Oi-Steter, where 
the path to the Gudbrandsdal over the Hanspikje, mentioned at p. 163, 
diverges to the right. Farther on we keep to the left and in l'/ a hr. 
reach the Lodalsbrw (5350 ft.), which we ascend to the right to the Joste- 
dal»bne. The highest point of the latter is reached to the right of the 
LodaUkaupe (about 6800 ft.). This ascent is very fatiguing, but the view 
is one of surpassing grandeur. 

The descent to Gredung takes 5-6 hrs. We first cross the creviced 
Gredungsbrw or Erdalsbne , which lies between the Ktornaaxe and the 
Klubben (5150 ft.), and then descend by a very rugged path past the 
Sl-aarene to the lower end of the glacier (2300 ft.). The valley now be- 
comes less steep, and the sseter of Gredungssleil and the gaard of Gredung 
are reached without farther difficulty (see p. 190). 

c. Aurlandsfjord and Naer«fjord. 

Stkamboats 'Sogn* and 'Lterdal' usually twice weekly from LardaU- 
even to Giidvangen via. Auvland, and twice to ((udvangen direct. 

Lardaheren, see p. 97. — Opposite the promontory of Fad- 
no's (p. 99) opens the valley of Vindedid , with the Store Graa- 
naase. Farther on , to the left , rise the Qlipsfjeld and , beyond 
Refnwslangcn, the huge Blejan (see below). To the right, charm- 
ingly situated on the Amblebugt(jp. 110), lies Amble( Jnn), which is 
usually touched at only by the steamers going to Bergen. In 
front of us is the Fresviksfjeld, with its glaciers. The steamer then 
passes the Indre Freningen and calls at (l'/2 nr -) Ytre FrBningen 
on the main fjord. On a green plateau, about 400 ft. higher, 
lies the School House , attended by the children of this very 
scattered district. 

From Ytre FrBningen the huge 'Blejan (5560 ft.) may be ascended in 
6-7 hrs.; it commands an admirable view of the Sognefjord, the Joste- 
dalsbrffi , the Horunger, the Jotunheim Mts., the Hallingdal, and Voss. 
The fjord itself is best seen from the brink of the Lemeggen (5190 ft.). a 

Sognefjord. AURLANDSFJORD. 14. Route. 107 

cliff descending almost perpendicularly to the X. — The ascent from 
Fruningen is steep. An easier route is from Vindedal (see above ; poor 
accommodation), which may be reached from LserdalsUren by small boat. 
The best plan is to pass the night at the Vindedals-Sceter, l l /j hr. above 
Vindedal and 2-3 hrs. from the top. 

The steamboat turns to the left and steams round the Sagan<ex 
into the * Aurlandsfjord (see the Map , p. 99), passing Fresvik 
[p. 110), and the precipitous Nuten to the right. To the N.W. 
lies Lekanger (p. Ill), below the Gunvordsbrce ; to the S. rises 
the Syrdalsfjeld with the Steganaase (see below). The Aurlands- 
fjord and the Narefjord which diverges from it (see below) are 
two enormous ravines with precipitous rocky banks, 3000-4000 ft. 
in height, forming the slopes of the higher mountains behind, 
most of which are not visible from the lake. As these banks are 
intersected at places by side-valleys descending to the lake , they 
are often divided into sections somewhat resembling the lofty 
gables of medieval houses. Being rocky and barren , they are al- 
most entirely uninhabited; but houses are occasionally observed 
high above the lake, perched on some apparently inaccessible rock. 
Over these abrupt slopes are frequently precipitated waterfalls of 
great height, partly perpendicularly, and partly in the form of 
streaks of foam gliding over the dark-brown rock, and reflected in 
their whole length in the unruffled water of the sombre fjord. 
Their monotonous murmur alone breaks the profound silence of 
the scene. 

The first place in the Aurlandsfjord is Buene, to the left, with 
a 'slide' for shooting down timber from the forests above. Then 
Simlenrts, and farther on the Fyssefos to the right, and Brednas or 
lireinas, a group of poor houses on the left. The Kolarelv and Ko- 
lartop are also seen to the left. "We next pass the entrance to the 
Nasrefjord (between Narenas and Beiieln) on the right, and enter 
the S.E. arm of the Aurlandsfjord. On the hill to the right are 
the Ste y-Sceters , with two waterfalls. To the left a precipitous 
slope with the gaards of Nedberge. Farther on, to the right, is 
Underdal, prettily situated, with a church, whence the Steganaase 
('ugly' or 'terrible nose'; 5665 ft.), the highest peak of the Syr- 
dalsfjeld, may be ascended via the Melhus-Sater. Opposite, to the 
E., rises the long Flenje-Eg, to the N. of which rises the double- 
peaked Jelben, to the S. the Flenjanaase (4840 ft.). The fjord now 
widens considerably. The mouths of several deep ravines are 
passed. To the left the gaard of Skjerdal. The steamer stops at — 

Aurland or Aurlandsvangen (*Brun's Inn , suitable for a long 
stay), the principal hamlet in the Vasbygd, with a small stone 
church, from which a route leads past the Aurlandsvand, up the 
imposing Oalder of Sennerheim, to the Hallingdal (see pp. 85, 84). 

The interesting Flaamsdal (Flaam or Flaum signifying a flood, or 
swollen river) may be visited by rowing to Gam-den Fretheim, at the 
head of the fjord, 6 Kil. distant from Aurland . and walking or riding 
thence along the ITuldaelr to Gaarden, Mellnis I 1'2!)4 ft.), where the nitjh't 

108 Route 14. N^EBOFJORD. Sognefjord. 

may tie spent, or to Gaarden Kaardal, the highest house in the valley 
(3-4 hrs.). The finest points in the Flaamsdal are the hill above the 
church of Flaam, the Riondefos, Yibetnaase, and the Btrakramsyjel (Ojel 
or Oil, cleft', 'ravine'). 

FitoM Aukland to Vossevangen (3 days). 1st Day: to Kawdol , as 
above. 2nd Day (guide desirable as far as Opstel) : a steep ascent of 
about 2000 ft. to the Gravahals (Hals signifying 'pass' ; 3T28 ft.), following 
the telegraph-wires; then a descent to the Rundehoittj-ftater and Opatel 
in the district of Voss, whence the path follows the Rundalselv to .4!- 
mendinyi-n (in all 12-14 hrs.). 3rd Day bridle-path to (17 Kil.) Klere, and 
road thence to (9 Kil.) Vossevangen. — Above Kl^ve is the so-called Heer- 
resli ('Sverre's path'), which is said to have been traversed by King 
Svevie and the Birkebeiner in 1177 (see p. xlix). — From the head of 
the Rundal, which is entered a little to the S. of the Gravahals, and 
which will eventually be traversed by the Bergen and Christiania Rail- 
way, another route, diverging to the left, leads to (6-7 hrs.) Ose on the 
Oxefjord, a branch of the Hardanger (p. 60). A rough mountain- track 
also leads from Almendingen direct to (6-7 hrs.) Ulvik (p. 59). 

Fuom Aukland to Ljkui>al (2 days). This is an interesting route fur 
pedestrians, traversing magnificent mountain-scenery. 1st Day: steep 
ascent of about 4000 ft. between the Blauskavl (Skavl, 'snow-drift') on the 
N. and Ileiskarmuten on the S., and afterwards passing the lofty Hodn- 
snrpc on the right, to the Ilodnsmhr (S hrs.). — 2nd Day. to the Skaa- 
leaa'ter and ascend the Bavshayda (4635 ft.), commanding a fine view 
as far as the Horunger, and of the Jpranaase with the Troldelifjeld. A 
rough sa;ter-path then descends to the (7 hrs.) church of Tenjum in the 
Lardal (p. 97), from which Lardalseren is 10 Kil. distant by the high-road. 

The steamer now retraces its course for some distance, afford- 
ing a fine view of the Troldskilholt to the N.W., steers round the 
peninsula of Beiteln , and enters the strikingly grand and severe 
*Nserofjord, the S.W. branch of the Aurlandsfjord (comp. the 
Map, p. 106). At the entrance to this fjord we see in the distance 
the lofty mountains on the W. side of the Naredid (p. 109). To 
the left rises the peak of the Krogegg, to the right the Lagdeelv, 
a waterfall nearly 1000 ft. high. Farther on a line view is en- 
joyed to the left of the snowy amphitheatre of the Steganaase, 
beyond which is the Gjeiteggen , lying even at noonday in a dark 
shadow. A little beyond fiyrdal , which lies on the right, at the 
mouth of the valley of that name , the fjord contracts to a narrow 
defile, bounded by precipitous rocky mountains of immense height. 
On the left rises the Middagsberg, at the foot of which lies Styve. 
Farther on a number of falls descend from the snow-fields to the 
left, while the Dyrfjeld rises to the right. We next pass, on the 
left, the Rauegg and the Nissedalselv , the latter descending from 
the Store Braen and the Skammedahheidn , neither of which is 
visible from the steamer. To the right is a magnificent waterfall, 
upwards of 3000 ft. high, descending from the Ytre Bakken. The 
fjord now turns more to the S., and comes in sight of the waterfall 
of the Bakkeelv and the church of Bukke , with a cluster of poor 
cottages. Pleasant walk hence to Gudvangen by the road. The 
mountains of the Nseredal are now very prominent. This is pro- 
bably the finest part of the fjord. Farther on. several waterfalls 
are seen on both sides. 


GUDVANGEN. 14. Route. 109 

Gudvangen. — 'Hansen's Hotel and Station, K. 1, 1!. I, IK, 
with beer, 2 kr. ; Hblland's Hotel. — Carriages (to Vossevangen &c..)> 
await the arrival of the steamer. — Diligence to Vossevangen, see p. 78. 

Gudvangen, a hamlet on the Nareidalselv, at the head of the 
Njerflfjord, 5 min. from the landing-place, lies in so confined a 
situation that it is not reached by the sun's rays throughout the 
whole winter. On the E. rises the Sjerpenut, on the W. the Solb- 
jergenut. From the Kilsboten, to the N. of the former, is pre- 
cipitated the *Kilefos, a waterfall resembling the Staubbach, 
1850 ft. in height, beginning with a perpendicular fall of 500 ft. 
and terminating in a cataract. On the right of the fall is the 
Heatnasfos and on the left the Nautefos, which unite with it at 
one point and afterwards separate. 

Gudvangen is the best starting-point for an excursion to the 
Nser-odal (a walk or drive of 5-6 hrs, there and back), which 
tonus the landward continuation of the fjord and preserves the 
same wild and imposing character. About 20 min. from Gudvan- 
gen the road crosses the exquisitely clear river. To the right 
towers the huge Jordalsnut (3600 ft.), which consists of light-gray 
fclspath. On the rocky precipices on either side are seen traces 
of the numerous avalanches (Skreder) which fall into the valley in 
the early part of the summer. The road gradually ascends past 
the houses of Sjerping and Hylland, and (about 9 Kil. from Gud- 
vangen) reaches the *Stalheimsklev {Kiev, 'cliff'), a precipitous 
slope, about 1000 ft. in height, which terminates the valley. The 
road ascends the 'Kiev' by means of sixteen somewhat steep zig- 
zags , the ascent of which takes nearly an hour. On the right is 
the *Sevlefos, on the left the *Stalheimsfos, two picturesque water- 
falls. Looking back from the top of the pass (1120 ft.), we enjoy a 
very striking **View of the profound and sombre Nosredal, with the 
huge rounded rocky summit of the Jordalsnut on the left, the 
Kaldafjeld (4265 ft.) and the Aaxlen on the right, and the Kilefos 
in the distance, near Gudvangen. Somewhat nearer us is the 
mountain-route of Naalene, leading from the Oaard Brcekke to the 
Qaafd Jordal. This view is justly considered one of the grandest 
in Norway. A little beyond the summit of the pass we reach — 
13 Kil. (pay for 17 in the reverse direction) Stalheim i Vosse- 
stranden (see p. 79 ; new Hotel, opened in 1885). Travellers who 
do not intend to proceed to Vossevangen turn here. 

d. From Laerdalseren to Bergen by Steamer. The W. Sognefjord. 

31 M. Steamboat from Lcerdalsefren to Bergen 3-5 times weekly in 14-24 
hrs. (fares 12 kr. 40, 7 kr. 75 0.). Each of the steamers slightly varies its 
route on each trip, so that it is only at the most important stations that 
they touch regularly in each direction. .Such stations are indicated in 
the present route by being printed in heavy type. (See 'Oommuni- 
cationer'.) The distance between the stations are given in Norwegian 
nautical miles, one of which is equal to 4 Engl. M. 

Lardalseren (p. 97), as already mentioned, is the most im- 

110 Route U. FRESVIK. Sognefjord. 

portant place on the Sognefjord , being the starting-point of the 
routes to Christiania through Vaklers and through the Hallingdal, 
and also of the local steamers to the western branches of the Sogne- 
fjord, which have been already described. The first station on the 
steamboat route from L«rdal to Bergen is — 

2 M. Amble , seep. 106. A road leads hence, passing Oaar- 
den Heiberg , to (2 Kil.) Kaupanger, beautifully situated at the 
head of the Bay of Amble , which somewhat resembles a large 
crater. It is not a steamboat-station. The small Stavekirke, now 
restored, dates from the time of King Sverre (12th cent.). The 
landscape is diversified here by a number of fine elms and ashes. 
From Amble to Sogndal the steamer usually takes 2y 2 hrs. or 
more, having a circuit of 25 Engl. M. to perform, while the direct 
distance is only 8 M. 

Fkom Amble to Sogndal (13 Kil.). The direct route is by a good 
road to (2 Kil.) Kaupanger (see above), beyond which it ascends, com- 
manding a magnificent retrospect of the Sognefjord and particularly 
of the precipitous slopes of the snow-clad Blejan (p. 106). The road then 
enters a pine-forest, and descends past several large farms (each provided 
with a 'Stabbur' and belfry with the 'Maulklaukka\ or bell to summon 
the labourers to meals) to (7 Kil.) Eide (a poor station). A road skirting 
the Eid.ifjord leads hence to (6 Kil.) Loftesnces, a substantial farm-house 
opposite Sogndal, to which the traveller crosses the Sogndalsfjord by 
boat. It is, however, preferable to row from Eide to Sogndal (6 Kil., in 
1 hr. ; boat with two rowers 1 kr. 8 #.), passing the picturesque Stor/wug, 
a mountain furrowed by avalanches, and traversing the Eidsfjord, in 
which herrings (Sild) are frequently caught in large numbers. To the 
N.W. rise several snow-clad mountains. The water in this bay is almost 
entirely fresh on the surface, but is Salter in its lower strata. 

2 M. Freningen (p. 106), at which the larger steamers rarely 
touch, lies on the S. bank of the fjord , and is reached in l'/j nr - 
from Amble. 

l 1 /2 M. Frcsvik, a small station on the S. bank of the Sognefjord, 
at the entrance to the Aurlandsfjord (p. 107), lies at the N. base 
of the Nonhaug [Non, 'noon', or rather 2 or 3 p.m., when the sun 
appears over this Haug). To the E. is Nuten with the Saltkjelna-s. 
A very interesting excursion may be taken to the Fresvik Glacier 
to the S.W. (driving practicable part of the way). A mountain 
path leads hence through the Tundal and Jordal to (8 hrs.) fltal- 
hcim (see above), on the road from Gudvangen to Vossevangen. 

The steamer now steers towards the N., passing the promon- 
tories of Heinsene ('the poultry') and Meisen, and enters the narrow 
Sogndalsfjord, an arm of the Sognefjord about 10 Engl. M. in length. 
On the left Oaarden Lunden; on the right is Fimreite, on a fertile 
hill, commanded by the mountain of that name (2575 ft.) rising 
above it. On 15th June, 1184, Magnus Erlingsstfn was signally 
defeated and slain here by King Sverre. Passing through the 
narrow Norefjord (with the peninsula of Nordnoes on the left), we 
enter the Sogndalsfjord strictly so called , the smiling banks of 
which form one of the best cultivated districts in Norway. On the 
left rises Olmheims Kirke. Fardal lies at the mouth of the 0verste 


SOGNDAL. 14. Route. til 

Dal. On the right opens the Eidsfjord, on the bank of which rises 
the Storhoug (3940 ft.). On the left lies Gaarden Stedje (or Steie), 
with its thriving orchards. 

3 M. Sogndal {Hotel, closed ; the other Inn is poor), consisting 
of Sogndalskirke, Hofslund, and Sogndalsfjaren (Fjare , 'beach'), 
reached by steamer in Vfe hr. from Fresvik, lies on an old moraine 
through which the Sogndalselv has forced a passage. The beauty 
of the situation is enhanced by the lofty mountains in the neigh- 
bourhood (Storhougen, to the S. ; Skriken, 4120 ft., to the W. ; 
and Njuken, to the N., which last may easily be ascended in 3'/2 
hrs.), and by the comfortable-looking farm-houses on the banks 
of the fjord, among which that of Aaberge to the N. is especially 
conspicuous. After the battle of Fimreite the victorious Birke- 
beiner are said to have burned a hundred farm-houses here in one 
day. A pleasant walk may be taken on the bank of the river to 
the Waterfall, where there are several mills, and then to the S. to 
the picturesque timber-built Church, a Bautastein adjoining which 
bears the Runic inscription: 'Olafr konungr saa ut mille staina 
tltesxa. The road may then be followed to Stedje, with its two 
large Kmnpehouge ('giant tumuli'), whence we may return to Sogn- 
dalsfjsren by boat (an excursion of 1 hr. in all). 

From Sogndal to Fj^skland (10-12 hrs.). A tolerable road ascends from 
Sogndal to (II Kil.) the Sogndalsvand (1500 ft.), on which we row to (6 Kil.) 
Gaarden Selseng at its N.W. end. From this point the traveller may as- 
cend Thorstadnatlen, which commands an imposing view of the Togga 
(4900 ft.), the Fruhest, the Barnekona, and the Jostedalsbrfe. To the E. 
the Horunger are visible in clear weather. — The path now ascends the 
Longedal, passing several saeters. to the central of the three depressions 
in the mountain, about 4000 ft. above the sea, to the left of which rise 
the summits of the Frudalsbrte (5150 ft.). It then descends the Bergedal 
to Gaarden Berge on the E. bank of the Fjaerlandsfjord, from which a 
boat conveys us in I hr. to (6 Kil.) Fjwrland (see p. 112). From Sogndal 
to Marifjccren, a beautiful walk or drive of 28 Kil.. see p. 102. 

Returning to the central highway of the Sognefjord, the steamer 
steers towards the W. and touches at — 

3 M. Lekanger or Leikanger (*Inn of Herm. Brum Enke, suit- 
able for a prolonged stay, R. 1, B. 1, D. iy 2 kr.), situated on 
the beautiful and fertile N. bank of the fjord, known as the 
Sj0$trand. To the E. lies Gaarden Henjum, with a quaint 'Stue' 
(wooden house) of the 17th cent., and to the W. Gaarden Husebe, 
with a lofty Bautastein. 

A day's excursion may be taken from Lekanger to the N. through 
the Henjumdal to the Gunvordsbrw (5150 ft.). 

On the opposite bank of the fjord lie Fejos, where a steamer 
touches once weekly in each direction, and Vangsnas ('meadow 
promontory'), commanded by huge mountains in the background. 
From Fejos mountaineers may ascend the * Rambaren (5250 ft.) 
and the *Fresviksbra- (5150 ft.). 

Opposite Vangsnses the Fjarlandsfjord , which is only occa- 
sionally visited by the steamers, opens to the N. 

112 Route U. FJyERLANDSFJORD. Sognefjord. 

The 'Fjserlandsfjord extends to the N. for a distance of 19 Engl. M . 
and is terminated by the Bojums - Jekel and the Sup/iclle-Jekcl , the S. 
offshoots of the .lostedalsbrse. Its hanks are very imposing, though less 
precipitous than those of the Nsertrfjord (p. 108). On the left, near the 
mouth of the fjord, diverge the Svcerefjord and the Vetlefjord (see below). 
On the right, above the Bommedal, rises the Rommehest (4120 ft.), which 
may easily be ascended, and commands a mountain-view of the grandest 
description. The steamer stops at Fjaerland or Mundal (Inn kept by 
Aasimmd Mundals Enke), 2 Kil. from the head of the fjord; accommo- 
dation may also be obtained at Oaurden Vaalemk, 4-5 Kil. from the pier. 
From either of these points each of the two great glaciers may be visited 
in 5 hrs. (there and back, guide unnecessary). The steamers stop half-a- 
day at Fjaerland, allowing ample time for the excursion. Stolkjferres may 
be hired on shore here. 

The "Store Suphellebra , in the Suphelledal, 2 hrs. to the TT.E. of 
the steamboat-pier , descending to within 150 ft. of the sea-level , is one 
of the lowest glaciers in southern Norway. The last 20 min. must be 
traversed on foot. The lower part of the glacier, however, consists merely 
of the fragments of ice which fall over the rocks from the proper glacier 
above. The ice here is of a bright blue colour. — About 1 hr. higher up lies 
the "Vellebrw or Lille Suphellebrw . which is remarkable for the purity of 
its ice. — The Skjeidesnipa (4725 ft.) separates the Great Suphellebrse 
from the "Bojumsbrae, the foot, of which is 600 ft. only above the fjord, 
presenting a huge ice-fall. 

From Hillestad to Fjcerland, see p. 101; from Sogndal to Fjuerland, 
see p. 111. 

The Sognefjord here trends suddenly to the S. The next 
steamboat-station is — 

2 M. Balholmen (*Inn) , the principal village on the fertile 
Balestrand, finely situated at the mouth, of the small Esscfjord, 
near the entrance to the Fjcerlandsfjord, which may also be visited 
from this point. Balholmen is also a good starting-point for several 
other interesting tours. The imposing mountain-background con- 
sists of Gjeiterryggen, Vindrekken (3875 ft.), and Guldirple ; farther 
to the N. are Furunipa and Toten. Between the Guldseple and 
Furunipa is the curious gap called Kjeipen ('rowlock', from the 
supposed resemblance). The *Munkeg, to the S., which is easily 
ascended, commands a striking view. 

The Balestrand is commonly supposed to be the scene of 
Tegne'r's 'Frithjofs Saga'. At Oaardtn Flesje, 6 Kil. to the S., 
King Bele's tomb (Oravhoug) is pointed out, while the fertile 
promontory of Vangsnces opposite is said to be the Framnas of 
Frithjof ('the robber of peace'). To the N. of Balholm is the 
very picturesquely situated church of Tjuyum. Shortly before we 
stop at Balholmen, the deck of the steamer affords a view of the 
Vetlefjord with its glacier-background, but not of the N. end of 
the Fjserlandsfjord (see above). 

From Balholmen to Sande (2 days). 1st Day. Row up the Svaerefjord 
to (llKil.)GaardenSvceren at the head of the bay (tolerable quarters); ascend 
through the valley (3 Kil.), and then by a steep and rugged path to the 
Sviereskard (2300 ft.) , a pass between lofty mountains , whence a fine 
retrospect is obtained towards the Sognefjord; the route next traverses 
a boggy and sterile plateau to the watershed , descending from which it 
soon reaches a sfcter (about. 5 hrs. from Svseren) ; it descends thence, pass- 
ing a small lake, and traversing wood at places, to another sseter, crosses 
the river, and leads over marshy ground to Mjell (8-10 hrs. walk in all). 

Sognefjord. VIK. 14. Route. 113 

— 2nd Day. From Mjell by a bridle-path to Gaarden Ho/, and thence by 
a road to the pretty Viksvand, a lake about 1 Kil. long, which is traversed 
by boat, passing the island and chapel of Hcestad; thence by road to 
Sande (p. 180; a walk of 3-4 hrs. and a row of l 3 / t hr. in all). 

Fkom Balholmen to F0kde (2 days). 1st Day. Row to (12 Kil.) Ulvestad, 
at the head of the 'Vetlefjord, and follow the road thence to (6 Kil.) 
Me.ll , near which an offshoot (Jekel) of the Josledalsbroe descends into 
the valley; thence, with a guide, to Oreneng at the N.E. end of the Hauke- 
ilalsvand (rough and fatiguing ; 7-8 hrs.). 2nd Day. From Grtfneng via 

Holsen and Mo to Ferde on the Fordefjord (10 hrs. ; road). 

Leaving Balholmen, the steamer usually steers due S. to — 

1 M. Vik (*Inn) , 'beautifully situated on a bay on the S. side 
of the fjord, with fertile environs and snow-mountains in the back- 
ground. To the left rises Rambmren. The two old churches, 
one built of timber, the other of stone, are interesting. Numerous 
boat-houses (Nest , locally pronounced Xausht). To the N. the 
Veilebra, a branch of the Jostedals Glacier, is visible ; more to the 
right is the Tvindefos. 

A carriage-road ascends the valley behind Vik for about 10 Kil. — 
Interesting mountain -routes (about 8 hrs. each) lead hence to Stalheim 
(p. 109), to Vinje (p. 79), and to Qulbraa in the Exingdal (guide necessary 
in each case). 

Soon after leaving Vik the steamboat passes a promontory on 
the left, on which is placed a l Qilje\ or apparatus for catching 
salmon , with waterfalls painted on it with a view to attract 
the fish (comp. p. 229). 

2 M. Nese i Arnefjord , with an old church , picturesquely 
situated in its bay on the S. side of the Sognefjord, is commanded 
by an imposing background of mountains about 3000 ft. in height, 
which are green to their summits. Through the intervening de- 
pressions snow-fields are seen in the background. — About 1^2 M. 
to the S.W., on the S. side of the main fjord, lies Ortnevik, where 
the steamers occasionally touch, 1 M. to the N. of which, on the 
opposite bank, lies — 

2 1 2 M. Maaren, prettily situated, with a waterfall near it. The 
white water-worn cliffs bear traces of the great height to which 
they are sometimes washed by the waves. 

1^2 M. Kirkebe lies on the N. bank, nearly opposite the Fugl- 

iy 2 M. Vadheim (* Station, 'slow') is prettily situated at the 
head of the Vadheimsfjord, a bay on the N. side of the Sognefjord. 
On the left rises the imposing Noreviksheien , to the right a hill 
with Gaard Hovden. To the E. lies Hovland. 'Overland Route' to 
Molde, see R. 21. (On the Eikefjord, a bay on the S. side, about 
15 Engl. M. to the S.W. of Vadheim, lies Tredal, at which a 
steamer touches once weekly in each direction.) 

3 M. Ladvik , on the N. bank, the principal place in this part 
of the Sogn district, presents little attraction to travellers. A little 
to the E. of it is Varholm, where the steamers touch occasionally. 
To the S. of Vserholm, on the opposite bank, is — 

Baedeker's Xorwav and Swi-den. 3rd Edit. S 

114 Route 14. B0FJORD. 

1 M. Brcekke, on the small Risnefjord, above which the Stang- 
lundsfjeld rises to the W. 

2 M. Befjord (or Lervik"), on the small fjord of that name. 
To the N. of Lervik rises the Lihest (2370 ft.), at the head of the 
Aafjord. The magnificent scenery of the Sognefjord is now quitted ; 
the mountains become lower and more barren , and the pictur- 
esque side-valleys disappear. The last station on the fjord is — 

2 M. Sognefest, on the S. side, opposite which, to the W., rise 
the Sulen-0er, a group of islands (the 'Solundare' of Frithjofs 
Saga), containing mountains 1800 ft. in height. The steamer now 
passes through the strait called the Sognesje, and next stops at — 

1 M. Eivindvik on the Gulenfjord, the famous seat of the 
ancient Qulathingslag , a popular assembly, to whose jurisdiction 
all the western 'Fylker' from Sendmme to Rygjarb it (now Christians- 
sands-Stift and Bergen-Stift , including the Hallingdal and Val- 
ders) were subject. The steamer now threads its way through the 
'Skjjergaard' or network of islands to the N. of Bergen , inhabited 
by 'Slriler, as the natives of this region are called, touching at 
(1 M.) Skjargehavn, (4 M.) Lygren, and (2M.) Alverstremmcn, and 
at length reaches — 

3 M. Bergen, see R. 10. 

15. From Christiania to Molde by the Gudbrandsdal 
and the Romsdal. 

Lake Mj^sen. 

483 Kil. (300 Engl. M.). Railway from Christiania to Eidivold, 68 Kil. 
(42 Engl. M.), in 2»/4-3'A brs. (fares 4 kr. 80, 3 kr. 20, 1 kr. GO 0.). The 
traveller may also go as far as Hamar by railway, but this is not re- 
commended. — Steamboat dailv from Eidsvold to Lillehammer, 105 Kil. 
(lit! M.), in 7'/ 2 hrs. (fares 5 kr. 55, 3 kr. 70 «f.). The steamers ('Tordens- 
kjold', 'Kong Oscar', 'Skibladner') have good restaurants on board. — 
Diligence from Lillehammer to Veblungsncei, 270 Kil. (167 M.), twice 
weekly in three days (starting on Tues. and Frid. and stopping for the 
night at Bredvangen-Melmen or at Bredvangen-Lejeverk; returning on Hon. 
and Frid. and stopping for the night at Holswt-Byre or Holaker-Listadt 
(fare 40 kr.). — Steamboat from Veblungsnses to Molde, 35 Kil. (22 M.), 
3-4 times weekly in 3-4'/2 hours. 

As to the 'Diligence', see p. 89. In midsummer the seats are gener- 
ally engaged a week or a fortnight beforehand. The traveller will find it 
preferable to hire a Carriage at Lillehammer for the drive to Veblungs- 
nses, for which 150-200 kr. is charged, with a fee of 5-6 kr. An open 
'Trille' is cheaper. The solitary traveller should drive by carriole (which 
costs about 50 kr., including fees), devoting 4-5 days to the journey. In this 
case the finest parts of the route, particularly those from Sluefloten to 
Ormeim and from Flatmark to Veblungsnces, can be traversed on foot, the 
luggage being sent on in a 'stolkjserre*. Travellers by carriage or carriole 
should not spend the night at the places where the diligence stops (see 
above). The best quarters for the night are at Fotsegaarden, Skjatggestad, 
Listad, Storklevstad , Laurgaard, Domaas, Holnel, Sluefloten, and Veb- 

The scenery increases in grandeur as we advance towards the W. 
Those who intend to explore the beauties of this district from Molde and 

EIDSVOLD. 15. Route. 1 1 5 

to go farther N. by steamer may turn back at Ormeim, after visiting the 

Christiania, see p. 1. As the train leaves the station, we 
obtain a fine view of Christiania and the fjord to the left, and of 
the Egeherg and the suburb of Oslo to the right. Stations Bryn, 
Grorud, Strernmen. Then — 

21 Kil. (13 Engl. M.) Lillestremmen, the junction of the line 
to Eidsvold and Kongsvinger (see p. 271). The railway from this 
point to Eidsvold, constructed in 1851, is the oldest in Norway. 
The country is unattractive, but at Frogner and Kief ten a glimpse 
is obtained of the distant blue mountains to the W. Beyond Treg- 
slad the train crosses extensive tracts of gravel, interspersed with 
scanty wood. Beyond Dal, which possesses several pretty villas, 
the scenery becomes more interesting. Two tunnels are passed 

68 Kil. (42 M.) Eidsvold (*Jernbane Hotel, at the station). 
Travellers arriving from Christiania by the morning train go at 
once on board the steamboat, which starts 74" V2 hr. later. — If 
the traveller makes any stay here he may visit the Eidsvold Baths 
on the Eidsvoldsbakke (R. 4-6 kr. per week , 'pension' 2 kr. per 
day; baths 50-80 0.), and the Bautastein , or monument, erect- 
ed to Henrik Wergeland (d. 1845), the poet, and the discoverer 
of the spring. 

A pleasant walk may be taken to Mdsvoldsverk, about 5 Kil. distant, 
where the Norwegian constitution (Norges Riges Orundlov) was established 
in 1814. A preliminary meeting took place here on 19th Feb. of that 
year, the sittings of the national diet began on 10th April, and the con- 
stitution (Grundlov) was adopted 17th May. The building, originally a 
farm-house, has been purchased by government and embellished with 
portraits of members of the diet. 

Continuation of the Railway, to Hamar and Throndhjem, 
see p. 208. 

The Steamboat at first traverses the broad and clear Vormen, 
which issues from Lake Mj«sen and falls into the Glommen. 
Large tracts of debris, deposited by former glaciers, are passed on 
both sides. At (8 Kil.) Minne (railway-station, p. 208), where a 
bridge crosses the Vormen, the steamer reaches the lake itself. 

Lake Mj*sen (412 ft.; greatest depth 1482 ft.), the largest 
lake in Norway, which L. v. Buch has called 'Norway's inland 
sea', is 100 Kil. (62 M.) long and at its broadest part 17 Kil. 
(10y 2 M.) in width , and forms a convenient highway between 
the districts of Oudbrandsdalen and Hedemarken to the N. and E., 
and those of Tlioten and 0vre Romerike to the W. and S. Like 
the Alpine lakes of Switzerland, Lake Mjesen is very deep at 
places (1482 ft. near Skreiabjergene), and though it lies 412 ft. 
above the sea-level, it is a curious fact that the lowest part of 
its bed is upwards of 1000 ft. below that level. The Skreia- 
bjerg or Skreia-Vjeld, on the W. bank, about halfway between 
Eidsvold and Gjevik , rises to the height of 2300 ft., but with 

1 1 6 Route, 1 5. HAMAR. From Christiania 

this exception the hills bounding the lake are of very moderate 
height. The only considerable Bays formed by the lake are those 
of Tang en and Hamar (Akersviken). Opposite to Hamar lies the 
large and well-cultivated Helgee, the only island in the lake, which 
at this point attains its greatest depth (1475 ft.). The erection 
of fortifications and a large central arsenal (like that of Karls- 
borg in Sweden, p. 291) on this island is projected. The Hunner 
0rret is a kind of trout peculiar to this lake. 

The scenery of the banks of Lake Mjesen is of a soft and 
pleasing character. They present an almost unbroken succession 
of fields, woods, and pastures, studded with numerous farm-houses 
and country residences, but will perhaps seem somewhat monoton- 
ous if the traveller goes all the way from Eidsvold to Lillehammer 
in one day. 

The steamer touches at Ekornholm , Stigersand , and Fjeldhoitg 
on the W. bank, and then crosses to Oillund and — 

Hamar (* Victoria, J ernbane-Hotel , both near the steamboat 
pier and railway-station, and facing the lake) , sometimes called 
' Storehammer to distinguish it from Lillehammer , the capital of 
Hedemarken, with 2400 inhab., prettily situated between the 
Fumasfjord to the N. and the Akersvik to the E., which last is 
crossed by a long bridge. Hamar dates from 1152, when an episcopal 
see was founded here by the papal nuncio Nicholas Breakspeare, 
an Englishman, afterwards Pope Adrian IV. From that period 
also are said to date the ruins of the old Cathedral, once a handsome 
editice , of which four round arches of the nave alone are left. 
A pleasant walk may be taken to the ruins, 20 min. to the N.W., 
where the original town of Storehammer was situated. The old 
town with the cathedral and two other churches was destroyed by 
the Swedes in 1567. The modern town, which received its muni- 
cipal charter in 1864, and again became an episcopal see in 1864, 
has thriven greatly since the construction of the railway toThrond- 
hjem (p. 208). — Near Hamar is the 'Folkeheiskole' of Sagatun. 

The steamer now steers towards the W., passing on the left 
the pTetty Helgee, and touches at Na>s, Smervik, and — 

Gj«vik(6j0viks Hotel, near the pier, with view of the lake, and 
Victoria, 100 yds. farther up the jinain street, both good), the 
capital of Thoten Fogderi, with 1112 inhab., situated on the W. 
bank of the lake, about 60 Kil. from Eidsvold and 40 Kil. from 
Lillehammer, and at the mouth of the Hunselv. Pleasing views 
of the lake and Helgea from the Hunskirke and other heights near 
the village. 

From Gjovik to Framn^es, 38 Kil. (24 M.), carriage-road with fast sta- 
tions (diligence daily, see below). The road at first ascends rapidly, tra- 
versing extensive woods, to — 

14 Kil. Mustad (a fair station), situated about 1500 ft. above Lake 
Mjfisen. The drive to this point occupies fully 2 hrs. . after which 
the road traverses a nearly level plateau to (11 Kil.) Lien, a farm-house 

to Molde. LILLEHAMMER. 15. Route. 117 

near the road, and formerly the station (clean and cheap). About 3 Kil. 
farther on is — . 

14 Kil. Granum (a fair station), situated a little to the right of the 
road, which farther on descends to the basin of the Randsfjord (p. 89). 
\bout halfway between Granum and Odnses a direct road to (140 Kil.) 
Christiania diverges to the 8., skirting the E. bank of the Randsfjord 
(he first half of the way. A little farther on, about 8 Kil. from Granum, 
is Odnces (p. 90). Then — 

10 Kil. (from Granum) Framnxs, see p. 90. 

The steamer now continues its northward way through the lake, 
which contracts to the dimensions of a river, and touches at 
Heygenhaugen, Bingsaker (with an old church containing a Flemish 
altar-piece of the 16th cent.), Birid (with a glass-foundry), and 
Frengstuen. About 2</ 4 hrs. after leaving Gjflvik it reaches — 

Lillehammer. — "Victoria Hotel, well situated, near the bridge 
over the Mesna; 'Madame Okmsrud, in the main street, on the left, a 
little farther on; charges at both', R. l-l'/s kr. , S. 1 kr. 20 0., D. 2 kr. 
The steamboat-pier is fully 1 Engl. M. from the hotels; omnibus to and 
from the pier. 

Sktds Station at Vingsnws (see p. 118). Information about the Dil- 
igence to Veblungsnses is given at the office of Hr. A. M. Larsen. 

Snors. F. Frisenberg , on the E. side of the main street, sells well- 
executed silver-plate and trinkets at moderate prices; tastefully carved 
meerschaum-pipes, etc. at G. Larsen's, on the opposite side of the street. 

Lillehammer is beautifully situated on the Mesna, on the 
E. bank of Lake Mjesen, about 150 ft. above the lake, and 
•/ 2 Engl. M. below the influx of the Lougen (Laug, Laay, or 
Log, i. e. 'river'; Laa,gen, 'the river' ; 'the Lougen', though gene- 
rally used, is, grammatically speaking , a pleonastic expression). 
The town (1560 inhab.), which presents a modern appearance, 
has enjoyed municipal privileges since 1827 only. It is called 
Lillehammer ('little hammer') to distinguish it from Hamar or Store- 
hammer. The principal building is the substantial and handsome 
Grammar School (Latinskole) , at the S. end of the main street, 
overlooking the church and the lake. A cotton-mill (managed by 
Hr. Ingeniar Lyng), saw-mills, flour-mills , and a manufactory of 
agricultural implements add to the importance of the place. Lille- 
hammeT is a pleasant point for a short stay, and being the terminus 
of the Mjesen steamboats and the starting-point of the Gud- 
brandsdal route, is a very busy place in summer and a great 
rallying-point for travellers. 

The turbulent Mesna forms several beautiful * Waterfalls about 
1 Engl. M. to the N.E. of the town, the finest being the Helve- 
deshel, or 'hell cauldron', near which is the Niagara Bath House. 
Pleasant walk of l fe hr. to the S., passing the Grammar School, to 
a bench on the road-side , commanding a fine view of the lake, 
here scarcely 3 / 4 Engl. M. in breadth. To the E. of Lillehammer 
stretches a vast tract of forest, wild and almost uninhabited. The 
Mesna and the Mesna Lakes, in a sequestered situation 7 Engl. M. 
to the E. (reached by a rough, and at places swampy forest-path), 
afford good trout-fishing. 

118 Route 15. GUDBRANDSDAL. From Christiania 

On the W. bank of Lake Mj»sen, opposite Lillehammer (ferry 
adjoining the steamboat-pier), lies Oaarden Vingnas, a posting- 
station, prettily situated, from which a good, but somewhat hilly 
road, with fast stations, leads to Gjavik (p. 116). 

At Lillehammer begins the Gudbrandsdal, or valley of the 
Lougcn, through which our road ascends. As in the case of the 
Hallingdal (p. 80) the name is applied not only to the principal 
valley but also in a loose general sense to all the small lateral 
valleys the streams of which drain into the Lougen. The inhabi- 
tants (Gudbrandsdeler) are generally well-to-do, and distinguished 
by their curious customs and their pride. According to Norwegian 
ideas the valley is well cultivated, but the cattle-pastures occupy 
much more ground than tilled fields. In summer most of the in- 
habitants migrate with the cattle to the saeters. The scenery of 
the Gudbrandsdal is comparatively tame, as the heights enclosing 
it are merely the lower spurs of the fjeld , the higher peaks of 
which are only occasionally visible. The valley sometimes ex- 
pands and becomes more picturesque, but as a whole it is sombre 
and somewhat monotonous. 

The admirable road ('Kongevei') ascends gradually from Lille- 
hammer, at a considerable height above the Lougen, and passes 
smiling green slopes with forest in the background. The numerous 
heaps of stones ('Agerstener') on the road -side testify to the 
trouble which the farmers have had in preparing their land for 
cultivation. The syllables rud, rod, or ryd in which names of 
Norwegian places so frequently terminate have reference to the 
'uprooting' of trees and removal of stones. On the left is passed a 
'Mindesten', or monument, to Hr. Bergk, constructor of the road. 

About x ji hr. from Lillehammer a road descends to the left Into the 
vallev, crosses a bridge, and then ascends the Gausdal, passing the sta- 
tions" of (12 Kil.) Diserud, (15 Kil.) Veisten, (14 Kil.) Helleberg , and 
(14 Kil.) Kvisberg, beyond which mountain-tracks, rarely used, lead 
to the Jotunfjeld (p. 128). A little beyond Diserud is the gaard of Ole- 
stad, belonging to Bjemstjeme Bjemson, the poet and novelist. 

The Gausdal Sanatorium , a large hotel and pension near the Skei- 
sailer, and a favourite resort of Norwegian visitors, is finely situated on 
the hill to the right of the Gausdal, about 3000 ft. above the sea-level, 
or 2600 ft. above Lake Mjusen, and 42 Kil. from Lillehammer. An omni- 
bus runs to the Sanatorium in summer from the Victoria Hotel daily (in 
o 1 /:; hrs.), returning thence to Lillehammer in the afternoon (in 5 hrs. ; 
fare 8 kr.). It may also be reached by carriole via, Diserud and (14 Kil.) 
Nerttevold. Visitors making a prolonged stay at the Sanatorium pay 
5-6 kr. per day for board and lodging; passing travellers are charged 
hotel-prices. Among the many pleasant walks and excursions which may 
be taken from the Sanatorium , one of the finest is to the (2 hrs.) summit 
of "Prwsteliampen (4090 ft.), which commands an admirable view of the 
glaciers and peaks of the Jotunfjeld and other mountains. 

14 Kil. Fossegaarden (good quarters) is beautifully situated 
above the Lougen, which here forms a fine fall called t\e.*Hunner- 
fos, where the famous Hunnererreter, or lake-trout (p. 116), are 
caught in' large numbers. The Neverfjeld, a fine point of view, 
may be ascended hence in 2 hours. 

toMolde. SK.LEGGESTAD. 15. Route. 119 

Beyond Fossegaarden the road traverses a ravine where the 
Lougen has forced its passage through a barrier of rock. On the 
left rises the Dreshula, a picturesque cliff. The vegetation is very 
rich. — The peasants here wear red caps , and frequently carry a 
peculiar kind of pannier on their backs (Bagmeis, elsewhere called 
Naverkont). On the road-side are a number of Hvilesteller, or 
open stalls for resting horses. The posts flanking the road (called 
Rodestolpef) mark the portions (Roder) which the adjoining land- 
owners are bound to keep in repair. 

17Kil. Holmen i Tretten. A little farther on, Formo, from which 
a view is obtained to the E. of the snow-capped peaks of the Rdndane 
(p. 210). A horse fair of considerable importance is held annually 
at the neighbouring village of Stav, on 15th-17th August. Be- 
tween Formo and Kirkenstue lies Lake Losna, which contains 
excellent flsh. The scenery continues to be attractive. 

16 Kil. Kirkestuen (*Station). On the left rises the pictur- 
esque mountain called Tuliknappen, and to the right the Djupdal, 
above which is Gaarden Vpsal. Near Kirkestuen the height attained 
by the river during an inundation (Flora) on 16th and 17th June, 
1860, is marked on the rocks. The road next passes through a ra- 
vine bounded by the precipitous and furrowed Elstaklev and a sim- 
ilar rock opposite. The horns of the cattle here are frequently 
tipped with wooden or metal knobs to prevent them from doing 
injury. On the road-side are seen numerous snow-ploughs (SnB- 

12 Kil. Skjaeggestad (*Station; walls adorned with photo- 
graphs, including 'Col. Sinclair's Landing' from a picture by 
Tidemand) is picturesquely situated, but the environs are some- 
what marshy. On a hill to the left, a little beyond it, stands the 
old church of Ringebo. The Klinkenberg (3080 ft. ) is sometimes 
ascended hence for the sake of the view (6-8 hrs. there and back ; 
horses at the station). 

From Skjaeggestad a lonely bridle-path leads to Solliden and the 
Alne-Vemd (a day's journey), whence the traveller may either proceed to 
Foldal and Jerkin on the Dovrefjeld (p. 204) by a tolerable road, or de- 
scend the valley of the Atne-Elv to Atna. Comp. p. 210. 

The valley now becomes somewhat marshy. We pass the Vaal- 
huug on the right, and cross the Vaalaelv (fine view). Farther on 
are the churches of Venebygden and Fron. We next observe the 
Guard Sieig , picturesquely and loftily situated, once the resi- 
dence of the 'Foged' Lars Gram, the leader of the peasants who an- 
nihilated the Scottish invaders commanded by Col. Sinclair(p. 120). 
Farther on is Gaarden Huntorp, once the seat of Dale Gudbrand, 
the powerful heathen opponent of St. Olaf. Beyond it is Gaarden 
Hove, once the scene of heathen sacrificial rites. In the vicinity 
are several barrows (Kampehouge). 

14 Kil. Listad i Sendre Fron (*Station, comfortable.; *6aard 
Lillehove, a little farther on), near which is the church of Fron, 

1 20 Route 15. STORKLEVSTAD. From Christiania 

prettily situated, is a good place for spending the night. The road 
now descends gradually to the Lougen, which here begins to assume 
the character of a mountain-torrent. On the left is Oryting, a 
pleasant-looking gaard ; on the right rises the Skudal, a precipi- 
tous rock. 

9 Kil. Moen i Setorp. A road to the right, crossing the Lougen, 
leads hence to Kvikne and Skabo, whence a dreary track ascends to 
Jotuuheim (not recommended). Oomp. R. 16. 

The scenery now becomes of a wilder and grander description. 
The valley turns to the N., and then, beyond Oaarden Vik (*Inn, 
formerly the station), to the W. 

12 Kil. Storklevstad, or Klevstad (*Station) lies a little below 
the church of Kvam, situated on the right. Below the church, to 
the left, is a stone near the road-side recording that Col. Sinclair 
is buried there (see below). 

The road now traverses a poor district, partially wooded with 
stunted pines and birches. The fields are irrigated by means of 
numerous cuttings (Rcenner). The cottages of the Husmand, or 
farm-labourers, called Stuer, are usually roofed with turf. The 
large slabs of slate common in this district are used for making 
walls, for roofing purposes, and for the drying of malt. A number 
of small gaards are perched on the hill-side in apparently inacces- 
sible situations. The magpie (Skjer), an object of superstitious 
veneration among the Norwegian peasantry, is frequently seen 
here. The river forms numerous rapids and cataracts. The road 
has now attained a height of about 1000 ft. above the sea-level, 
or 600 ft. above the Lougen. The Sjoa here falls into the Lougen. 

Immediately above the confluence of the Sjoa and Lougen a road di- 
verges to the left, crosses the Lougen, and ascends the valley of the Sjoa 
to (29 Kil. from Storklevstad) Bjjerlstad, one of the largest and most 
interesting gaards in Norway, the proprietor of which claims to be of 
royal descent. Near it is the church of Hedalen. The next stations are 
Nordre Snerle and (25 Kil.) Sen-urn (p. 130). 

The road now passes the new district prison, and reaches the 
station of ■ — 

16 Kil. Bredvangen (*Inn, small), beautifully situated. The 
horses have usually to be fetched from the pastures on the other 
side of the Lougen, which here forms a lake-like expansion. The 
background of the Alpine picture, looking up the valley, is formed 
by the lofty Formokampen (4836 ft.). A little beyond Bredvangen 
the Lougen is joined on the left by the Ottaelv, through the valley 
of which a road leads to (11 Kil.) Aasoren, (15 Kil.) Snerle, and 
(20 Kil.) Serum (p. 130). 

On the right side of the road, about halfway between Bredvangen 
and Moen, is the steep hill called Kringelen, which was form- 
erly traversed by the old road. On 26th August, 1612, when Col. 
George Sinclair with his 900 Scotch auxiliary troops, who had 
landed a few days previously at the Klungenses on the Romsdals- 

to Molde. LAURGAARD. 15. Route. 121 

fjord, were attempting to force their way through Norway to join 
the Swedes, who were then at war with the Norwegians, they were 
intercepted by an ambush of 300 Norwegian peasants at this spot. 
The natives had collected huge piles of stones and wood on the 
hill above the road, which they hurled down on the invaders when 
they reached this part of the road. Most of the ill-fated Scots 
were thus destroyed, while the survivors, with a few exceptions, 
were put to the sword. (See Laing's 'Norway'.) The massacre is 
commemorated by a tablet in the rock to the left, bearing the in- 
scription, 'Erindrmj/ om Bendernes Tapperhed' . 

8 Kil. Moen i Sel (tolerable station) lies at the confluence of 
the Lougen with the Via, which descends from Lake Via at the foot 
of the *R6ndane (p. 210), and forms the Daanofos ('thunder-fall') 
close to the road. The wall of the neighbouring Churchyard of Sel 
is curiously constructed of slabs of slate, while most of the old 
tombstones are of Klabersten or soapstone. Half-an-hour may be 
pleasantly spent here in ascending the interesting valley of the 
Via for a short distance. ■ — The pigs of the Gudbrandsdal, some- 
times adorned with triangular pieces of wood (Sule) round their 
necks, enjoy perfect liberty, and are a sturdy, wholesome-looking 

We now pass several deposits of stone and detritus (Skred), the 
ends of which from some unexplained cause rise in the form of 
knolls. The largest of these ts passed near Laurgaard, before 
leaching which we cross the river. 

10 Kil. Laurgaard (*Station, comfortable) lies about 1000 ft. 
above the sea-level. 

An interesting excursion may be made hence by a bridle-path to the 
llevvingen Salter, fitted up as a small inn, the property of the station- 
master at Laurgaard, about 11 Kil. distant. "Near it rises "Formokampen 
(4836 ft.), a fine point of view, easily ascended. 

From Laurgaakd to Sjzirom (or Vaage, 21 Kil.). The picturesque, 
but hilly road crosses the mountains to the W. of Laurgaard to (14 Kil.) 
Nordre Snerle and (7 Kil.) Serum (p. 130). 

The road now leads along the Lougen through the imposing 
pine-clad *Ravine of Rusten, resembling the Schollenen on the 
Gotthard Route. The river has here forced itself a passage through 
the rocky barrier of the Rust, and descends in a series of rapids 
and cataracts. The finest point is at the * Bridge which carries the 
road to the right bank of the river , about 8/4 hr. beyond Laur- 
gaard. The traveller is recommended to walk from Laurgaard to 
the bridge, near which diverges the above-mentioned road to the 
H»vringen Sseter. On emerging from the ravine we find ourselves 
in an Alpine" valley, 1850 ft. above the sea -level, in which 
cultivation almost totally disappears. Cuttings for irrigation ap- 
pear here also. On the right rises the Rustenfjeld, on the left the 
Kjelen, the huge mountain - mass between the Lessa Valley and 
Vaage. As late as July large patches of snow are seen by the 

122 Route 15. DOMAAS. From Chrhtianki 

road-side. The broad floor of the valley is covered with deposits 
of stone and sand, partially overgrown with stunted pines. 

12 Kil. Brcendhougen (*Station), in the parish of Dovre. The 
station contains a curious old wardrobe, painted and gilded, a 
table dating from 1763, and several specimens of wood-carving. 

The Jetla (5430 ft.) which rises to the W., is sometimes ascended 
from Brsendhougen. It commands an imposing view of the Dovrefjeld, 
the Itondane, and the Jotunfjeld. 

We now cross the Lougen by a new bridge, and soon after pass 
the church of Dovre, which Prof. Forbes calls a singular and ugly 
structure ('Norway', p. 11), situated on an ancient moraine. Like 
many of the Norwegian churches, it is built in the form of a Greek 
cross. In the centre rises the tower. At the end of each arm of 
the cross is a small projecting addition. The whole structure is 
covered with large dark slabs of slate. Some of the tombstones in 
the churchyard are interesting. — The farms, as usual, are all 
placed on the sunny side of the valley, while on the other side 
rise dreary masses of mountain and rock. 

11 Kil. Toftemoen (*Station) lies at the head of the Gud- 
brandsdal in the narrower sense. The name signifies an inhabited 
site (Tuft) on a sandy plain (Mo). The word 'toft' occurs in Eng- 
land and Scotland in a somewhat similar sense. The station- 
master traces his descent from Harald Haarfagre , and possesses a 
number of interesting old curiosities. A sa;ter about 1 hr. distant, 
belonging to his father, is interesting. 

Beyond Toftemoen the scenery is at first very uninteresting. 
The road ascends over huge deposits of detritus to Gaarden Lid, 
the buildings of which are roofed with birch-bark (Nirver) covered 
with green turf. We obtain here a fine view of the profound 
ravine of the Lougen, with the Kjalen rising above it. The peak 
in the distance is the Horung. 

11 Kil. Domaas, or Dombaas (2160ft.; *Station and telegraph- 
office ; the station-keeper and telegraph official speak English), 
is an important place owing to its position at the junction of the 
Gudbrandsdal and Dovrefjeld routes (see R. 25) , and lies high 
above the ravine of the Lougen. White fox and other skins and 
reindeers' antlers are offered for sale here. The air is fresh and 
exhilarating, and the place is suited for a prolonged stay. 

A pleasant excursion of 4-5 lira, may be taken from Dombaas to the 
Hardegsaiter on the S. bank of the Lougen, where a fine view of the valley, 
of Snehattan, and other mountains is enjoyed. 

The road to Molde leads as far as Stuefloten through an uninter- 
esting and shallow upland valley, the mountains enclosing which 
are comparatively tame in form. The bottom of the valley is sandy, 
and partially covered with a scanty growth of pines, birches, and 
heather. The ascent is very gradual. A short way beyond Domaas 
the road skirts the N. bank of a narrow lake called the Lesje-Vand 
(1720 ft.), which has been partially drained. 

to Molde. M0LMEN. 15. Route. 123 

12 Kil. Holaker (".Station , moderate charges). The road pass- 
es the Lesje-Kirke and reaches — 

15 Kil. Holscet (*Station), at the N.W. end of the Lesje-Vand. 

A bridle-path ascends from Holsset by the Lora-Elv to the Slorswter 
and the Nysceter (about 5 hrs.), and crosses the mountains thence to Aan- 
stad (or Skeaker, p. 163), a long day's journey, which may be broken by 
spending a night at the Nysseter, a pleasing specimen of the Norwegian 
chalet (see p. 124). 

At the highest part of the valley lie three small lakes known 
as the Lesjeskogen - Vand (2050 ft.), from which to the W. the 
Kauma descends to the Atlantic, and to the E. the Lougen to the 
Skagerrak. In the vicinity a picturesque waterfall. The Ashing 
is well spoken of. 

10 Kil. Lesjeverk (/"Station), at the S.E. end of the lake, 
derives its name from the iron-mine formerly worked here. 

12 Kil. M#lmen (*8tation) lies at the W. end of the lake 
and near the church of Lesjeskogen, which has given its name to 
the whole district. 

From Mulrnen to the Guard Reiten in the upper Eikisdal (10-12 hrs.), 
a fatiguing mountain-path, see p. 202. 

From M0lmen to Aanstad (Rejshjem), about 80 Kil. (50 Engl. M.). 
Travellers from the Romsdal, desirous of visiting the Jotunfjeld, and of 
avoiding the long circuit by Domaas and Laurgaard to Rtfjshjem, arc 
recommended to walk or ride across the mountains by the bridle-path 
from Molmen to Aanstad or Skeaker (about 50 Kil.) , and drive thence to 
Rejsfijem (30 Kil. more). The whole of this route may be accomplished 
in l'/2-2 days. A good walker may reach Aanstad in 16 hrs. (7 hrs. to 
the Nysseter, 2 hrs. rest, and 7 hrs. more to Aanstad); but it is preferable 
to walk or ride to the Nysater on the first day, and to Aanstad on the 
second, whence Rojshjem may be reached in the evening. Guide from 
Ml*lmen to Aanstad 12, horse" 12 kr. (Sivert Paulssen of Lid, near Mulmen, 
is recommended as a guide.) 

The route traverses a dreary mountain-tract , the wildness and so- 
lemnity of which may almost be described as awe-inspiring. Fine weather 
is of course indispensable to the enjoyment of the expedition, the chief 
attraction of which consists in the distant views. Reindeer are occa- 
sionally met with. The route is quite unattended with danger, as the 
track is well defined by means of heaps of stones (Varder), to which it 
has for centuries been the custom for travellers to contribute. Provisions 
are necessary, as the Nysseter affords nothing but coffee, milk, and Rem- 
megred (wheat-meal boiled in cream, very rich). 

1st Day. The path gradually ascends through a birch-wood in the 
Grendal to the (1 hr.) Gremcetre (or sseters of Enslad and Melmen), where 
we obtain a view of the Romsdal mountains. On the opposite side of 
the Grena, to the left, is a small tarn (Kjenn, or Tjtem, the pronuncia- 
tion of kj and tj being identical in Norway and Sweden). The path 
descends to the stream and crosses several brooks and deposits of de- 
tritus. Aconite and the dwarf birch (Betula nana) are frequently seen 
here , and the Alpine or Lapland character of the flora becomes more 
marked as we proceed. Reindeer-moss (Rensdyrmosse) , here eaten by the 
cows, is also abundant. After 2 hrs. more the path again ascends to 
the left. The birch disappears, and patches of snow are passed. Looking 
back, we observe the Svartheri to the N. of M0lmen , and the Storh0i 
more to the right. The scenery soon becomes exceedingly bleak and 
wild. In l'/j hrs. more we reach the top of the first hill (Toppen), where 
we obtain a striking view of the Romsdal mountains to the N.W. ; Mon- 
gejuret , Vengetinder , the Romsdalshorn (usually called 'Hornet'). To 
the N.E. are the Svarth0i and Storh0i, and farther distant the Snehsettan 

124 Route 15. NYSvETER. From Vhristiania 

snow-range. To the S.W. j-ises the L0lth«(i with its large glacier, ad- 
joined by an amphitheatre (Botn) of black precipices and a broad ex- 
panse of snow. 

From the first 'Top 1 a ride of 1 hr. to the S. over stony ground, 
scantily overgrown with reindeer-moss, chamois-cress, and other Lapp 
flora, brings us to the second Top called the "Digervarde, about 5000 ft. 
in height, which commands a view of the whole Jotunheim chain, from 
the Glittertind to the Fanaraak and beyond it. The Galdhupig is parti- 
cularly prominent. 

We now descend in about 2 hrs. more, over loose stones part of the 
way, to the Nysaeter, a building with four rooms, kept by civil herd-girls. 
(There is one bed which will accommodate two travellers. Alpine fare. 
Everything clean, though homely.) The girls call (lokken) the cattle down 
from the hills in the evening by singing 'Fjeldviser' similar to those with 
which Jenny Lind once delighted the world. 

2nd Day. By starting very early, we may reach Aanstad soon after 
noon. The monotonous track crosses the Lorafjeld, which it reaches in 
about an hour. It passes several tarns {Tjem, Kjmrn, or tKjenn, see 
p. 123) and the W. side of the larger Fillingsvand. The broad snow-clad 
mountain to the left is the Lomshorting . We cross the discharge of the 
Fillingsvand. Among the interesting mosses occurring here are the 
liensdprmosse (p. 123) , the Komosse or Hvidkrelle , and the golden 
yellow Qulskin. The Betula nana covers the ground so densely at places 
as to form a kind of carpet. 

After a walk or ride of 3-4 hrs. from the Nysseter we reach the W. 
end of the Lomshorung , where a halt is usually made. To the W. lies 
the '-Aunje, a fine sheet of water with a magnificent mountain back- 
ground. The path next skirts the W. slope of the Horung for 1 hr., 
commanding a view of the mountain range on the S. side of the Ottadal, 
including theLomsegg and the Hestbrfepiggene. About 2000ft. below us lies 
the valley and its western ramification. This scene is admirably calculated 
to convey to the traveller an idea of the immense disproportion be- 
tween the extent of the mountain wilds and that of the cultivated land 
in Norway. 

As we descend , the vegetation rapidly becomes richer {Linnaea 
borealis abundant), and the temperature rises. On the slope to the right 
is the first sseter on this side of the route. The path descends to the 
Aura, the discharge of the Aursj0 , which forms a fine waterfall. Pines 
and afterwards birches re-appear. The first gaard on the slope of the 
valley is Bakke- Among those that follow, one on the left has a taste- 
fully carved portal. The rye and barley-fields here are watered by hand 
with a kind of shovel (Skjelra?k). In 1 hr. from the point of view above 
mentioned we reach the bottom of the valley. (The ascent in the reverse 
direction takes 2 hrs.) The path crosses the greenish glacier-fed Otla by 
a long bridge, commanding a splendid view, and leads to the right to 
the ('/a hr.) Aanstad station (p. 163). The station-master will sometimes 
give the traveller horses to convey him direct to Rejshjem; if not, it is 
necessary to turn to the left by the Cliureh of Lorn (p. 130) and drive to 
Andvord ( 3 /(hr.), return thence to the church, and ascend the Bsevradal 
to Fajshjcm (p. 147). 

Remarks on Sjktki; Life. In connection with the above route a few 
remarks on sseters may not be unacceptable to the traveller. The sseter, 
or mountain chalet, consists of two rooms at least, one for the use of 
the inmates, and also for cooking purposes, with the Skorsten or fire-place 
(also called Arne or Grue) ; the other (Melkebod) for dairy purposes. Over 
the fire hangs an iron pot or kettle by a chain, and adjacent there is 
usually a boiler built into the wall for the preparation of the cheese. 
The whey (Mysa. Prim) is made into cheese (ifijsost), and is often 
carried down to the valleys in drum-shaped tubs (Flasker, Krukker). The 
sseters formerly had no chimneys, the smoke being allowed to find its 
way out through an opening (Ljor) in the pyramidal shaped roof, which 
at the same time afforded light. The cows (Keer), often accompanied 
by sheep (Sauer) and pigs (Svin), are usually sent up to the mountain 

to Molde. STUEFLOTEN. 15. Route. 125 

pastures (til Swlers) on St. John's Day (24th June), and remain there till 
10th September. Women and girls, as a rule, are their sole attendants. 
In singing their picturesque cattle-call, the sseter girls usually address 
each cow by name (as Maierus, Helgeros, Lekros, Palmeros, Twrnros, the 
syllable ros being a term of endearment specially applied to cows; also 
Maan/rue, moon-lady; Krone, crown; Gulgave, gold-gift, etc.). The word 
Kuss is also used to call cows and calves; Gisa is addressed to pigs, 
Vulling to sheep, Sku to dogs, and Faale to horses. Among the dogs at 
the Nysseter were Faust, Passop , Vcegler , Barfod , Spring, Freya, and 
Bataer. Among the dairy utensils may be mentioned the Melkering or 
Melkekolle (milk vessel), the Melkkak (skimmer), the Dal or Ember (pail), 
the Krak (milking stool), the Sit (milk-strainer, 'sile'), and the Vandsela 

Beyond Melmen the road passes Gaarden Einabu, with an an- 
cient 'Bautastein'. King Olaf, 'the Saint', is said to have halted 
at this gaard, in his flight from his kingdom in 1029 , shortly 
before the final struggle to regain his supremacy which termin- 
ated with his death at Stiklestad near Levanger. The scenery is 
bleak and wild. 

13 Kil. Stuefloten (Station, good and moderate) is the last 
place in the Gudbrandsdal, at a height of 2050 ft. above the sea- 
level. The Romsdal, the mountains of which are now seen stretch- 
ing far into the distance, begins here. 

From Stuefloten to the Eikisdal, towards the N., a fatiguing moun- 
tain-path, see p. 198. — Another mountain-route, little frequented, leads 
hence towards the W. to the Norddalsfjord, a branch of the Storfjord in 
the Seindmeire district. It ascends the course of the Ulvaa, which de- 
scends from the Ulvevand , crosses the mountains , and descends by the 
Bodalselv to the Tafjord, the innermost bay of the Norddalsfjord, where the 
steamer touches once weekly on its way to Aalesund and Mseraak. Sylte, 
on the N. side of the entrance to the Tafjord, and Belling on the S. side, 
are touched at twice weekly by a steamer to Aalesund, and twice weekly 
by one to Hellesylt. 

The road through the *Romsdal , or valley of the Eauma, 
which rises in the Lesjeskogen-Vand (p. 123), is one of the 
grandest and most widely celebrated routes in Norway. The whole 
way from Stuefloten, or at least from Flatmark, to Veblungsnses 
(50 or 30 Kil. respectively) is specially recommended to pedestrians. 

Beyond Stuefloten the new road descends the once dreaded 
Bjerneklev ('bears' cliff') in numerous windings. In the deep 
gorge to the left flows the Rauma , which here receives several 
tributary streams, the chief of which is the Ulvaa, the discharge 
of the Ulvevand. The river sometimes entirely disappears from 
view. About 4 Kil. from Ormeim we come to a finger-post in- 
dicating the way to the *Slettafos (properly the Lower Slettafos, 
as there is another fall of the same name higher up), '80 ells' 
from the road. We alight here, cross the new bridge above the 
fall, and follow the path for a few hundred paces to a spot below 
the overhanging rocks, where the imposing cascade is seen to the 
best advantage, and where its roar is loudly reverberated. The 
rocky walls of the gully have been worn into deep cauldrons('J<ette- 
gryder') by the action of the water. — Comp. the Map, p. 194. 

126 Route 15. ORMEIM. From Christiania 

10 Kil. (pay for 11) Ormeim (*Station, unpretending), 
beautifully situated on the right bank of the Rauma, and sev- 
eral hundred feet above it, commands an admirable view of the 
picturesque *Vcermofos, or Varmedalsfos, a waterfall on the oppo- 
site bank, nearly 1000 ft. in height, and of the mountain called 
the Alterhei. After rain , and during the melting of the snow in 
early summer, the fall assumes most imposing dimensions. The 
windows at the back of the station afford a good survey of the fall. 
If time permits, a day should be devoted to inspecting the fall 
more closely and ascending the *Storh&tten (5885 ft.). 

The ascent of Slorhceften occupies about 4 hrs., and riding is prac- 
ticable for three-quarters of the way (guide 4, horse 4 kr.). The route 
descends from the station to a bridge over the Rauma, crosses it , turns 
to the right, and ascends by the side of the Viermofos to a (l'/2hr.) Swlef. 
After l'/'i hr. more the path terminates and riders dismount. In another 
hour, the last half of which is spent in clambering over loose stones, we 
reach the summit. The view, like those from most of the Norwegian 
'Fjeldnuter', is deficient in picturesqueness, although extensive. — The 
best point for surveying the Vwrmofos is a rocky knoll on the right (E.) 
bank of the Rauma, exactly opposite the fall, and easily found without 
a guide. It is reached by traversing the pastures at the back of the station. 

Beyond Ormeim the scenery continues fine, but nothing is lost 
by driving from Ormeim to Flatmark. The road at first descends 
rapidly, commanding a view of the Veermofos on the left. Farther 
on , on each side , are several other fine waterfalls , precipitated 
from rocks 2000-3000 ft. in height, but most of them are unim- 
portant in dry seasons. On the right are the Styggefondfos , the 
Gravdefos, and the Skogefos; on the left the Dentefos. In the 
background rises the Skyrisaxeln and the Middagshougen (to the 
S., above Ormeim). 

11 Kil. Flatmark (a. fair station) lies, as its name ('flat field') 
indicates, in a broader and more smiling part of the valley. The 
mountain scenery around is very grand. The road and the 
Kauma next thread their way through a chaos of enormous blocks 
of rock, the result of some tremendous landslip. The scene is 
most impressive and picturesque , and is one of the finest of its 
kind in Europe. On the right we next pass Monge and the pic- 
turesque Mongefos, descending from the mountain called Monge- 
juret. To the W. we discern the peaks of the Trolltinder, to the 
E. the snow-capped Olmafjeld, the whole forming a mountain 
scene of the most impressive character. A little beyond Monge, 
on the left, we observe Oaarden Rennen, and, farther on, a water- 
fall. The sides of the valley are here 2000-3000 ft. in height. 
Farther on the valley expands, and the road traverses a marshy 
tract, once the bed of a lake. 

12 Kil. Horgheim (235 ft. ; unpretending but good station) lies 
on an ancient moraine, near the gaard of Mirebe. To the right 
rises the huge Komsdalshorn, from which numerous large masses 
of rock have fallen into the valley. Through the bed of the stream 
runs a stony track which is used in winter as being less exposed 

to Molde. VEBLUNGSN/ES. 15. Route. 127 

to avalanches, but is generally under water in summer. On the 
left now begin the strikingly picturesque Trolltinder ('witch- 
pinnacles'; 5880 ft.), from which avalanches (Sneskred) and rocks 
are frequently precipitated in winter. Part of the serrated ridge 
is known as the Brudefelge, or bridal train. At the end of the 
last Muhre is Gaarden Fiva, in a plantation of birches. The road 
follows the right bank of the impetuous Rauma, with the Roms- 
dalshorn on the right and the Trolltinder on the left. 

It then leaves the ravine and enters a smiling dale, enlivened 
with luxuriant green pastures and numerous ashes, birches, and 
alders. "We next reach the Oaard Aak, formerly an inn, now the 
residence of Mr. H. 0. Wills of Bristol, charmingly situated on 
an eminence to the right of the road. The name (pronounced oke) 
is probably a contraction of 'Aaker' (cultivated land), and occurs 
in Meraak, Berkaak, etc. The scenery here is dominated by the 
huge *Romsdalshorn (5090 ft.), usually known as the Horn, which 
rises to the S.E. Adjoining it on the N. are the picturesque and 
still more lofty Vengefjeldene (6035 ft.). — Comp. the Map, p. 194. 

The ascent of the Romsdalshokn requires two days. We ascend 
the Vengedal and pass the night in the Vengedals-Sceter (ca. 3600 ft.)- On 
the next morning we cross the Lillefjeld to Skaret (ca. 4900 ft.), and climb 
to the peak from the W. side. The last part of the ascent is difficult. 
Matthias Soggemoen and Erik Norahagen of Eomsdal may be recommended 
as guides. On the top is a 'Varde', erected by the first travellers who 
made the ascent (in 1827). 

The road now traverses old glacier-moraines, forming a pleasant 
park-like tract. On the left opens the Isterdal (p. 187), on the E. 
side of which are the last summits of the Trolltinder, with a large 
glacier, while on the "W. rise the Sestrene ('the Sisters'), Kongen, 
Dronningen ('Queen'; 5407 ft.), and other fine peaks. In front 
of us, above Veblungsnses, rise the Isterfjeld (to the left) and the 
Storhesten (to the right). The roads to Nses and Veblungsnaes 
diverge from each other at the bridge over the Rauma, the former 
continuing in a straight direction, the latter crossing the river. 

14 Kil. Nses or Aandalsnas [*Aandal's Inn, where there is 
the station), lies on the Isfjord, an arm of the RomdalsfjOTd to 
the N. of the mouth of the Rauma, commanding an admirable view 
of the mountains of the fjord, the Romsdal, and the Isterdal. 
Nses is better suited for a prolonged stay than Veblungsnses, which 
is besides often over- crowded. 

15 Kil. Veblungsnaes (*Ons«m's Hotel; *H6tel Romsdal; 
*Enkefru Brit Sletten, in the village , unpretending), lies on the 
Isfjord, to the S. of the mouth of the Rauma. Veblungsnses com- 
mands a fine view of the Romsdalshorn, and particularly of the 
Vengetinder. Carriages are always in waiting here for those who 
wish to drive to Nses or the Romsdal. The 'Skydsstation' is at 
Setnm, near the Prsestegaard of Gryten, 20 min. walk from the 
pier. No fewer than four different well-defined coast-levels are ob- 
servable here (comp. p. xxxiii). 

128 Route 10. AAKRE-S/ETER. 

Excursions from Mas and Veblungsn^s, besides to the Romsdal, 
may be made to the Ister/os in the Jsterdal, and up the Sttgane to the 
Slegafjeld (p. 187); to Sten, at the end of the Isfjord (p. 197); to the 
Indfjord and Void (p. 197) ; and to Thorvik (3 hrs., there and back), 
with a visit to the hill above the Gjersaetvatten (p. 198), 1 hr. farther on. 

From Nas and Veblungsnces to Molde, see RR. 23a, 23b. 

16. Routes from the Gudbrandsdal to Jotunheim. 

Of the four routes to Jotunheim described in the following pages the 
third is the most frequented , as it is used not only by travellers for 
Jotunheim but also by those who wish to pay a passing visit to this 
mountain-district on their way to the Sognefjord. The other three routes 
are also inferior in interest. In addition to this it may be noted that a 
strong wind on the Gjende (p. 142) or the Bygdin (p. 137) renders the 
approach to the Jotunheim proper difficult or at least uncomfortable. 

a. From Kvisberg to Lake Gjende. 

Two days at least, the night being spent in a sseter. A guide should 
be hired at Kvisberg or Espedalsvand (3-4 kr. per day). 

Kvisberg, the last station in the Gausdal, see p. 118. — A good 
bridle-path leads from Kvisberg in 1 1/ 2 hr. to — 

8 Kil. (pay for 11) Vasenden on the Espedalsvand (about 2360 ft. 
above the sea-level; good quarters at A. C. Nielsen's), a lake, 
8 Engl. M. long, for the passage of which the landlord procures a 
boat (1 kr. each person ; for a single person 1 kr. 60».). At the N. 
end of the lake we cross an 'Eid', beyond which is the Bredsjei, 
about 3 Engl. M. long, forming the geological continuation of the 
Espedalsvand. Hans Halvorsen Flaate here provides a boat (40 ». 
each person ; 60 ». for one) which conveys us to Veltvolden, or 
Itytuiken, on the N. bank; and we ascend thence in less than lhr. 
to the Dalssseter. To the right rises the Rutinfjeld (4968 ft.), to 
the left the Storhepig (4727 ft.), and opposite us the Hedalsmu- 
knrnpen (5900 ft.). 

Two routes lead from the Dalssseter to Lake Gjende, one lying 
to the N. of the other : — 

The Northern Path leads from the Dalssseter to the Kampesater 
or to Veslund, both lying to the N. of Lake Olstappen (2 hrs.); the 
so-called 'Sikkildalsvei' then runs to the W. across the Skalfjeld, 
crosses the Muru Loner, which descends from the N., by a bridge, 
and reaches the Aakre- Sseter (3130 ft. ; 4-0 hrs.), at the foot of 
the Aakrekampen (4633 ft.). The path then leads to the S. round 
the Sikkildalshe to the (l'/2 nr Sikkildals-Saeter, the property 
of a company. If the wind is not too strong, we row across the 
two Sikkildalsvande ; otherwise we must walk along the N. bank 
of the smaller lake, cross the 'Eid', and follow the S. bank of the 
larger lake, but at a considerable height above the water, in order 
to avoid the marshy ground. On the right rises the Sikkildalshom, 
and on the left are the Gaapaapigge. We next cross a hill command- 
ing a beautiful view of the mountains and glaciers to the W., de- 
scend into the Sjodal, and cross the Sjoa to (ijendesheim (p. 143). 

GRININGSDAL. 10. Route. 129 

The Southern Path leads from the Dalssaeter along the bank of 
the Espa , which descends from Lake Olstappen to the Bredvand. 
In the distance rises the Nautgardstind. The path , now difficult 
to trace, next crosses the Vinstra by a bridge, and leads thence 
nearly due N. to the (2 hrs.) Finbele-Saeter ; then across the Fin- 
belhoug to the Hineglelid-Sater and the (3 hrs.) Flysseter, pictur- 
esquely situated. — Thence to the Sikkidals - Sater, where this 
route unites with that mentioned above, 2-3 hrs. more. 

b. From Bj*lstad to Lakes Gjende and Bygdin. 

V/2-2 Days, spending a night at the Qviningsdals-Scetre. 

Bjelstad in the Hedal , see p. 120. The path at first follows 
the left (N.) bank of the Sjoa , and leads past Aaseng and Fjer- 
dinggrand to Gaarden Stene, to the N. of which is the Lussceter, 
commanding a magnificent distant view of Jotunheim , and well 
deserving a visit. We next reach (2 hrs.) the Rindssseter, at the 
confluence of the Sjoa and the Rindenelv. We may now follow the 
latter stream to (1 hr.) Randsveerk (2397 ft. ; good sseters), and 
cross the Graahe to the S. to the Riddersprang (p. 132) ; or reach 
the same point from the Rindssster by following the Sjoa. 

From the Riddersprang the route follows the right (E.) bank of 
the Sjoa to the Saliensceter and the Stutgangen - Sater. We now 
quit the Sjodal and turn to the S.E., round the Stutgangen-Kamp, 
and thus reach the Griningsdal, with its sseters (good quarters). 

The path leads round the large rocky knoll to the W. of the 
Griningsdal to the Kampsceter and the Grasviksaeter, at the N. end 
of the upper Sjodalsvand. From this point we may row to the 
Besstrandscetre or .Bes-scetre (p. 133), and walk thence toGjendeosen; 
or we may walk the whole way thither, skirting the E. bank of the 
Sjodalsvand the first part of the way. — Qjendesheim, see p. 143. 

From Gjendesheim an interesting route (to which, however, the great 
difficulty of crossing the Leirungselv is a serious drawback) leads through 
the 0vre Leirungsdal to the Svartdal, and thence along the Svarldalsaaxle 
to the Ojendebod (p. 141). Guide necessary (5 kr. 20 0.). 

From Gjendesheim to Lake Bygdin (6-8 hrs. , guide 4 kr. ; 
not a very attractive route). The path leads on the S. bank of the 
Sjoa to the Leirungsvand and passes round the E. side of the lake. 
It then ascends the course of a brook to the S. to the Brurskard- 
knatte , avoiding the extensive marshes of the Leirungselv in the 
valley of that stream. Around the Leirungsdal rise the imposing 
Synshorn, Knutshullstind, Kjarnhultind, and Hegdebrattet. 

At the top of the hill towards the S. we reach a dreary plateau 
called the Valdersfly (Fly, 'marshy mountain - plateau') , with its 
numerous ponds. Keeping a little to the E., we then descend by 
the Rypekjern stream to the Vinstervand or Stremvand. For a short 
distance we follow the W. bank of the lake, cross the Vinstra by 
a bridge, turn towards the S.W., past a spur of the Bitihorn, which 

BaedekfrV Norway and Sweden. 3rd Edit. 9 

130 Routelfi. S0RUM. From Gudbrandsdal 

has been visible from the Valdersfly onwards, and thus reach the 
Raufjordsheim Hotel near the E. end of Lake Bygdin (see p. 137). 
Those who take this journey in the reverse direction should row 
from the Raufjord Hotel to the Sundsceter at the N.E. end of Lake Byg- 
din, and along the Breilaupa (p. 138), which descends from the Kalvaa- 
h0gda on the N., ascend towards the N.E. to the Valdersfly, on which 
Ihe route unites with that described above. 

c. From Bredvangen to K#jshejm. 

80 Kil. (54 Engl. M.). Road with fast stations (carriole 17 *». per Kil.) 
— This route is one of the principal approaches to Jotunheim and is also 
traversed by travellers from the Gudbrandsdal to the Sognefjord (comp. 
p. 128). 

Bredvangen, see p. 120. — The route diverges from the Gud- 
brandsdal road at Kringelen, to the N. of Bredvangen, crosses the 
I.ougen, and ascends the wooded and monotonous Ottadal. 

11 Kil. Aasoren. We then pass the old farms of Bjernstad and 

16 Kil. Snerle , where the road from Bjelstad i Hedal and 
Storklevstad (p. 120) joins ours. The valley now expands, and 
the snow-capped Lomsegge becomes visible in the distance. 

7 Kil. Serum (*7nn, comfortable), \' t hr. to the W. of which 
is the curious old church of Vaage. The road to Nordre Snerle and 
Laurgaard diverges here (21 Kil. ; see p. 121). 

The road now follows the S. bank of a Jake 40 Kil. (25 Engl. M.) 
in length, called the Vaagevand as far as Andvord, and the Otta- 
vand farther on , passing a number of gaards , some of which are 
historically interesting. Storvik, one of these gaards, where toler- 
able quarters are obtainable, about 12 Kil. from Serum, is pret- 
tily situated. The Thesse , which falls into the lake near this 
point, descends from the Thessevand (p. 131), and on its way forms 
several fine cascades. The lowest fall may be visited in V2hr. ; 
and the most picturesque, the *Oxefos, may be reached without 
a guide in l^-^hrs. by following the E. bank of the stream. Op- 
posite, on the N. bank of the lake, rises the Skardhe (5340 ft.). 

20 Kil. Gardmo, the next station, also lies on the S. bank of 
the lake, beyond which the road runs more inland. 

15 Kil. Andvord (*Station), lies near the influx of the Bcevra 
into the Vaagevand, which above this point is generally called 
the Ottavand. 

From Andvord to the Geirangerfjord, see R. 18. 

A view is obtained of the valleys of the Bsevra and Otta, se- 
parated by the huge Lomsegg. By the bridge of Lom the Bsevra 
forms a waterfall, the milky colour of which indicates that it de- 
scends from glaciers. The alluvial deposits at the mouth of the 
stream have formed a considerable delta, which confines the Otta 
to the N. side of its valley. About 2 Kil. from Andvord we 
reach the — 

"Church of Lom (1290 ft.), one of the ancient Norwegian 

to Jotunheim. CITURCH OP LOM. 16. Route. 131 

Stavekirker , built entirely of resinous pine - wood , and dating 
from the 13th or 14th century (comp. p. 22). The architectural 
forms recall the Byzantine style. The once open roof is now con- 
cealed by a flat ceiling, and there are other modern disfigurements. 
The Pulpit, with its sounding-hoard, and a silk Flag with a hand 
holding a sickle (Ljaa) are noteworthy. Hr. Brodahl, the pastor, 
who often obligingly shows the church himself, states that the 
flag was presented by a neighbouring farmer who introduced the 
system of irrigation many years ago. This must have been a great 
boon to the community, as rain is scarce in this district (comp. 
p. 164). The curious dragons' heads on the outside of the church, 
the scale-like roof, the central tower, and the N. portal should 
also be noticed. The external woodwork is coated with tar, which 
has become as hard as stone. The restoration of the edifice is con- 
templated. — The churchyard contains interesting Tombstones of 
'Jilaebersten', or soapstone, in the form of crosses encircled with 
rings. — A Stabbur at the Prsestegaard , or parsonage, is also 
worthy of inspection. 

The road to Rejshjem now turns to the S.W. and ascends the 
narrow and at first well cultivated *Bcevradal , with its brawling 
stream , a picturesque valley , especially when seen by morning 
light. One of the bridges is a curious old Norwegian structure, 
and another near Rfljshjem is also an object of interest. At one 
point called the *Staberg, where there is a mill, the ravine is ex- 
tremely narrow, and huge blocks of rock have fallen into it from 
the hills above. Higher up, the valley expands, but at the same 
time becomes stony and sterile. Great caution is necessary in 
driving, as the narrow road runs close to the bed of the stream at 
places. In the back-ground rise the Galdhe, which conceals the 
Galdhepig , and the Djuvbrce , forming a most imposing mass of 
ice and snow. On the right we pass the Guard Suleim, with a 
waterfall, and on the left the falls of the Glaamn and the hamlet 
(Grand) of Glaamstad. 

17 Kil. Eejshjem, see p. 147. 

d. From Storvik to Lake Gjende. 

l'/2-2 Days. A walk which embraces several interesting points. Guide 
desirable as far as the Fuglsseter. The night may be spent at the Fugl- 
sseter or at the Veoli-Sseter. 

From the Gudbrandsdal to Serum and Storvik, see p. 130. — 
From Storvik the path ascends the right(E.)bank of the Thesse-Elr 
to the Ringncessater, thence to the S.W. to the *Oxefos, or Endinfos, 
and across the river to the Nordscetre at the N.W. end of the 
Thessevand (about l l fe hr.), a lake 6 Engl. M. long, abounding in 
trout, and which is said to have been presented by St. Olaf to the 
inhabitants of Gardmo (p. 130). In l*/ 2 hr. more we row to the 
Naaversceter at the S. end of the lake, whence the route mentioned 
at p. 146 leads through the Smaadal to the Visdal. 


1 62 Route Ifl. FUGLSjETER. From Gudbrandsdtil 

The path now traverses *the disagreeable marshes formed by the 
Smaadela at its influx into the lake. A horse may possibly be ob- 
tained at the Naaversaeter to enable the traveller to cross the swamp 
dryshod ; if not , he must keep as far as possible to the right in 
order to avoid it. Beyond this point the path leads to the S. to the 
(2-3 hrs. from the lake) — 

Fuglsseter (3035 ft. ; good quarters). If time permit, the trav- 
eller may ascend the Fuglehe (see the Map), in order to obtain a 
view of the Jotunheim Mountains. 

About 1 / 2 nr - to the 8. of the Fuglsaeter we reach the pictur- 
esque, pine-clad Sjodal, where a bridge leads to the E. to the right 
bank of the Sjoa. Near this spot, according to tradition, the 'Val- 
dersridder' with his abducted bride, when pursued by the 'Sand- 
buridfler', sprang across the rocky chasm, which accordingly bears 
the name of Ridderspranget. (The route to Randsvaerk crosses this 
bridge; see p. 129.) 

Our route fellows the left (W.) bank of the Sjoa, and after 
about 1 hr. quits the Sjodal and ascends to the W. to the Veoli- 
sseter (good quarters), near the Veodal. 

The neighbouring '-'Veoknap commands an admirable survey of the 
GHttertind, Nautgardstind, etc. — An uninteresting route, chielly used by 
reindeer-stalkers, leads through the Veodal and crosses the Skautflpene, 
between the GHttertind and theVeobrse; it then descends by the Skaula- 
eU> to the Nedre Sulheims-Stelur in the Visdal (p. 146). 

The route now descends into the Veodal, crosses the Veoelv 
by a bridge, and reaches the (l'/2 hr.) Hindsseter in the Sjodal, 
near the influx of the /Store Hinden into the Sjoa. 

A path leads hence, crossing the Sjoa by a bridge, to the Stulgangen 
Stcter on the K. side of the Sjodal, and to the Griningsdals-Satre (p. 129), 
which command a fine view of the Nautgardstind to the W. 

After wading through, or leaping across, the Store and the Vesle 
('little') Hinden, we next reach (about iy 2 hr.) the three — 

Ruslienssetre (2648 ft. ; good quarters at all). 

The Ascent of the Nautgardstind ('neat-yard peak'), a broad and 
partly snow-clad pyramid but with a summit free from snow, may be 
made from these sseters in 3-4 hours. It is sometimes spoken of as a 
'Dametind', partly because of its graceful form and partly because the 
ascent has been frequently accomplished by ladies. The path follows 
the cattle-track ('kuraak') to the Hindfly, where it turns to the left to 
the Sendre Tvcevaa and round the Russe Rundhe, traversing 'IV Fine 
view, hence, to the S.W., of the Tykningssuen (7710 ft.). We now come 
in sight of the slightly flattened and snowless summit of the 'Naut- 
gardstind (7610 ft.), to which we have still a steep ascent of about '/s hr. 
on the N.E. side of the cone. On the W. side the Tind ends in a vast 
'Botn' or basin , 1600 ft. in depth. To the E. the view embraces the 
extensive 'Ssetervidder' of the Uudbrandsdal with their isolated peaks, 
as far as the Rondane and the Stflentind in the 0sterdal. The pru- 
minent mountains to the S. are the Eesh0 and the Knutshullstind, while 
far below us lies the dark-green Rusvand. The grandest peaks to the 
W. are the Memurutind, the Heilstuguh#, and the Leirb.0, with their con- 
nected glaciers; then the Galdhtfpig, and nearer us the GHttertind. 

Kkom the Ruslien-S-^tre to the Memurubod on Lake Gjende, along 
and somewhat fatiguing day's walk (9 his). The route at first follows the 
left bank of the Russenelv, crosses the Sendre and Nnrdre Tva'raa (which 

to Jotunheim. BES-S.ETRE. 16. Route. 133 

must be forded), and reaches the (3 hrs.) Rusvasbod, at the E. end of the 
crescent-shaped Rusvand (4263 ft.J, a lake 7 Engl. M. in length. The 
little frequented path skirts the N. bank (if the lake, crossing several 
mountain-torrents. To the S. are the precipices of the massive Beshf* (see 
below). At the (3 hrs.) W. end of the lake we ascend the Rusglop, between 
the Oloptind on the 8. and the Tjukningssuen on the N., and then pass 
the Hestljern, lying to the right. After following the height to the S. for 
some distance farther, there is a steep descent to the (3-4 hrs.) Memurubod 
(p. 142), where the muddy Memuruelv is crossed by a bridge. Thence to 
the Gjendebod, p. 141. 

The route from the Itusliensieter to Gjendeoscn (Gjendesheim) 
crosses the Eussenelv and leads to the S. over a spur of the lies- 
strandfjeld to the (l 1 ^ hr.) Besstrandsseter, at the W. end of the 
lower Sjodalsvand. It next skirts the W. bank of the upper and 
larger Sjodalsvand, affording a view of the Mugnafjeld, Synshorn, 
and other lofty mountains towards the S.W., and in l'/ 2 hr. more 
reaches the two — 

Bes-Ssetre (3205 ft.; good quarters at the upper sieter), whence 
the ascents of the Veslefjeld, Beseygen, and Beshm are accomplished 
(comp. p. 144). 

From the Bes-s;eters we have a walk of 1 hr. more to Gjende- 
osen (Gjendesheim; see p. 143). 

17. Jotunheim. 

Comp. the Map (scale 1 : 500,000). 
A map of the same district on a larger scale was published in 1884 
by A. Cammermcyer of Christiania ('Lomme-Reisekart over Vestre-Slidre, 
Borgund, Lyster'; Scale, 1: 175,000; price 1 kr.). 

The greater part of Norway, as has been repeatedly mentioned, 
consists mainly of a vast table-land, descending abruptly at the 
margins , rising occasionally into rounded summits , and rarely 
intersected by valleys. In marked contrast, however, to this un- 
picturesque formation , that of several districts presents the 
'Alpine' characteristic of well-defined mountain-ranges furrowed 
with frequent valleys. The most important of these districts are 
the Lyngenfjord in Troinse' Amt (p. 253) and the region bounded 
by the Sognefjord on the W. and the plateaux of Valders and the 
Gudbrandsdal on the S. and N.E. respectively. The latter was 
explored for the first time by Keilhau in 1820 and named by him 
Jotunfjeldene , or the 'Giant Mountains', but is now generally 
known as Jotunheim, a name given to it by subsequent 'Jotuno- 
logists' (chiefly Norwegian students) as a reminiscence of the 'frost 
giants' in the Edda. 

The mountain-peaks of Jotunheim (called Tinder, Pigger, 
Horner, and Nabber, while the rounded summits are named Heer) 
are all over 5900 ft., several are upwards of 6550, while the 
Galdhepig (p. 148) and the Glittertind (p. 146) exceed 8200 ft. in 
height. The high Alps are much loftier (Mont Blanc, 15,784 ft.), 
but are generally surpassed by the Jotunheim mountains in ab- 

134 Route 17. JOTUNHEIM. 

ruptness. The plateaux extending between the lofty peaks are 
almost entirely covered with snow, the snow-line here being about 
5580 ft. (in Switzerland 8850 ft.). Huge glaciers (Braer , the 
smaller being called Huller, holes) descend from these masses of 
snow, but without penetrating into the lower valleys as they do in 
Switzerland. The mountain-basins which occur here frequently, 
enclosed by precipitous sides rising to 1600 ft. or more, are known 
as Botner. A peculiarity of the valleys , which with a few ex- 
ceptions, lie upwards of 3300 ft. above the sea-level (i. e. higher 
than the forest-zone) , is that they rarely terminate in a pass, but 
intersect the whole mountain , gradually rising on each side to a 
'Band' or series of lakes where no distinct culminating point is 
observable. The interest of the scenery of Jotunheim is greatly 
enhanced by its three imposing lakes. 

The Norwegian Turist-Forening, which began its operations in 
1868 (comp. Introd. iv), has rendered invaluable service to trav- 
ellers by the construction of paths, bridges, and refuge-huts, and 
by the appointment of competent guides. Several private individ- 
uals have followed their good example by erecting other refuges 
( dignified with the name of 'hotels'), so that travelling here is now 
attended with no serious difficulty or hardship. The huts generally 
contain clean beds and a supply of preserved meats, beer, and other 
refreshments at moderate charges (bed and food 3-4 kr. per day), 
but in some cases the broad bed must be shared with a fellow- 
traveller. As members of the Turist-Forening , who are recog- 
nisable by their club-button , always have a preference over other 
travellers , those who intend to explore this region thoroughly are 
recommended to enrol themselves at Christiania, Bergen, Thrond- 
hjem, or Fagemaes (4 kr. per annum, and 80 6. additional for the 

On some of the excursions the only accommodation as yet 
procurable is at the saeters and 'Faeboder' or 'Faelaeger', kept by 
good-natured cow-herds (Fcekarle or Driftekarle) who regale the 
traveller with 'Fladbrad', milk, cheese, and butter, and can gener- 
ally provide him with a tolerable bed (l^-SJ kr. per day for bed 
and food). Comp. the remarks on Saeter Life at p. 124. 

The chief Points of Interest in the Jotunheim centre around 
the W. end of the Bygdin-Sj» and the Gjende-Sje, and are most 
conveniently visited from Eidsbugarden (p. 139) and the Gjende- 
bod (p. 141). Besides these there are several places which com- 
mand admirable views of the Horunger (pp. 157, 161); lastly 
the Vtladal (p. 157), the Leirdal (p. 150), the Visdal (p. 145), 
and the Galdhepig (p. 148). Unless the traveller is prepared for 
a somewhat rough expedition with 8-10 hrs. walking daily, he 
should content himself with walking or riding to Eidsbugarden, 
ascending the Skinegg (p. 139), and visiting the ice-lake in the 
Melkedal (p. 153). 

JOTUNHEIM. 17. Route. 135 

The following are the best Starting Points for a tour in Jo- 
tunheim : — Skogstad and Nystuen (pp. 93, 94), from which Eidsbu- 
garden is a short day's walk only ; Aardal (p. 99) on the Sogne- 
fjord, whence we proceed in 7-8 hrs. to the Vettisfos (p. 100), the 
starting-point of the routes mentioned at pp. 155, 156 ; and lastly 
Skjolden on the Sognefjord (comp. p. 160). On the journeys de- 
scribed in R. 16 , however, the traveller must be prepared for 
frequent delays , with the exception of R. c , from Bredvangen 
to Rejshjem (p. 130). The time occupied in crossing Lake Bygdin 
(p. 137) also greatly protracts the route from Fagerlund, which 
is otherwise an interesting approach to Jotunheim (see below). 

The Equipment required by the traveller is similar to that used by 
Alpine mountaineers, but everything should if possible be even more 
durable, as he will frequently have to ford torrents, wade through 
marshes, and walk over very rough stony ground (Ur) for hours in 
succession. Heavy luggage should be left behind, as it hampers the tra- 
veller's movements , besides requiring an additional horse for its trans- 
port. As each guide is not bound to carry luggage weighing more than 
22 lbs. , a party of several travellers must either engage several guides, 
or carry part of their own belongings. The usual fee is 4 kr. per day, 
but the charges for the different expeditions are given in each case. No 
charge is made for the return-journey. In the hire paid for a horse the 
services of an attendant are never included, but must be paid for sep- 
arately; if he is a full-grown man (voxen maud) he receives the same 
fee as the guide. 

The distances in the following tours are calculated throughout for 
vigorous and active travellers. It should be borne in mind that the 
walking in Jotunheim , owing to the want of roads, is much more ex- 
hausting than among the Swiss mountains; so that travellers should not 
attempt to do too much in one day. 

In accordance with the standard Norwegian rule of travel , which 
applies specially to Jotunheim, horses, guides, and boats should always be 
ordered in good time, and if possible on the day before they are wanted. 

a. From Fagerlund in Valders to Raufjordsheim, and 
across Lake Bygdin to Eidsbugarden. 

88 Kil. (55 Engl. M.). A journey of two days: 1st. Drive to (45 Kil.) 
Beito, the last skyds-station ; walk to Raufjordsheim in 3'/2 hrs. — 2nd. 
Ascend the Bitihorn early in the morning, 3-4 hrs. there and back; row 
across Lake Bygdin to Eidsbugarden, in 8 hrs. 

The following outline of a tour including the finest scenery of Jo- 
tunheim may also be given here: — 1st Day. From Fagerlund to 
Raufjordsheim, and ascend the Bitihorn in the evening. — 2nd. Row to 
the Nybud (p. 138), and walk through the Thorflnsdal and Svartdal to the 
Ojendebod (p. 141) on Lake Gjende. — 3rd. Ascend the Memurulunge with 
a guide, and walk in the afternoon to Eidsbugarden (p. 139). — 4th. As- 
cend the Slcinegg (p. 139), returning by Tvindehoug on Lake Tyin (a short 
day). — 5th. Proceed with guide through the Melkedal to Skogadalsbeen. 
— 6th. With guide across the Reiser to Fortun, (p. 160), or through the Utla- 
dal (p. 157) to the Vettisfos. 

Fagerlund in Valders, see p. 91. — The road to the district 
of 0stre-Slidre diverges to the N.W. from the Laerdalsaren road 
and enters the valley of the 0stre-Slidre Elv. It is nearly level 
at first , but afterwards ascends rapidly through a wood. To the 
left, below, lies the Saebo-Fjord, high above which stand several 

136 Route 11. ROGNE. Jvtunhehn. 

gaards. In the distance rise snow-mountains. Several gaards and 
on the right the loftily situated church of Skrutvold are passed. 
Below the road , farther on , lies the Hovsbygd with the Hovs- 
fjord. A steep track to the right leads to large slate-quarries. 

17 Kil. Rogne (*Inn, often full in summer) lies just beyond 
the church of that name. Below lies the Voldbofjord, at the N. 
end of which is the church of Voldbo. To the E. rise Mellene, a 
range of heights , on the W. slope of which is the Biangemhei, 
affording a fine survey of the Bitihorn, Mugnafjeld, and other 

From Rogne across the Slidreaas to Hande (22 Kil.), by a good road, 
see p. 82. 

The scenery now becomes monotonous. The road crosses the 
Vindeelo , which descends to the Voldbofjord and forms a water- 
fall higher up. It next skirts the Haggefjord, and then ascends 
steeply to Htrgge, with its old timber-built *C'hurch , to the right 
of which is a tombstone to the memory of a student who perished 
while attempting to cross the Breilaupa (p. 138). At about 13 Kil. 
from Rogne we pass Northorp, a genuine Norwegian gaard. To the 
left, farther on, are the Dalsfjord and the Merstafjord , which a 
river connects with each other and with the Hedals fjord. 

17 Kil. Skammesten (*Station). Then, on the Hedalsfjord, the 
gaard Hedalen, whence a road descends to Lake 0iangen. Fine 
view of the lake, with the Stellefjeld , Mugnatind , and Bitihorn 
(see below), past the last of which runs the route to the Raufjord. 

8 Kil. Beito (Guldbrand Beito , seven beds), the last skyds- 
station. On Sundays the neighbouring peasantry assemble here 
to dance their national 'Springdans', accompanied by the strains 
of the 'Norske Harp'. 

The path from Beito to the Raufjord Hotel (guide IV2 kr. ; 
comp. Map, p. 132) leads to the N.W., and is at first nearly level, 
but afterwards ascends steeply. At (1 hr.) the top of the hill is a 
marshy plateau enclosed by mountains, the Mugnatind to the W., 
and the precipitous Bitihorn (see below). In 1 hr. more we reach 
the Smerhul saeter. (By making a digression of 2-3 hrs., with a 
guide, the traveller may now ascend the Bitihorn, via the Biti- 
horn-Sa?ter, but the excursion is easier from the Raufjord; see 
below.) The path ascends steeply for 25 min. more. Extensive 
view towards the S. ; quite near us, on the left, rises the Biti- 
horn. The path now descends towards the N., close to the preci- 
pitous rocks (echo). After a walk of 1 hr. across marshy ground, 
passing round the Bitihorn, we reach the houses on the Raufjord, 
which are inhabited in summer only. The northernmost of these 
is called the — 

Raufjordsheim (3600 ft.), the property of Knut Lekken (one of 
the best guides for the Jotunheim) , containing six beds , and 
affording tolerable food (inferior to the club-huts; charges the 

Jotunheim. RAUFJORDSHEIM. 17. Route. 137 

same). The second house belongs to a private owner, and the 
third is used by the guides. This spot is almost beyond the zone 
of trees, and the ground is but scantily covered with 'Rab', juniper 
bushes, dwarf birches, and Arctic willows. — The water of the 
Raufjord , an arm of Lake Bygdin , is strongly impregnated with 
iron, tinging the stones on its bank with its reddish colour (whence 
the name, rau being the same as raud or red, 'red'). This desolate 
region, in which several snow-mountains are visible, resembles an 
Arctic landscape. Lake Iiygdin is not itself visible, and the Biti- 
horn is concealed by an intervening height. 

The Ascent of the Bitihorn from Raufjordsheim takes 
3-4 hrs. , there and back (guide unnecessary). The traveller as- 
cends the W. slope the whole way to the top. Several swamps 
near the beginning of the ascent are avoided by keeping to the 
left as far as possible. The summit soon becomes visible, serving 
as a guide. For an hour the route traverses 'Rab' or underwood 
and the whitish soil peculiar to the Norwegian mountains, and for 
another hour it ascends somewhat steeply over rock. Near the top 
is a cleft with perpendicular sides, containing snow and ice at the 

The *Bitihorn (5270 ft.) rises on the boundary between Jotun- 
heim and the great plateau extending to the E. of that region. To 
the W. we survey an imposing Alpine scene, and to the E. a lofty 
table-land diversified with large lakes and a few peaks, while Lake 
Bygdin lies immediately below, on the N.W. side of the Bitihorn. 
This mountain may therefore be called the 'Rigi' of Norway. To 
the W. rise the mountains near Lake Bygdin, conspicuous among 
which are the Kalvaahegda and Thorfinstinder ; more to the left, 
the Uranaastind, the Langeskanl, the Horunger, and Koldedals- 
tinder. Towards the E. rise the isolated summits of Skaget and 
MeUene, and below us lie the Vinstervande. To the N. we ob- 
serve the grey Valdersfly , and farther distant , to the N. of Lake 
Gjende, the Beshe and Nautgardstind. To the S. are Lake 0ian- 
gen, the valley of 0stre Slidre , and the Mugnatind, Suletind, and 
other mountains. 

From Raufjordsheim to Eidsbugarden by boat in 7-8 hrs., 
including stoppages (for 1, 2, 3 persons with two rowers 8 kr. 
40e., 10 kr., 12 kr. respectively; to Nybud only, 4 kr., 4 kr. 40, 
5 kr. 20 e. ; those who hire a guide here may utilise him as a 
rower, so that one other only need be taken). Crossing the Rau- 
fjord, the boat soon passes through the Bygdinsund and enters 
*Lake Bygdin (3610 ft.) , the largest of the three lakes of Jotun- 
heim, about 15 Engl. M. in length from E. to W. , and 2-4 M. in 
breadth. On the N. side it is bounded by lofty mountains, whose 
precipitous slopes afford excellent pasturage. The large herds of 
cattle which graze here in summer are sent to the Christiania 
market in September. The S. bank is lower and less picturesque. 

138 Route 17. NYBUD. Jotunheim. 

Storms sometimes render the navigation of the lake impracti- 
cable. The walk along the N. bank to Eidsbugarden (10-12 hrs.) 
is extremely fatiguing. The numerous and in many cases deep 
and impetuous streams which flow into the lake, are icily cold, 
and to cross them is often attended with serious danger. 

The boat skirts the N. bank. On the right we first observe the 
Nedre Sater and the Breilaupa which descends from the Kalvaa- 
hegda (see below). By another torrent is the saeter of Hestevolden, 
where a halt is usually made. The traveller may creep into the 
hut, which closely resembles a Lapp 'Gamme' (p. 251), and the 
night may be spent here if necessary. The Kalvaahegda (7 170 ft.) 
may be ascended hence, and the descent made to the Leirungsbrm. 

We next pass the deep Thorfinsdal (see below) , with remains 
of ancient moraines at its entrance. At the base of the Thorfim- 
tind we then reach the Langedals-Sceter , and near it the Nybud, 
a shooting-lodge belonging to Hr. Scehli , a 'Storthingmand', of 
which the neighbouring cow-herd has the key. 

From the Nybud we may ascend the huge : Thorfinstind (about 
7050 ft.; 6-7 hrs.), the jagged crest of which is called the Brudefelge 
('bridal procession'). Fine survey of Lake Bygdin and half of Valders, 
and particularly of the other Thorfmstinder to the N. , the Svartdals- 
pigge, and the Knutshullstind (p. 142). 

Fkom the Nybud to Lake Gjende there are two routes. One leads 
to the N.W. through the Langedal, passing the Langedalstjmrn, and cross- 
ing the glacier (6200 ft.) between the Sletmarkhe (7173 ft.) on the left and 
the Svartdalspigge (7120 ft.) on the right into the Vesle Aadal. Guide 2 kr., 
but rarely to be found at the Nybud. The expedition is very grand, but 
somewhat toilsome. — A preferable route (guide 2 kr., but unnecessary) 
leads to Lake Gjende in 4-5 hrs. through the Thorfinsdal and the Svartdal. 
It ascends steeply at first on the W. side of the Thorfinsdalselv , com- 
manding a view of the whole valley, which is separated from the Svart- 
dal to the N. by a 'Band\ or lofty plain with a series of lakes (p. 134). 
The path follows the W. side of the valley. To the left, farther on, we 
obtain a superb view of the Thorfinshul, a basin formed by the Thorims- 
tinder ; before us rise the three Knutshullstinder, which enclose the Knuts- 
hul, but the highest of them is not visible. Adjoining the northernmost 
are several peaks of Alpine character. The highest part of the route is 
reached at the S. end of the long 'Tjsern' (tarn), whence we perceive the 
mountains to the N. of Lake Gjende, particularly the pointed Semmel- 
tind-, to the E. the mountain with a sharply cut outline is the Leirungs- 
kampen. We may now either walk over the disagreeable rough stones 
(Ur) on the W. side of the valley, or wade through the river and de- 
scend on the almost equally stony E. side. In the latter case we recross 
to the W. side (4750 ft.) by a small pond farther on. We now enter the 
Svartdal, of which there is no definite boundary. On the left tower the 
imposing Svartdalspiggene, from which the Svartdals Glacier descends. We 
cross the glacier as low down as possible, where it is level and presents no 
difficulty. The crevasses are not deep , but may be awkward if covered 
with snow. To the right lies the Svartdalslj&m, out of which the Svart- 
dela flows to the N. (The passage of the Bra-Vor, or moraine at the 
bottom of the glacier, is objectionable.) Farther on we -cross a deposit 
of snow. We soon reach the huge precipice descending to Lake Gjende, 
called Gjendebrynet, through which the Svartdtfla has worn a deep gorge 
( Svartdalsglupel). We may either follow the latter from 'Varde' to 'Varde', 
or (better) ascend a ridge covered with loose stones to the left to the 
"Svartdalsaaxle, which commands an admirable survey of the whole N. 
side of Jotunheim. To the N.W. are the Melkedalstind (below which lies 

Jotunhnm. EIDSBUGARDEN. 17. Route. 139 

the Grisletjsern), and the Rauddalstinder, Smtfrstabstinder, and Skarvedals- 
tinder ; to the N. the Semmeltind, a peak of pyramidal form, the Memu- 
rutind, Tykningssuen, and Nautgardstind ; to the E. the Beshjj and Besegg ; 
while at our feet lie the dark-green Gjende with the Gjendetunge and 
Memurutunge. (From this point the Svartdalspig, 7120 ft., may be as- 
cended without difficulty.) We now descend to the W., below the Langc- 
dalsbrae, at first somewhat steeply over loose stones, and then over soft 
grass. The route then descends by the course of the glacier-stream into 
the Vesle-Aadal , whence it soon reaches the Ojendebod (p. 141). On 
reaching Lake Gjende, the traveller may prefer to shout for a boat to 
convey him across the water. (Those who descend through the Svartdals- 
glupet are dependent on a boat, as they do not emerge on the path.) 

Continuing our voyage on Lake Bygdin , we next pass the 
Langedalselv and then the Galdeberg, where there is a small un- 
inhabited hut. This a curiously situated spot, and well clothed 
with vegetation (French willows, aconite, bilberries, etc.). From 
the hill falls the Galdebergsfos. On the S. side of the lake rises 
Bryllenesset (4864 ft.). Rounding the precipitous rocks of the 
Galdeberg, we observe to the right above us the Galdebergs- 
tind and facing us the Langeskavl (or Rustegg~) with the Vranaas- 
tind, presenting one of the sublimest spectacles in Jotunheim. 
On the right next opens the valley of the Tolorma (Heistakka), 
which forms a waterfall , with the Grashorung (or Sjoghulstind, 
7147 ft.) in the background. To the S.W. rise the Koldedalstin- 
der, and to the S. the Skinegg. Looking back, we observe the 
three peaks of the Sletmarkhe. The lake owes its milky colour to 
the Melkedela , a genuine glacier-brook. After a row from the 
Haufjordsheim of about 6 hrs. in all, we reach the timber-built — 

Eidsbugarden , or Eidsbud , situated at the W. end of Lake 
Bygdin, about 100 ft. above the water , where the accommodation 
is similar to that afforded by the club-huts (same charges). This 
is the most beautifully situated 'hotel' in Jotunheim , and is the 
starting-point for several magnificent excursions. 

The ascent of the *Skinegg (ca. 5085 ft.) from Eidsbugarden 
takes l J / 2 hr. (or there and back Vfe hrs. ; no guide required). 
We cross the stream descending from the Eid between lakes Byg- 
din and Tyin, and ascend straight to the northern peak, avoiding 
the soft snow-fields as much as possible. (The southern peak is 
apparently, but not really, the higher.) The view from the sum- 
mit, where rocks afford welcome shelter, is justly considered one 
of the finest in Jotunheim, though shut out on the E. side by the 
higher 'Egg' (edge, ridge) of which the Skinegg is a spur. 

To the S. we svirvey the Tyin and the whole of the Fillefjeld, with 
the Stugun0s near Nystuen and the majestic Suletind. Of more absorb- 
ing interest are the mountains to the W. and N. , where Tyseggen, 
the (ijeldedalstinder and Koldedalstinder (Falketind, St0lsnaastind) with 
their vast mantles of snow , and farther distant the Horunger (begin- 
ning with the Skagast0lstind on the left, and ending with the Stygge- 
dalstind to the right) rise in succession. Next to these are the Fleske- 
dalstinder, the Langeskavl, the Uranaastind, with a huge glacier on its 
S. side, the Melkedalstinder , the Grashorung, and other peaks. To the 
N. rise the mountains on the N.W. side of Lake Gjende, and still more 

140 Route 17- LAKE TYIN. Jotunheim. 

prominent arc the Sletmarkhd , Galdehergstind , and Thorfinstinder on 
Lake Bygdin. Of that lake itself a small part of the W. end only is visible. 

To Tvindehoug on Lake Tyin (p. l£l) we may descend direct from 
the Skinegg towards the S.W. — A circuit to the top of the Skinegg, 
down to Tvindehoug, and back to Eidsbugarden may be made in 5-6 hrs. 

The Ascent of the Langeskavl , there and back , takes half-a-day 
(guide necessary, 2 kr.). The route ascends the course of the Melkedela 
(p. 153) , and , instead of turning to the right towards the Melkedal, 
leads to the left into a side-valley, where we keep as far as possible to 
the right. The bare summit of the Langeskavl (about 5900 ft.) towers above 
masses of snow. The view embraces the mountains seen to the W. of 
the Skinegg, to which we are now nearer, and also the whole of Lake 
Bygdin as far as the Bitihorn. 

The Uranaastind (6-7 hrs. from Eidsbugarden, or a whole day there 
and back ; guide necessary, 4 kr.) is ascended partly by the route to the 
Langeskavl, which after a time is left to the W. in order to ascend the 
extensive Uranaasbrw. We then cross that glacier to the Broeskard, 
whence we look down into the Skogadal to the W. (p. 154). Lastly an 
ascent on the N. side of about 800 ft. more to the summit of the "Ura- 
naastind (7037 ft.), which is also free from ice or snow. This is the highest 
E. point of the Uranaase, the W. end of which also presents an imposing 
appearance when seen from Skogadalsb0en (p. 157). The extensive view 
vies with that from the Galdh^pig (p. 148). Towards the E. the Ura- 
naastind descends precipitously into the Uradal (p. 156). To the S. it 
sends forth two glaciers , the Uranaasbrse , already mentioned , and the 
Melkedalsbrce , the E. arm of which descends into the Jlclkedal (p. 153), 
while the W. arm, divided again by the Melkedalspigger, descends partly 
into the Melkedal, and partly to the Skogadal (p. 154). Experienced 
mountaineers may descend the mountain by the last-named arm of the 
glacier, which has to be traversed for 1 hr. ; the lower part only is fur- 
rowed with crevasses (Sprwkker). 

b. From Skogstad and Nystuen to Tvindehoug and 

30 Kil. Biudle Path (horse to Tvindehoug 4 kr.). Some travellers, 
however, will prefer to walk to (2 hrs.) Lake Tyin, row to (12 Kil.) Tvin- 
dehoug, and walk thence to (6 Kil.) Eidsbugarden. 

Skogstad and Nystuen on the Fillefjeld (see p. 94), lying on the 
groat route through Valders to the Sognefjord, are favourite start- 
ing-points for Jotunheim (horses and guides at both). By the 
Opdalstele , about halfway between these stations , the route to 
Lake Tyin diverges to the N. and in 1 hr. crosses the hill which 
separates it from the district of Valders. Fine view from the top 
of the hill of the snowy Gjeldedalstind , the Koldedalstind , and 
the (Stelsnaastind to the N.W. of the lake. 

Lake Tyin (3296 ft.), 10 Engl. M. long and 2 M. broad, with a 
wide bay at the W. end from which the Aardela issues, is a beauti- 
ful Alpine lake, the banks of which, like those of the other lakes 
of Jotunheim are uninhabited, except by a few cow-herds in sum- 
mer, the most important of whose 'Faelseger' are marked in the 
map (p. 132). At the S. end, where the lake is reached, a boat is 
generally procurable to convey travellers to Tvindehoug (for 1, 2, 3 
persons with 1 rower 2 kr. 40, 2 kr. 80, 3 kr. 20 e. ; with 2 rowers 
3 kr. 60, 4 kr. 40, 5 kr. 20 e.); otherwise they must walk along 
the E. bank of the lake (bad road, S 1 /^ hrs.). On every side rise 

Jotunheim. TVINDEHOUG. 17. Route. 141 

lofty mountains. Above the Fselager of Maaln&s towers the pyra- 
miflal Uranaastind (p. 140), and to the S. rises the Suletind on 
the Fillefjeld. 

Tvindehoug (3330 ft.), a large club-hut belonging to the Tu- 
rist-Forening, is one of the chief stations of the Jotunheim guides. 
Ascent of the Skinegg (p. 139) 172-2 hrs. ; guide hardly necessary. 

The Koldedalstind or Falketind (6700 ft.), to the N.W. of Lake Tyin. 
is most conveniently ascended from Tvindehoug (8-10 hrs. ; guide, Ole 
Olsen Skattebo, 4 kr.). We row across the lake, ascend the valley of the 
Koldedela to the foot of the Falketind, and then climb, most of the way 
over glaciers, to the summit. The view is one of the wildest in Jotun- 
heim. The Falketind was ascended in 1820 by Prof. Keilhau and Clir. 
Jioeck , and was the first of the Jotunheim mountains ever climbed. — 
The dangerous descent to the Koldedal (p. 156) should not be attempted. 

Skirting the lake , and then crossing the low Eid or isthmus 
which separates lakes Tyin and Bygdin , we reach Eidsbugarden 
(p. 139) in about 2 hrs. more. 

c. From Eidsbugarden to the Gjendebod on Lake Gjende. 

From Eidsbugarden to the Gjendebod, 4-5 hrs.; guide (hardly neces- 
sary) 2 kr. 40«(., horse 4 kr. (A still finer route than the present is that 
already described, from the Nybud through the Thorfinsdal, pp. 138, 139.) 
On the same afternoon ascend the Memurutunge and return by boat from 
the Memurubod. 

Eidsbugarden, see p. 139. We take the road along the N. bank 
of Lake Bygdin, cross ('/ 4 M.) the rapid Melkedela (p. 152) by a 
narrow wooden bridge, and reach in about 3 / 4 hr. more the Tolorm- 
bod, at the mouth of the TolormaorHeiistakka, which point may also 
be reached by boat (with one rower, for 1, 2, 3 persons, 80e>., 1 kr., 
or 1 kr. 20 e.). Grand retrospective view of the snow-mountains 
to the W. (comp. p. 137). 

The path ascends the left bank of the Tolorma , on the W. 
slope of the Oaldebergstind, and mounts the Oxdalhei, crossing 
(l J /2 nr a hrook which descends from that mountain. The route 
then leads somewhat steeply up the Gjelhe to the N.E. to the 
plateau of Grenneberg. To the left rises the Grashorung (7 146 ft.) 
with the Snehul, and to the right the huge Sletmarkha (7173 ft.), 
the glacier of which descends into the Vesle Aadal. Having crossed 
the Grenneberg, we descend rapidly to the N.E. into the Vesle 
Aadal, which is bounded on the N. by the Gjendetunge, and follow 
the brook down to Lake Gjende. Here we turn to the N. , pass 
round the Gjendetunge, and cross by a new bridge to the — 

Gjendebod, a well-equipped club-hut, situated at the entrance 
to the Store Aadal , and at the foot of the precipices of the Me- 
murutunge. It accommodates 20 persons; and the moderate char- 
ges are fixed by tariff (good wine). Guide : Erik Slaalien. — Boat 
to the Memurubod with 1 rower for 1, 2, or 3 pers., 2 kr., 2 kr. 
40, 3 kr. 20 ». , with 2 rowers 3 kr. 60, 4 kr. , 4 kr. 80 ». ; to Gjen- 
desheim with 1 rower 3 kr. 20, 4kr. , 5kr. 20, with 2 rowers 6 kr., 

142 Route 17. LAKE GJENDE. Jotunheim. 

6kr. 80 »., 8kr. (also for 4pers.). The second rower should not be 
dispensed with , though his place may he supplied by the guide. 

*Lake Gjende (3310 ft.), 11 Engl. M. long and i, 2 -l M. in 
width, extends from W. to E., where the Sjoa, a tributary of the 
Lougen, issues from it. It presents a still more Alpine character 
than Lake Bygdin. On both sides, it is enclosed by perpendicular 
mountains, among which the Beshe (7580 ft.), on the N. or 'Sol- 
side', and the Knutshullstind (7782 ft.), and Svartdalspig (7120 ft.), 
on the S. or 'liagside', are the loftiest. These peaks , however, 
cannot be seen from the Gjendebod , but become visible as we 
ascend the Store Aadal. There are but few places on the banks of 
the lake where landing or walking for any distance is practicable. 
The colour of the water is green, especially when seen from a height. 
The lake is fed by a very small number of wild glacier-torrents. 
Storms often render the lake dangerous for boating for days to- 
gether, and the N. wind sometimes divides in the middle of the 
lake and blows at the same time towards the E. and towards the 
W. The lake is also often covered with fog (Gjendesknven). 

The Ascent op the Memurutunge takes about 4 hrs., or including 
the descent to the Memurubod 6 hrs. at least (guide 2 kr.). From the 
Gjendebod we may either make the extremely steep ascent to the E. by 
the Bukkelceger or the Ilegsluelefte (dangerous without a guide), or follow 
the bridle-path through the Store Aadal for about l'/2 hr., ascending 
the left bank of the stream, and then ascend rapidly to the right (prac- 
ticable for riding; see below). The "Memurutunge, a hilly plateau 
about 4800 ft. in height, with snow-fields, small lakes, and interesting 
Alpine llora, forms a kind of mountain-peninsula, bounded on the W. by 
the Store Aadal, on the S. by the Gjende, and on the E. and N. by the 
Memuruelv. Farther to the N. it is encircled by lofty snow mountains. 

The View is magnificent. To the S. are the Knutshullstind with its 
deep 'Hul', and the Svartdalspig, between which lies the deep Svartdal; 
then the Langedal and the Sletinarkhu ; to the W. rise the pointed Melke- 
dalstinder and Rauddalstinder, prominent among which is the Skarvdalstind, 
all' near the Eauddal. To the N.W. lies the Langevand with the Smtfr- 
stabtinder, the Kirke, and the Uladalstinder. To the N. the Hinaa- 
kjernh0, Meinurutind , and Tykningssuen. To the E. the BeshU and 
other peaks. — Instead of returning by the same route, it is far more 
interesting to traverse the Memurutunge to its E. end and then descend the 
steep slope to the Memurubod in the valley of that name. In this case a 
boat must be ordered before starting to meet the traveller at this point. 

From the Gjendebod we may also ascend the "Gjendetunge (5096 
ft.), which commands the same view as the Memurutunge, with the ad- 
dition of a survey of the whole lake. We cross the bridge to the W., 
follow the path on the W. bank of the river to the N. for about '/z lir. , 
and then ascend steeply to the left. 

The ascent of the Knutshullstind (7820 ft.) from Gjendebod presents 
no great difficulty (8 hrs.). We cross the lake and ascend the Svartdals- 
glupet (p. 138) to the Svartdal, whence we climb to the E. to the summit. 
The first ascent was made in 1875. 

From the Gjendebod to Skogadalsb#en through the Eauddal, 10-12 
hrs. (guide 5 kr. 40 0. ; to Berge near Fortun 6 kr. 40 0.). If the Muran 
Sfeter in the Utladal (p. 158) is open, which may be learned at the Gjendebod, 
the night had better be spent there, in whichever direction the route is 
taken. (Instead of the liauddal route, the traveller may prefer that 
through the Store Aadal, the flrai'dal, and the Utladal, l'/zday, a night 
being spent on the Leirvand. Guide to Berge 10 kr. ; horse, with side- 
saddle if desired, 4 kr. per day, and as much more to the attendant.) 

Jotunheim. G.TENDESHEIM. 77. Route. 143 

The route leads up the Store Aadal on the right bank as far as a 
Oh nr ) waterfall formed by a brook descending from the Grisletjsern. 
It then ascends rapidly to the left. Farther on, it crosses the brook and 
leads on the N. side of the Orisletjwm and the following tarns to the Rauddals- 
houg (3 hrs. from the Gjendebod), where the Rauddal begins. This grand, 
but unpicturesque valley, with its almost uninterrupted series of lakes, 
lies to the N. of and parallel with the Melkedal (p. 153). The valley is nearly 
level, and there is no distinguishable watershed. Here and there are 
large boulders deposited by the glacier which must once have filled the 
valley. On reaching the 'Band', or culminating point we enjoy admirable 
"Views in both directions : to the right rise the Rauddalstinder (7410 ft.), 
to the left is the Melkedalstind with its perpendicular wall, and between 
them peeps the Fanaraak (p. 151) in the distance; looking back, we ob- 
serve the Rauddalstind on the left , the Snehulstind (Grashorung) on the 
right, and between them the Sletmarkhe (p. 139) with a fine amphitheatre of 
glaciers. It takes about l'/2 hr. to cross the 'Band', from which a route 
leads to the W. round the Svartdalsegg to the Langvand and the Store 
Aadal (a round of 10-12 hrs. from the Gjendebod). We next cross the 
Rauddalselv by a snow-bridge and traverse rough and toilsome 'Ur 1 and 
patches of snow on the W. side of the valley, skirting a long lake for the 
last l'/j hr. (patience very necessary here). As we approach the *B,auddals- 
mund, the precipice with which the Raudal terminates towards the Stove 
Utladal, the scenery again becomes very grand. A view is obtained of 
the mountains of the Utladal and Gravadal, including the curiously shap- 
ed Smerstabtind , from which the Sjortningsbrce descends. To the E. 
we survey the whole of the Rauddal, lying between the Rauddalstind on 
the N. and the Melkedalstind (p. 153) on the S. (the latter being the moun- 
tain which descends so precipitously into the Melkedal). The red (rand, 
red) colour of the 'gabbro' rock-formation here has given rise to the 
name of the valley. Erratic glacier-blocks occur frequently. 

The route now descends on the S. side of the waterfall of the Raud- 
dalselv to the Store Utladal, about 3 /t hr. above the Muran-Swter (p. 158). 

The *Journey by boat across Lake Gjende, from Gjendeboden to 
Gjendeosen, takes 3-4 hrs. , butis not practicable in stormy weather. 
Soon after starting a view is obtained to the S. of the Svartdal 
(p. 138), at the entrance of which lies the cattle-shed of Vaage- 
boden. To the N. are the slopes of the Memurutunge (p. 142). 
About halfway, at the mouth of the Memurudal, is the club-hut 
of Memurubod. To the N.W., at the head of the Memurudal, rises 
the Semmeltind. Toward the N.E. the Beshe is conspicuous, while 
more to the E. the Veslefjeld descends precipitously to the lake. 

From the E. end of the lake, named Ojendeosen, issues the 
small river Sjoa. On the N. bank here lies the club-hut of Gjen- 
desheim, the best of the kind in Jotunheim (R. 80, B. 70, D. 1- 
1 kr. 30, S. 70*.). 

The interesting Ascent of the Veslefjeld, with its spur the Besegg, 
is accomplished from Gjendesheim in 7-8 hrs. (guide not absolutely ne- 
cessary). A good bridle-path leads N. in 1 hr. to the Bessa, on the N. 
bank of which lie the Bes-Sasters, mentioned at p. 133. We do not cross 
the river, but follow the path on its S. bank indicated by Varder ('stone 
heaps') to the height by the Besvand, where the routes divide. The lofty 
Besh0 here becomes conspicuous to the right. Our route ascends to the 
left and in 1V2-2 hrs. more reaches the barren and stony Veslefjeld 
(5765 ft.). The view embraces the whole of the dark-green Lake Gjende, 
with the Koldedalstinder and St|»lsnaastinder to the S.W. ; most im- 
posing, however, is the survey of the neighbouring Beshfj, while to the 
N. rises the Nautgardstind. — We may now proceed towards the W. 
along the crest of the Veslefjeld, rising between the Besvand and the 

1-14 Routt 17- BESEGG. Jotunheim. 

Gjcnde, which lies nearly 1000 ft. lower than the Besvand. This crest 
gradually narrows to the "Besegg, a very curious ridge or arete, a few 
feet only in width, descending precipitously to both lakes, particularly 
to the Gjende. Travellers with steady heads may follow the giddy 'edge' 
for >/s hr-i or even as far as the Eid separating the two lakes, and not 
rising much above the level of the Besvand. It is also possible to pro- 
ceed to the Memurubod (see abovej by following the base of the Besh0. 
It is, however, preferable to return to the Bes-s^eters , or to descend 
direct to Gjendesheim. 

The ascent of the BeshjB (7547 ft.) from Gjendesheim takes 8-9 hrs. 
(there and back), and richly repays the exertion. Guide necessary. The 
route coincides with that above described as far as the Besvand, but at 
that point we cross the lake and ascend the Beshehrcc. The view from 
the summit embraces the whole of Jotunheim. Far below lie the Me- 
murutunge, the Besvand , Lake Gjende , and the Eusvand. The slope 
towards the last is precipitous. 

From (,'jendesheitn to Lake Bygdin, see p. 129; through the 0vre Lej- 
rungsdal to the Gjendebod, see p. 129. 

d. From the Gjendebod to Eejshjem. 

l'/2 Day. On the first day we walk to Spiterstul in 8-10 hrs., and on 
the second to Rejshjem in 5 hrs. — Goide to Spiterstul 4 kr., to B.0js- 
hjem 5 kr. GO 0. ; horse as far as the foot of the steep ascent to the Ule- 
dalsvand 2 kr. 60#., whereby the fatigue is much diminished. 

The very fatiguing but exceedingly grand walk from the Gjen- 
debod to Spiterstul should not be attempted without a guide. The 
route ascends the left bank of the Store Aadalselv and passes 
through the defile of Heiistulen, between the Memurutunge and 
the Gjendetunge. To the right falls the Glimsdalsfos. Splendid 
view of the Semmeltind to the N. (p. 145). After 1 hr. we reach 
the Vardesten, a large mass of rock, 1/2 nr - beyond which the 
bridle-path to the Memurutunge diverges to the right (p. 142). 
From the left the Skarvedalsbakken descends from the Skarvedal. 
We next observe, to the left of the Semmeltind, the Hellerfos (see 
below), and to the left, above it, the Uladalstinder. Pedestrians 
will find the passage of the Semmelaa , which descends from the 
Sr.mmelhul glacier, unpleasant. (The Semmelhul is also crossed 
by a route into the Visdal, which is no less rough and fatiguing 
than the present route.) Our path now ascends rapidly on the 
E. (right) side of the wild Hellerfos, the discharge of the Hel- 
lerkjsern , and reaches the top of the hill in 1/2 nr - (^ nrs - ^ rom 
the Gjendebod). Beautiful retrospective view of the Sletmarkhe 
and Svartdalspig ; the Knutshullstind , rising more to the E., is 
concealed by the Memurutunge. The route traverses a curious- 
looking mountain-waste, bounded by the Uladalstinder. Blocks of 
rock deposited during the glacier-period are arrayed along the 
edges of the mountains like soldiers. We now skirt the Hellerkjaem 
(4300 ft.), and then turn to the right into the insignificant valley 
which leads to the N.W., and afterwards more towards the E., to 
the Uladalsband. The serious part of the ascent soon begins 
('2 1 /2 hrs. from the Gjendebod), and riders must dismount. 

From thk Hellerkjjern to the Leirdal ani> K^jshjem, a route 
3-4 hrs. longer than our present route, is much less toilsome (guide, 

Jotunlieim. SPITERSTUL. 17. Route. 145 

unnecessary, tn Ytterdalssieter 5 kr. 60 0. ; horse to Rsrjshjem, with 
side-saddle if required, 8-10 kr.). From the Hellerkjsern the path next 
reaches the Langvand, or Langvatn (4627 ft.), and skirts its N. hank 
(for l'/s hr.). On the right rise the Uladalstinder; to the S. the Svarl- 
dalsegg (6280 ft.). At the W. end of the lake, in which there are several 
islands, the path ascends past the two Hegvageltjoeme to the HjBgvagel 
('Vagge', a Lapp word, signifying 'mountain-valley'; 5430 ft.), the highest 
point of the route, which commands an imposing survey of the Horunger 
to the S.W. The path then descends to the Leirvand (4903 ft.) and 
traverses a dreary and monotonous region. Through the Leirdal \" 
Rejshjem, see p. 149. 

A steep ascent of l/ 2 hr. brings lis to the sequestered Uldduls- 
vand (about 5250 ft.), which lies to the left. The route, which 
is extremely rough and toilsome here , keeps to the right and 
passes the foot of the slopes of the Semmeltind (Semrnel, 'a 
female reindeer'). After another hour it reaches the Uladalsband 
(5730 ft.), its highest point, where it unites with the route across 
the ScTiimel Glacier. We now descend to the northern Uladals- 
vund (5136 ft.), the second lake of the name. To the right rises 
the Tlellstuguhet (7915 ft.), the fourth of the peaks of Jotunheim 
in point of height. Traversing the exceedingly uncomfortable 
stony ground on the B. bank of this lake, we at length reach 
(2 hrs., or from the Gjendebod 6 hrs.) Uladalsmynnet, or the 
end of the Uladal. Splendid view here of the broad Visdal, with 
the Heilstuguha on the right, and the Uladalstinder and Tvcer- 
bottenhorne on the left. Looking towards the W. from the Visdal 
itself, we observe the Klrke rising on the left, past which a path 
leads to the right through the Kirkeglup to the Leirvand (see 

The route through the *Visdal (to the Spiterstul l 1 / 2 -'2. hrs. 
more) follows the right (E.) bank of the Visa (via, Celtic uisge, 
'water'), at first traversing soft turf, which forms a most pleasant 
contrast to the rough and angular stones of the 'Ur'. After 1 hr. 
we have to wade through the Heilstuguaa, which descends from 
the extensive Heilstugubra. Early in the morning the passage of 
the stream is easy, but later in the day, when the water is higher, 
we ascend a little in order to cross by a bridge (whence the Spi- 
terstul is 1 hr. distant). Shortly before reaching the sseter, we 
observe to the left, through the Bukkehul, the Styggebrm atid the 
Sveilnaasbr<r, two glaciers descending from the Galdhflpig group, 
with magnificent ice-falls, that of the latter being the finest. 

The Spiterstul (about 3710 ft.), the highest saeter in the Vis- 
dal , commanded by the Skauthe (6676 ft.) on the W., affords 
tolerable quarters for the night (one broad bed), and is a good 
starting-point for excursions , but guides are rarely to be found 
before the reindeer shooting-season in August. If a guide is ob- 
tainable, the traveller may ascend the Leirhe (7885 ft.), the 
Heilstuguhei (see above), and the Memurutind (7910 ft.), the last 
of which commands a most imposing view. 

Baedeker's Norway and Sweden. 3rd Edit. 10 

146 Route 17. SMAADAL. Jotunheim. 

The Galdhapig (p. 148) may also be ascended more easily and expe- 
ditiously from the Spiterstul than from Rfljshjem. The route (not easily 
mistaken by experienced mountaineers) crosses the Visa by a bridge 
l /i hr. to the S. of the Spiterstul, ascends on the N. side of the Sveil- 
naasbrce, and traverses the three peaks of the Sveitnaase. Owing to the 
glacier-crevasses, however, it is not altogether unattended with danger, 
and should not be attempted without a guide. Instead of returning 
from the summit to the Spiterstul, the traveller may descend direct to 
Rizrjshjem by the Raubergsstul (but not without a guide). 

From the Spiterstul to R»jshjem , about 5 hrs. (no guide 
required). We soon reach the zone of birches and ('/2 hr.) a 
rocky barrier through which the Visa has forced a passage. 
After another '/2 hr we come to a pine-wood , with picturesque 
trees (Furuer) on the N. side, some of which are entirely stripped 
of their branches. (The limit of pines is here about 3280 ft. 
above the sea-level.) Above us , to the left, is an offshoot of 
the Tvaerbrse. In 1 / i hr. more we cross the Skautaelv , which 
forms a waterfall above , by a curious bridge. To the S. we 
perceive the Uladalstinder (p. 144) and the Styggehg (7317 ft.). 
On the opposite bank of the Visa is the Nedre Suleims-Sater 
(3192 ft.), at the mouth of a small valley through which the ori- 
ginal route to the Galdhapig ascended. Opposite the saeter the 
Glitra falls into the Visa. 

From the Spiterstul or the Nedre Suleims-Sseter the ascent of the 
Glittertind (8383 ft.), a peak nearly as high as the Galdhupig, may be ac- 
complished in 8-10 hrs. (there and back : guide desirable). The route 
follows the top of the hill rising between the Glitra and the Skautaelv, 
and pursues an E. direction. The height first reached is the W. spur of 
the rocky amphitheatre which encloses the huge basin (Botn) lying to 
the N. In order to reach the highest point the use of an ice-axe (Isexe) 
is sometimes necessary. 

The Rejshjem route continues to follow the E. bank of the 
Visa. In case of doubt the direction indicated by the Varder, or 
stone beacons, is to be followed. We cross the Smiugjela, the 
Grjota, and the Ookra. The Visa is lost to view in its deep 
channel, but we follow the margin of its ravine. An ascent of a 
few hundred paces to the E. of the path leads to the Visdals- 
Ssetre (2960 ft.), where fair quarters for the night are obtainable 
(particularly, at the 0vrebersceter). 

The Gokraskard, an excellent point of view which may be ascended 
hence, commands a survey of the Uladalstinder to the S., the Galdhjjpig 
to the S.W. and the Hestbrsepigge to the W. — A still finer point is the 
Lauvh/j (5824 ft.), whence the Glittertind is also visible. 

From the Visdal sseters we may also ascend the Gokradal, between 
the Lauvh0 on the N. and the Gockeraxelen on the S., to the pass of the 
Finhals (3S85 ft.). Following the Finhalselv thence and crossing the 
Smaadalselv in the Smaadal, we may turn to the right to the Smaadals- 
Sceter (3807 ft.), from which the huge Kvitingskjelen (6874 ft.) to the N. 
may be ascended. The next points reached are the Snwrlidsceler and the 
Naaversceter on Lake Thessen. Thence across the lake and past the 
Oxefos to Storvik on the Vaagevand, see p. 130. This route commands 
line views of the Galdherpig and the Glittertind, but the Smaadal itself 
is uninteresting. — Those who take this route in the reverse direction 
should observe that, about lhr. beyond the Smaadals-Sseter, after cross- 
ing a brook coming from the right, they must cross the Smaadalselv to 

Jotunheim. R0JSHJEM. 17. Route. 147 

the left, and on the other side ascend the bank of the Finhalselv in- 
wards the S.W. 

Below the Visdal sieters the path is not easily traceable, but the 
traveller is not likely to go far wrong. The descent to Rejshjem, 
skirting the profound Ravine of the Visa, presents one of the 
grandest scenes in Norway. The Lauva descends from the right. 
The saeter-path , now practicable for light carts, descends very 
rapidly, commanding a view of the huge abyss. On the opposite 
side runs the path to the Nedre Suleims - Sseter (p. 146). To 
the N. lie the gaards of Rejshjem and Suleim. The first cottages 
are reached in IV2 ur - f rom * nc Visdal seeters, and here we cross 
the curious bridge to the left. — Rejshjem, see below. 

c. R#jshjem and Environs. The Galdhepig. 

Rejshjem or Redsheim (1860 ft. ; *Inn kept by Ole Halvorssen 
Rejshjem, probably the best guide in Norway, a man of unassum- 
ing manners, but a good English scholar, and remarkably well-in- 
formed on every subject in which travellers are interested) lies at 
the junction of the Leirdal (p. 150) and the Visdal (sec above), the 
two valleys enclosing the Galdhepig, and the best starting-point 
for the ascent of that mountain and several other fine excursions. 
The place is therefore often crowded in summer, especially with 
Norwegian students and pedestrians. 

The Ascent of the Gal])H«tpig may be accomplished from 
Rejshjem in 8-9 his. (there and back, 14-16 hrs.). The expedition 
is unattended with difficulty , but the walk is very long and fati- 
guing, and the ground so stony, rough, and slippery at places that 
considerable caution must be used. Violent snow - storms fre- 
quently prevail on the summit while the weather is fine at the 
base of the mountain ; but such precautions are usually taken that 
no danger need be apprehended, especially in 'Pigveir' (i. e. 
'weather suitable for the peak'). Ole Rejshjem rarely now accom- 
panies travellers to the summit. The usual guide is Knud Olsen 
Vole (4 kr.). Alpenstocks, the property of the Turisten-Ferening, 
are provided by Ole Rejshjem. Provisions should also be taken. 

The traveller may ascend on the previous evening to the (2 hrs.) 
Redbergs-Saeter (erected in 1616; one of the five sseters of the 
Raubergsstul), and spend the night there in Ole Rejshjeins new 
hut, so as to diminish the fatigue of the actual ascent. Or he may 
drive early in the morning from Rejshjem to Bceverdals Kirke, and 
use the same horse for riding thence to Redbergs-Sseter and as far 
as the glacier, which is only 2 hrs. from the top. — The writer 
was unable to get a horse, as Ole and his horses had crossed the 
Sognefjeld with a party of English travellers, and the other horses 
were engaged in the harvest. The start from Rejshjem was there- 
fore made on foot at 5 a.m.; following the road for V2hr., we passed 
the cottage of the guide Peder Ingbretsen at Mongjiel 0degaard, 


148 Route 17. GALDH0PIG. Jotunhehn. 

and in l^hr. more stopped at tlie Redberys-Sceter. Starting thence 
at 7.45, we reached the barren and stony summit of the (faldeshei 
(5240 ft.), to the S.W. of the saeter, in 1 hr., whence a view of 
the Gockerdal and the Gockeraxelen is obtained to the E. (The 
bridle-path, however, rounds this hill on theS. side.) About 10 we 
reached the Tverbra and the Djuvvand, a small glacier-lake, above 
which rise the amphitheatrical cliffs of Kjedelen (7300 ft.). We 
now for the first time obtained a view of the summit of the Gald- 
hepig and the Sveilnaasi, its dark rocky spur, with the Keilhaustop 
an&Sveilnaaspig, all rising like dark waves above the vast expanse 
of the snowy Styggebrce. Crossing a field of snow and a stony tract, 
we reached the Varde (6365 ft.) on the Styggebrae at 11.30, rested 
for half-an-hour, and took 1 hr. more to cross the glacier with its 
numerous crevasses. The worst part of the route now began. The 
route traversed loose stones and skirted a deep yawning abyss on 
the right and the Styggebree with its wide crevasses on the left ; it 
then followed a snowy arete, the slipperiness of which made the 
precipices on each side appear doubly formidable. About 1 o'clock 
(9 hrs. from R»jshjem, 7 hrs. from the Redbergs-Saeter) we reached 
the summit, marked by a lofty stone Varde which affords some 

The **Galdh«pig, or Galdhetind (8400 ft.), is the highest 
summit of the Ymesfjeld , a peculiar mountain-plateau, which is 
surrounded by the valleys of the Leira, Visa, and Baevra , and 
connected with the other mountain-groups of Jotunheim by the 
Hegvagel (p. 145) only. The slopes of the Ymesfjeld on every 
side are steep. Besides the Galdhepig, there are few summits 
rising above the general level of its snow and glacier-clad sur- 
face. The Galdhepig, the top of which is almost always kept clear 
of snow by storms, is the loftiest mountain in Norway {Mont Blanc 
15,784 ft., Monte Rosa 15,217 ft., the Ortler 12,814ft.). 

The view from the summit is unobstructed in every direction. 
It embraces the almost equally lofty Glittertind (p. 146) and the 
Rondane to the E. ; the whole of the Jotunfjeld to the S. ; the 
Horunger, the Smerstabstinder, the Sognefjord, the Jostedalsbrse, 
and the Nordfjord mountain-chain to the W. ; and the Snehaettan 
group to the N. Most of these summits, especially the nearer ones, 
are pointed and pyramidal in shape, like the Swiss peaks, and do 
not present the usual flattened appearance of the Norwegian moun- 
tains. The scene somewhat resembles a vast ocean furrowed with 
enormous billows, or an Arctic landscape. No occupied valleys are 
visible. The distant dark blue water of the Sognefjord alone 
recalls the existence of the nether inhabited world. 

The descent is made by the same route to the Rerdbergs-Sseter 
in 4 hrs., and to Rejshjem in H/ 2 hr. more. 

Experienced mountaineers may proceed direct from the summit of 
the Galdh0pig across the Styggebrai or to Keilhaus Top and Sveilnaaspig, 

Jotunheim. LOMSEGG. 17. Route. 149 

and descend by the Sveilnuasbrce to the Spiterstul (p. 144) in the Visdal 
and thence proceed to Lake Ojende. The route, however, requires the 
utmost caution, all these 'Pigge' being covered with glacier-ice fissured 
with crevasses (Sprcecker). Hr. E. Mohn, a well-known explorer of the 
Jotunheim Mts., fell into a crevasse about 400 ft. below the summit of 
the Galdh0pig on 27th July, 1877, and narrowly escaped with his life. 

Rejshjem is also the best starting-point for the ascent of the 
Lomsegg (6885 ft.), the summit of which is reached via Gaarden 
Sulheim in 5-6 hours. It commands an imposing view of the Glitter- 
tind and Galdh»pig , and of the Smerstabbraepigge and Fanaraak 
to the W., which, however, seem a long way off. 

The best survey of the whole chain is obtained from the Hest- 
breepiggene (6095 ft.), which may be described as the 'Faulhorn' of 
Jotunheim. The two peaks of that name rise on the other side of 
the valley, to the N.W. Riding is practicable for part of the way. 

A very interesting *Walk of 1-2 hrs. may be taken from R»js- 
hjem to Glaamstad , on the right bank of the Bsevra, situated ob- 
liquely above Gaard Sulheim. We follow the Lom road (p. 130) 
and (10 min.) cross the Bsevra. A rocky *Hill here commands a 
fine view of Rejshjem and the Galdheer. A pleasant meadow-path 
then leads to the left through a plantation of alders to (20 min.) 
the right side of the valley and to Glaamstad, a group of farms by 
the side of which the Glaama descends in four falls. We may then 
ascend by the broad track on the left bank of the Glaama in 20 min. 
more to Gaarden Engeim on the hill above. 

Close to Reyshjem, by the upper bridge across the Bsevra, are 
numerous *Jcettegryder , or water - worn ' giant cauldrons ', the 
largest of which, of an irregular oval shape, is about 10 ft. in dia- 
mater. The stones they contain have been lodged there by inun- 
dations subsequent to the period when the hollows were formed. 

From R0jshjem through the Visdal or the Leirdal to Lake Gjende, 
see pp. 147-144. 

f. From R«jshjem over the Sognefjeld to Fortuu. 

l'/2 Day (about 70 Kil. ; guide and horse 1G kr.). Walkers should 
pass the night at the (7 hrs.) Bsevertun-Sseter and proceed next day to 
(11 hrs.) Fortun. The first 3 Engl. M. are practicable for driving , but 
the rest of the way is only a bridle-path. 

Rejshjem, see p. 147. Our route leads to ( 3 /4 hr.) BaverdaU 
Kirke, where the pastor of Lom (p. 130) performs divine service 
once monthly. On the opposite side of the valley is Bakkeberg, with 
large farm-bmildings amid smiling corn-fields. The road ascends 
steeply through the grand gorge of *Rusten ('wooded hill') or 
Gaden, with its overhanging rocks. Above lies a gaard. Farther 
on, y 2 hr- from the church, we come to a moor, once the bed of a 
lake, where the road terminates. 

Bridle-Path to Fortun. The path which we now follow soon 
divides. The route formerly most frequented follows the course 
of the Bavra, passing the Rusten, Netto, and Preste saeters (good 
accommodation), to the Heidnlnvand, whence the stream issues in 

150 Route 17. BjEVERDAL. Jotunheim. 

the form of a fine waterfall called the Heifos. The other and pre- 
ferable route soon quits the Bseverdal and ascends the lower 
Leirdnl. We avoid the first bridge to the right, and cross the 
Leira by the second bridge , following the left (W. ) bank of the 
stream , and passing Storlien. To the left are the huge slopes of 
the Store Juvbra and the Store Qrovbrcp. Farther on we observe a 
grand Oorge, through which, however, our route does not lead. 
On the left descends the Ilfos, and facing us is the vast Loftet 
(p. 159), with its extensive glaciers; nearer, on the left, is the 
lhimhe with the lofty fall of the Duma , below which lie the 
I'tterdals-Sffitre. — The path next ascends the B&verkjcern-Hah 
(3515 ft.; 'Hals', as in Icelandic, 'a pass') and quits the Leir- 
dal. The Ojende Route turns to the left here, crosses the 
stream , and leads past the Ytterdals-Satre to the Leirvand (see 
p. 159). Fine survey of the Jotunheim mountains behind. 

The Sognefjisld Route leads to the N.W. across the 'Hals', 
and soon quits the region of birches. At the Varde it turns to the 
left, the road to the right making a detour past the Bceverkjarn- 
Sceter. Farther on we observe the Heivand with the Heifos, which 
the above-mentioned path leading through the Boeverdal passes, and 
descend to the Bceverkjcern, which witli its numerous promontories 
and islands resembles a miniature fjord. AVe cross the stream 
flowing out of this lake by a dilapidated bridge, and follow the N. 
bank of the lake with its milky-looking water, which reflects the 
Loftet and is fed by several lofty waterfalls. On the S. bank, 
near the W. end, lies the Rustesceter (not to be confounded with 
that above mentioned). To the W. of the Baeverkjaern is the con- 
tiguous Bcevertunvand, which the path skirts. To the W. of this 
lake rises the Dumhe. The whole scene here is one of striking 
grandeur. At the W. end of the Baevertunvand we at length 
reach the — 

Bsevertunsseter (3075 ft. ; 6 hrs. from Reg'shjem ; one room 
with two beds, in which four persons can sleep if necessary, 
40 0. each ; Alpine fare, for which payment may be made accord- 
ing to discretion). To this establishment belong 24 cows with 
their calves, 200 sheep, and 11 pigs. The sheep wander over the 
mountains in summer without shepherds (Vogter), but the cows, 
summoned by the cattle-calls already mentioned, come down to 
the sseter in the evening. The pigs generally remain near the 
building. As in the Alpine chalets, the milk is manufactured 
here into cheese and butter. The whey (Mysa) is carried down to 
the valley in drum-shaped Myse/lasker (called Primstrumper in 
the Hardanger), slung over the backs of horses. The cords used 
here are made of twisted willows, and the horses are tethered in 
an ingenious maimer. The sledges and carts are made of wood, 
frequently without the aid of a particle of iroii. The girls will 
sometimes sing their untutored but not nnmelodious songs by 

Jotunheim. SM0RSTABBRJE. 17. Route. 151 

the fireside of an evening, a performance for which of course no 
payment is expected or ought to he offered. — As the next human 
hahitations, the Turtegred and Ojessingen saeters (p. 152), are 7-9 
hrs. walk from the Baevertun Saeter, an early start should be made. 
The route leads for l 3 /4 hr. through the somewhat monotonous 
valley of the Baevra, until it reaches the Nupshaug, a curious rocky 
knoll in the middle of the valley. Adjoining it is a fall of the 
Baevra; to the left are two other waterfalls, all of which unite here. 
We now ascend to a higher region of the valley and obtain a view 
of the enormous *Sm«rstabbree , one of the most extensive gla- 
ciers in Norway, a perfect sea of snow and ice, overtopped by the 
Smerstabspiggene (7515 ft.), the ascent of which may be made 
from the Bajvertunsaeter (10-12 hrs., there and back) without ma- 
terial difficulty. The services of a good guide should , however, 
be secured. The Baevra issues from the glacier, at the end of 
which there is a magnificent ice-cavern (digression of */ 2 nr 0- — 
In 3/ 4 br. more we come to a stone Varde surmounted by a wooden 
figure, bearing the inscription (of which only a few letters are now 
legible): — 

'Vfer rask som en L0ve, Og skynd dig som en Hind ! 

See Veiret det gryner i Fanaraak Tind !' 
lie quick as a lion, haste thee like a hind; see how the storms lower 
over the Fanaraak Peak !' 

In Y2 nr - we now reach the actual Fjeld , and in \ 4 hr. more 
the Fantestenene, where a tramp (Fant) is said to have been shot 
'more than a century ago' (the date usually assigned in Norway to 
remote events). Adjacent is a small lake with patches of snow. 
Grand view hence of the Sm»rstabbrae , and of the Fanaraak, 
farther to the W., from which other glaciers descend. ■ — We 
soon reach the highest point of an extensive mountain -tract, 
and cross the boundary of Bergens-Stift (4630 ft.). To the left we 
observe the Rauskjeldvand, and afterwards the Prestesteinvand, 
into which the Fanaraakbrce immediately descends. Several hours 
are next spent in passing this almost contiguous series of lakes 
and glaciers. The route is marked at frequent intervals by means 
of Varder, so that an observant and experienced traveller may al- 
most dispense with a guide. Should fog set in, one Varde should 
not be quitted until another is descried. Failure to observe this 
precaution might easily cost the wayfarer his life. 

At a curious looking Varde called the 'Kammerherre', consist- 
ing of a tall mass of rock with a pointed stone on the top, it is 
usual to rest. The route soon descends steeply to the Herrevand, 
the stream flowing out of which we cross by the Hervasbrui (Brui, 
bridge), about 5 hrs. from the Baeverturnsaeter, and halfway to For- 
tun. The route next rounds the projecting buttress of the Fana- 
raak (7460ft.), and passes the Galjebergvand , and afterwards the 
Djuvvand, fed by the glacier stream Djuvvandsaa. On our left now 
rises the W. side of the Fanaraak, and we soon survey the whole 

152 Route 17. OSCARSHOUG. Jotunheim. 

range of the Horiinger (p. 161) rising beyond the deep Helgedal, 
the best point of view being the 'Oscarshoug (3730 ft.), a slight 
eminence to the left of the path. The Homnger embrace three 
groups, the first consisting of the Styggedalstinder and Skagastels- 
tinder; the Dyrhaugstinder form the second, and the Riingstind, 
Soleitind, and Austabottind the third. From the Oscarshoug, which 
has been termed with some exaggeration the 'Wengernalp' of 
Norway, part of the dark green Sognefjord is visible near Skjolden. 

The route now descends rapidly. The first safer is that of Tur- 
tegred (2780 ft.) , to reach which we diverge to the right. This 
Salter affords Alpine fare, but is not recommended as quarters for 
the night, though it is preferable to Gjessingen, which lies a little 
below it. It is occupied in summer by a family with numerous 
children , and is far from clean. The hill of Klypenaase (p. 161), 
above Gjessingen, also affords a good view of the Horunger. 

The ascent of the Fanaraah, which is free from difficulty, may be made 
through the Steindal from Gjessingen or from the Jlelgedals-Steter (p. 155), 
in the Helgedal, 40 min. farther to the E. (8-10 hrs., there and back). 

From Turtegred or Gjessingen to Fortun , through the Ova- 
bergsdul is a walk of scarcely 2 hrs. more (ascent 3-4 hrs.). The 
path is good, but extremely steep, and unpleasant for riding. The 
river forms a series of remarkably fine falls , the chief of which 
are the Simogalfos, near Gjessingen, and the Dokkafos , at the 
gaard of that name. Below us lies a picturesque smiling land- 
scape, while behind us towers the majestic Fanaraak, presenting 
a very striking contrast. About ','2 hr. beyond Gjessingen the 
Riingsbotn opens on the left, with the Riingstind and the Riingsbra. 
Farther on is a bridge leading to the Skagastele (p. 161). We then 
pass the pleasant gaards of An-Sceter (on the left bank), Optun 
(1350 ft.) , Sevde (on the right bank), and Berge (1085 ft. ; on the 
left bank), situated amidst corn-fields and orchards. A few paces 
beyond Berge we suddenly obtain a survey of the beautiful Fortun- 
dal, lying about 900 ft. below us. The path now descends the 
Forlungalder in zigzags to the hamlet of (V2 nr — 

Fortun, see p. 160. From Fortun to (6 Kil.) Skjolden, on the 
Sognefjord, see p. 160. 

g. From Eidsbugarden through the Melkedal to Skogadals- 
b«ren, and across the Keiser to Fortun. 

2 Days. The first night of this magnificent mountain - walk is spent 
at Skogadalsbeen, which lies almost equally distant (8-10 hrs.) from Eids- 
bugarden and Fortun. The traveller is recommended to take a guide for 
the whole wav; to Skogadalsberen 4 kr., to Berge ('A. hr. from Fortun) 
8 kr. 40 0., to the Vettisfos (p. 100) 7 kr. 

The guides of Eidsbugarden, Vetti, etc., are usually not well ac- 
quainted with the Horunger, so that the traveller who intends to make 
excursions among these mountains should dismiss his guide at the Helge- 
'dals-Soeter and choose a new one at Fortun or Berge (comp. p. 1U1). 

Eidsbugarden, see p. 139. — To the mouth of the Melkedela, 
and across that river, see p. 141. 


MELKEDAL. 17. Route. 153 

Quitting the lake, the road gradually ascends the *Melkedal, 
watered by the boisterous Melkedeila. After 3 / 4 hr. the valley di- 
vides. The branch to the left ascends to the Langeskavl and the 
Uranaastind (p. 139), while that to the right is still called the 
Melkedal. Steep ascent through the latter, passing several water- 
falls. As is so frequently the case in Norway, the valley neither 
posseses a level floor nor expands into basins, but consists of a 
chaos of heights and hollows, where the rock, polished smooth by 
glacier-friction, is exposed at places, and at others is covered with 
loose boulders. Vegetation ceases, and no trace of animal life is 
visible, save the deep 'kuraak', or cattletracks, in the snow. At 
places, however, the ground is thickly strewn with the droppings 
of the Lemming (or Lemcen ; Lemus Norvegicus, one of the rodentin, 
and not unlike a rat), a hardy and intrepid little animal which 
frequently swims across Lakes Bygdin and Gjende. The reindeer 
often kills the lemming with a stroke of its hoof and eats the 
stomach for the sake of its vegetable contents. 

About 20 min. above the point where the valley divides we 
ascend a steep field of snow to the plateau of Melkehullerne, where 
there are several ponds. In 20 min. more (about l 1 / 2 hr. from 
Eirtsbugarden) we reach the **Store Melkedalsvand, in a strikingly 
grand situation, the finest point on the route, and well worthy of 
a visit for its own sake from Eidsbugarden (best time in the fore- 
noon, 4-5 hrs. there and back). Even in July miniature icebergs 
are seen floating in the lake, and during the night a crust of fresh 
ice is sometimes formed. To the left (W.) rises the Langeskavl ; 
then the Uranaastind. On this side of the latter is the Redberg. 
Next, the Melkedalsbrae , descending to the lake , and the Melke- 
dalstinder, all reflected in the dark-blue water. 

A walk of another hour over 'Ur' and patches of snow brings us 
to an ice-pond at the foot of the first Melkedalstind, whence we 
ascend a steep slope of snow in 20 min. more to the Melkedals- 
band, the watershed. To the W. a view is obtained of the Second 
Melkedalsvand , a much larger lake than the first, and generally 
covered with winter-ice down to the month of July. To the 
left rise the first and to the right the second Melkedalstind 
(7107ft.), and to the N.W. the Rauddalstind (7410 ft.). The scenery- 
continues to be very imposing. The route skirts the N. side of 
the second Melkedalsvand and (^2 hr.) crosses the stream. Very 
rough walking. A view of the Horunger is now disclosed (p. 161); 
on the right rises the Skogadalsnaase ; on the left is the arm of 
the Melkedalsbne mentioned at p. 140, with its large moraines, 
descending from the Uranaastind. The striation of the rocks by 
glacier-action (Skurings-Striber) is frequently observable. The 
boisterous torrent is again crossed by a snow-bridge, the remains 
of an avalanche (caution necessary), or the traveller may wade 
through it a little lower down , where the water is knee-deep. 

154 Route 77. SKOGADAL. Jotunheim. 

The Melkedal now ends in a precipitou s Bcelte ('girdle'), over 
which the river is precipitated in a fall of about 590 ft. in height. 
To this point also descends the W. arm of the Melkedalshrse, by 
which the descent hither from the Dranaastind may be made (see 
above). The lower region of the valley which we now enter is the 
■'Skogadal, which expands into a broad basin. Above it tower the 
majestic Horunger (p. KU), consisting of the Skagastelstinder and 
the Stygyedalstind. The appearance of the Maradalsbra descending 
from the Skagastelstind is particularly striking. — The Skogadal 
is at first a little monotoiious, but with the increasing warmth 
of the temperature the vegetation improves, and the scanty 'Rab' 
or scrub is soon exchanged for a fine growth of birches (whence 
the name, 'forest valley'). There is no denned path at first, but 
the route follows the N. side of the Skogadalselv and afterwards 
the track made by the cattle (Kuraak). A walk of 2 hrs. from 
the 'Bffilte' brings us to the saeters of — 

Skogadalsbeen in the Utladal, see p. 157. The rest of the 
tour may be accomplished without the guide, through it is advisable 
to retain his services as far as the Keiser Pass, especially if it is 
still covered with snow. The track is practicable for riding for 
2-3 hrs. beyond this point, but horses can seldom be obtained 
here. Ascending from Skogadalsb»en for 25 min., we reach a 
new bridge on the left and cross it. The path to the right leads 
to the (25 min.) Guridals-Saeter, while we follow the good sater- 
track to the W., on the N. bank of the Gjertvaselv or Slygge- 
dulself, a stream descending from the Gjertvasbrce (at the base of 
the Styggedalstind) and the Keiser. The retrospect becomes 
grander and more open as we advance : To the left is the 
Smerstabbrae and the church at the end of the Store Utladal, to 
the right of which are the Rauddalstinder; in front of us is the 
Skogadalsnaase ; more to the right the Melkedalstind, the Uran- 
aastind, and, to the extreme right, the Falketind. After 40 min. a 
small waterfall is passed. To the left extends the large (ije.rtvasbra, 
at the base of the Styggedalstind (7710 ft.), the ascent of which 
is impracticable from this side. We do not, however, arrive fairly 
opposite the glacier for another i/% nr - 

The path, which now becomes easier, next leads to the (^ hr.) 
Gjertvimd , skirts the left bank of this lake , and then ascends 
steeply, over debris and snow, to the Keiser Pass (4920 ft.), be- 
tween the Styggedalsnaase on the left and the Ilvasnaase to the 
right. To the left lies the llmmd. To the S.E., above the snow- 
flelds of the Styggedalstind rises the Koldedalstind, to the N. the 
Fanaraak, to the W. the huge Jostedalsbrae and the mountains 
bordering the Lysterfjord. The path now leads along the top of 
the hill, passing the pond of Skauta and ( 1 / l hr.) a large block 
of white quartz (to the left). The Horunger, especially the moun- 
tains round the Styggedalsbotu, now become conspicuous to the 

Jotunheim. HELGEDAL. 77. Route. 155 

left. After 20 min. we cross the Helgedalselv, which flows towards 
the W. and is sometimes scarcely fordable, and after 10 min. 
more reach a barren rocky summit, commanding a beautiful view 
of the huge amphitheatre of snow-fields and glaciers surrounding 
the *Styggedalsbotn , above which towers the Styggedalstind with 
the Styggedalsbrce. This view is almost unsurpassed in Jotunheim 
for wildness and grandeur. Soon after we pass a small waterfall 
formed by the Helgedalselv. After 25 min. we see to the left the 
outflow of the Styggedal glacier, and to the right the Steindalselr 
descending from the Fanaraak. In front of us extends the wide 
Helgedal, to which the path now rapidly descends. 

We next pass, on the left, the fine (V4 hr.J Skautefos, at the 
confluence of the Helgedalselv and the Styggedalselv. The path 
then crosses the Steindalselv , which usually offers no difficulty, 
and leads through the wide valley to the (40 min.) Helgedals-Sitler 
(rather dirty). To the E. is the Fanaraak (p. 151). to the S. the 
Styggedalsbotn, both of which may be visited from this point. 

After 20 min. we cross the 'Baelte' (belt) through which the 
stream has forced its way, and enter a new zone of the valley, 
containing the sseters of Turtegrwd and Gjessingen (p. 152) to 
the right, and Skagastfll and Riinggadn (p. 161) to the left. To 
the left we obtain an unimpeded view of the Skagastelsbotn 
(p. 161). The Oscarshoug (p. 152) is seen to the right (V2 nr -)- 
The path from Bavertun (p. 150) now unites with ours. Hence to 
Fortun, see p. 152. 

h. From the Vettisfos to Tvindehoug and Eidsbugarden. 

8-10 hrs. A grand expedition (guide advisable, 5'/2 kr.). In the re- 
verse direction a saving is effected by rowing across Lake Tyin (with 
one rower, for 1, 2, 3 persons, 80 #., 1 kr., or 1 kr. 20 <».). In this case 
a guide should be taken as far as Smaaget. 

(More fatiguing than the route described below, and not free from 
risk, is that through the Morka-Koldedal, whence the Koldedtfla forming 
the Vettisfos descends. See Map, p. 132.) 

Gaarden Vetti and the Vettisfos, see p. 100. We ascend the 
Vettisgalder towards the N.E., and in 1 /2 hr. reach a shelf com- 
manding a view of the Utladal to the N., with the Maradalsfos on 
the left. In another 1 /o hr. we reach the top of the hill, with a 
few sickly pines and numerous trees overthrown by the wind. 
To the right rises the Stelsnaastind . We then descend to the 
left, over marshy ground, to (5 min.) a bridge across the Mor- 
kaelv and then to (5 min.) a point commanding a view of the 
Vettisfos from above. Near the fall is a wood -slide, by which 
timber is precipitated into the gorge in winter, to be swept down- 
wards by the floods of spring. We next ascend the left bank of the 
Morkaelv (higher up called the Koldedeki) towards the E., and in 
20 min. reach the — ■ 

Vettismorka-Sceter (2190 ft. ), which is occupied in September 
only. To the W., at the head of the Stfllmaradal, rises the Kiings- 

156 Route 17. FLESKEDAL. Jotunheim. 

tind with tlie Riingsbra? ; farther down, the Maradalsfos ; to the 
right, the Maradalsnaase. The view of the Horunger increases in 

Those who wish to ascend the highest of the StjBlsnaastinder (6690 ft.) 
diverge here, reach the top in 2'/2-3 hrs., and descend in 2 hrs. to the 
Fleskedals-Steter, where the night is usually spent. The summit com- 
mands a superb view of the Horunger, the three Maradale, and the pro- 
found Utladal. Anfind Vetti should be engaged as guide for this ascent. 

Our route now leads through pines and birches to the ( l / 2 hr.) 
bridge over the Fleskedalselv , and then ascends rapidly to the 
(V2 hr.) top of the 'Nses', projecting from the Stelsnaastind. Magni- 
ficent view of the Skagastelstinder, rising above the Midtmaradal. 
We then descend slightly to the (V4 hr.) four — 

Fleskedal Sseters , one of which, belonging to Anfind Vetti, 
affords clean quarters. These sseters (here called Seel) accommodate 
in summer about 40 cows and 200 goats , which descend to the 
Vettismorka-Sseter in the middle of September and to the valley 
at the end of the same month. — Route to Skogadalsbeen , see 

Beyond the Fleskedals-Saeter the route follows the Fleskedals- 
eln , first on the left (S.), then on the right (N.) bank. Striking 
retrospective view of the Horunger, and particularly of the Riings- 
brae. To the N. we first observe the Friken (4656 ft. ), the top of 
which may be reached on horseback from the sseter (fine view of 
the Horunger), and afterwards the precipices of the 'Naes' which 
separates the Fleskedal from the Urudul. (The latter, one of the 
most sequestered valleys in Jotunheim, is almost unknown ; at the 
E. end of it rises the Uranaastind, p. 140; and at the W. end 
it debouches on the Utladal, about U) hr. to the S. of Skogadals- 
beren. ) Our route through the Fleskedal gradually ascends to the 
defile of Smaaget, which it reaches in I 1 ._> hrs. after leaving the 
saeter. The scenery is somewhat monotonous. At first the Stels- 
naastinder, with a large glacier, rise to the right; afterwards we 
have the Koldedalstind on the right and the Fleskedalstind on the 
left. The path then descends steeply to the Upper Koldedalsvand 
or Uradalsmulen, and leads to the S., following the Koldedela, to 
the Lower Koldedalsvand. We cross the Uradalselv at the upper end 
of this lake, and then walk along the E. bank of the lake and the 
stream to the upper end of Lake Tyin, crossing the marshy ground by 
means of stepping-stones. We then proceed either to the S. to 
Tvindehoug, or across the Eid to Eidsbugarden (p. 139). 

i. From the Vettisfos to Rajshjem through the Utladal, the 

Gravdal, and the Leirdal. 

2'/2 Days : — 1st. From (,'ctarden Vetti to Skogadalsbeen, 6-7 hrs. ; or 
as far as the Quridals-Scetre 3 /i hr. farther (or to Muran, l'/ z hr. from 
Skogadalsbfen, at which last place enquiry should be made whether the 
Muran sseter is tenanted). Those who arrive at SkogadalsbfJen early 
enough, and intend passing the night there, may ascend the Skugadalsnaasi 

Jotunneim. UTLADAL. 17. Route. 157 

in (he evening. — 2nd. From Skugadalsbtfen tu the Ylterdals Sailre, 10- 
11 hrs. ; to shorten which the previous night, should be spent if possible 
at Muran; if necessary, the night, may be spent in the refuge-hut on the 
Leirvand. — 3rd. To Rejshjem, 4-5 hrs. 

Oaarden Vetti and the Vettisfos, see p. 100 ; thence to the Fleske- 
dals-Smters, 3-3i/ 2 hrs.. pp. 155, 156. — The present route ascends 
the Friken (p. 154), which is covered with vegetation, following the 
direction of the ' Varder', and after 3 / 4 hr. descends again for some 
distance. It then skirts the slope of the mountains, passing through 
underwood or over stones and snow high above the Utladal, the 
bottom of which is seldom visible. As we proceed we enjoy an 
unimpeded *View of the needle-like pinnacles of the Horunger, 
soaring above the white snow-fields on their flanks : to the left, 
the SkagastMstinder (7900 ft.) rising above the Midtmaradal, then 
the StyggedalUind, the E. buttress of the group, descending into 
the Treamaradal, with the extensive Maradalsbrce (p. 154). To the 
S. , beyond the end of the Utladal, we see the Blejan and the 
Fresviksbrae (p. 106); to the S.E., the Stelsnaastind ; to the E. the 
sharp pyramid of the Uranaastind ; to the N. the summits inclos- 
ing the Skogadal and Utladal, and in the distance a range of snow- 
clad mountains, probably those between the valley of the Otta and 
that of the Baevra in the Gudbrandsdal. 

In 3 /4hr. we see below us, to the left, the Vormelid Sceter 
(p. 158), which cannot be reached from this side. In front of us lie 
Skogadalsbflen and the Guridals-Saeters (see below). The path then 
descends rapidly through fatiguing underwood ( Vir) and in 3 / i hr. 
reaches a small birch-wood. In 10 min. more the TJradal (p. 156) 
opens to the right, with an immense tract of 'Ur', fallen from the 
precipitous slopes on the S. We then cross the Uradalselv by a 
small bridge (Klop). The mountain peaks are now concealed from 
view by the numerous precipitous 'noses' running out from the 
main ridges. We then follow a cattle-track (Kuraak) leading 
through a sparse birch-wood at the foot of the Urabjerg, cross the 
Skogadalselv by a bridge, and in 1/2 hr. reach the saeters of — 

Skogadalsbeen (2914 ft.), at the entrance to the Skogadal. 
(Tolerable food at the lower saeter, sometimes including SSpege- 
kj0d' ; one broad bed with a heavy fur coverlet.) These saeters 
are among the few in the Utladal which are always inhabited in 
summer (usually from 24th June till the beginning of September). 
The Utladal saeters are built of stone and consist of an ante-room, 
an inner room, and a dairy. The smoke escapes by the 'Ljor' or 
hole in the roof. The cattle come from the Lysterfjord (a branch 
of the Sognefjord, p. 101), and have therefore to be driven across 
the snow-clad Keiser Pass (p. 154). 

From Skogadalsbtfen we may scale the Skogadalsnaase (6080 ft.) with- 
out a guide (3-4 hrs. there and back) by ascending the valley to the 
O/2 hr.) Lusahougene (see below) and then climbing to the right. The 
direct ascent from the speters is very steep. Grand mountain-view. To 
the W. the Horunger (but only the Maradalstinder, Austabottinder, and 

158 Route 17. MUIiAN S^TER. Jutunheirn. 

Styggedalstinder) and the Fanaraak; to the N. the Ilestbriepigge and 
SnWstabstindcr; more to the E. the Tvferbottenhorne, Ileilstuguh)?, Kirke, 
Uladalstinder, Rauddalstinder, and Sletmarkhj? ; then the Melkedalstinder, 
and to the S. the Uranaasi and St0lsnaastinder. 

The Ascent of the Styggedalstind, the easternmost peak of the 
Horunger, should only be undertaken by experienced mountaineers (8-10 
hrs., there and back). The route crosses the Utla-bridge (2790 ft.), turns 
to the S., and crosses the Gjertvaselv , which descends from the Reiser 
(p. 154), on the S. bank of which is the deserted Gjerlvasbeen sseter 
(2950 ft.). The ascent of the Gjerlvasnaasi now begins. In I-IV2 hr. we 
reach the first plateau (4267 ft.), and in 3 hrs. more the Gjerlvaslop 
(4687 ft.). About 490 ft. higher the base of the peak itself is reached, 
whence we ascend a slope of snow, then over rock with patches of snow, 
and lastly over the broad crest to the summit of the 'Styggedalstind 
(7710 ft.)." On the W. side is a sheer precipice about 1300 ft. in height. 
If stones are thrown down into the abyss, their reverberation takes 
several seconds to reach the ear. At a giddy depth below are the Gjert- 
vasbrfe on the N. and the Maradalsbrse on the S. 

The Sfeter-path to the S. of Gjertvasbeien, mentioned above, crosses 
the Klavbaklier , following the Utla, and leads up and down hill, past 
the Skogadalsfos (on the left) and the Uradalsfos , to the chalets of Vor- 
mclid , or Utladalshullet (a pleasant walk of IV2 hr.). From this most 
sequestered spot the .Skagastprlstind was ascended for the first time (p. 100). 

From Skogadalsb#en across the Reiser to Fortun, (8-10 hrs.), see pp. 154, 
155; through the Melkedal to Eidsbugarden (8-10 hrs.), see pp. 151, 153. 

For the continuation of the journey through the Utladal a 
horse may generally be obtained at Skogadalsbaen to carry the 
traveller to a point beyond Muran (1 kr., but no saddles). We 
pass a bridge, crossed by the path leading to the Keiser (p. 154) 
and to the three Ouridals-Scetre, where the night may be spent. 
Our route follows the E. bank of the Utla, passes the debris of 
the Lusahougene, and (3/ 4 hr.) reaches the confluence of the Store 
and Vetle Utla. The latter descends from the Vetle ('little') Utla- 
did, and is precipitated in several falls over the 'Bselte' or rocky 
barrier of Tunghoug. To the right rises the Hillerhei (5250 ft.), 
and to the left the Kongsdalsnaase. The Store Utla, along which 
the steep path ascends, has forced its passage through the 'Baelte 
and dashes through its channel far below. Fine retrospective 
view of the Styggedalstind with the extensive Gjertvasbr*. 

Through the Vetle Utladal a little frequented path leads between 
the Fanaraak group on the left and the Smgrstabbrw on the right to the 
important mountain-route across the Sognefjeld between the Bfevertun- 
Srcter and Fortun (see pp. 148-151). 

We next reach a higher region of the Utladal and (about l'/2 
hr. from Skogadalsbeen) the Muran Saeter (3327 ft.), on the op • 
posite (right) bank of the river. (Tolerable accommodation. Those 
who purpose passing the night here should enquire at Skogadals- 
bwen whether he saater is inhabited.) Grand view of the Styggedal- 
stind to theW., the Kirke to theN., and the Rauddalstind to thoE. 
of this point. Those who require a horse here should attract the at- 
tention of the people at the saeter by shouting, unless they prefer 
wading through the icy stream, which, however, at an early hour 
is usually shallow. (The route through the Bauddal to the Gjende- 
bod follows the left bank of the Utla , see p. 142.) 

Jotunheim. LEIRVAND. 17. Route. 159 

Having crossed the stream at Muran, we now follow its right 
bank, at first passing the base of the Hillerhai. <>n the S. side 
we observe the Skoyadalmaase , the second Melkedalstind , and 
then a large waterfall descending from the Rauddalsmund, ad- 
joining which rise the Rauddalstinder. The valley is broad, and 
partly overgrown with scrub. Nearly opposite the Rauddal is the 
stone hut of Star Hallercn, used by reindeer-stalkers. An im- 
pressive view of the Horunger, which close the Store Utladal to 
the S.W., accompanies us as wc ascend. The valley now takes 
the name of Gravdal. Vegetation gradually ceases. We now 
have to wade through the Sandelv , descending on the left from 
the Skjortningsbne , an offshoot of the immense Smerstabbrte. 
The crossing is best effected near the Utla. Above the glacier 
towers the curiously shaped * Smerstabstind (7515 ft.; Stab, 
'block' ; the same word as in Siabbur). 

As the path ascends the flora assumes a more and more Alpine 
character (Bartsia alpina, Pedicularis lapponica, Veronica alpina, 
Saxifraga caispitosa, Viscaria alpina, Gentiana nivalis, Pulsatilla 
vernalis, Ranunculus glacialis, the last of which is known as the 
Rensblommc). Having reached a height of 4925 ft., we at length 
come to the stone Refuge Hut on the Leirvand (4903 ft.), 5-6 hrs. 
from Skogadalsbtfen. The hut contains a table, two benches, some 
firewood, and a few cooking utensTls. Four routes converge here : 
that by which we have ascended through the Gravdal, another from 
the Gjendebod and the Heiyoagel (p. 145), a third from Rvjshjem 
through the Visdal, and the fourth from Rejshjem through theLeirditl . 

The route through the Visdal goes round the N. side of the Leir- 
vand and ascends through the Kirkeglup , between the quaint-looking 
Kirke (7073 ft. ; difficult to ascend) on the right and the TvairboUeii/iorne 
(7220 ft.) on the left, to the Kirkenkjccme, a series of tarns. Passing these 
it then descends into the Upper Visdal. On the right tower the vast 
Uladalstinder with their extensive glaciers. The route, which cannot 
he mistaken, afterwards unites with that coming over the Uladalsvand 
from Lake Gjende, from the S. (see p. 145). 

In descending the Leirdal , we skirt the imposing Ymesfjeld 
for a considerable distance, but the curious-looking Skarstind 
(6576 ft.) is the only one of its peaks visible. To the left are the 
grand glacier tongues of the Smerstabbra and several of the Smer- 
stabstinder. Lastly we obtain a view of the Loftet (7317 ft.), 
which is most conveniently ascended from the Bceverkjam- 
Sater on the Leiraas. After a walk of 4 hrs. from the Leirvand 
we reach the — 

Ytterdals-Seetre (2953 ft.; good quarters), prettily situated 
near the lofty fall of the Duma. A good bridge crosses the Lcira 
from this point to the Leiraas, which is traversed by the route 
from Rajshjem to the Sognefjeld (see p. 150). From the saeters to 
Rejshjem, 4-5 hrs. more (see p. 150). 

160 Route 17. FORTUN. Jotunkeim. 

k. From Skjolden on the Sognefjord to Fortun and the Horunger. 

From Skjolden tip Fortun. 6 Kil. (3 3 /4 Engl. 31.), carriage-road. From 
Fortun to the Oscarshoug takes 6 hrs. (there and tack), but if the Skaga- 
stele and the Dyrhaugstind are included a night should be spent at the 
Riingssfeter. If, however , the traveller is very much pushed for time it 
is possible, by making a very early start, to return to Fortun the same 

Skjolden[y>. 103 ; fast station for boats, slow for horses), a steam- 
boat-station at the head of the Lysterfjord, lies near the mouth of 
the pretty *Fortundal (see below). The birches and alders here, 
as is so often the case in Norway, are sadly mutilated, being peri- 
odically stripped of their foliage which is used, alternately with 
hay , as fodder for the sheep and goats. The cows also eat it 
readily, but their milk is apt to be unpleasantly flavoured by it. 
The barley - fields are remarkably luxuriant. The potato - plant 
often attains a height of 2 ft. or more. A ferry-boat (rowed by the 
quaint old 'Faergeinand' Ole Halvorsen Eide) conveys us across the 
rapid Fortunelv, on the left bank of which, lies the large Gaard 
Eide. The road then crosses the Eid, an old moraine, and reaches 
the milk-coloured Eidsvand, on the N. side of which rises the 
huge rocky wall of the Jersingnaase (3088 ft.). To the N.E. we 
have a view of the Fanaraak (p. 151). We now skirt the left bank 
of the lake and then ascend the left bank of the Fortunelv, passing 
the Lingsfos on the right. Farther on the road is overhung by 
the Smtdnberg, beyond which the Kvcefos is seen on the right. To 
the right, at a dizzy height above us, we observe Gaard Fuglesteg 
('bird path'; 2490 ft.), past which a fatiguing path leads to Farnas 
at the E. end of the Aardalsvand in the Aardal (see p. 99). 

6 Kil. Fortun (*Inn at the Landhandler's , moderate; horse 
hence across the fjeld, 16 kr., see p. 149), consisting of a group 
of handsome gaards, with a church. Pleasant walk from the inn 
at Fortun up the valley to the *Skagagjel, a gorge on the right, 
from which the Ovalbergselv is precipitated into the Fortundal 
(','4 hr.). Crossing both bridges, we reach with a little trouble 
an eminence to the right immediately above the fall , in which a 
line rainbow is formed by the morning sun. We may then proceed 
in 5 min. more to a bridge over the Fortundalselv and (without 
crossing the bridge) to a small rocky *Hill by the Havshelfos 
(whence a ladder descends to the salmon-flshing apparatus), and 
thus obtain a view of the beautiful valley in both directions, and 
of the Lingsfos to the S. 

The *Fortundal, a deep and narrow valley, somewhat resembling that 
of Lauterbrunnen, but with a well-cultivated floor and wooded slopes, 
extends from the Lysterfjord for about 18 Engl. M. to the N., as far as the 
glacier-mountains near the Tvcerdalskirke and the TundradaUkirke (6590 ft.). 
On the left side it is enclosed by the Jersegnaase, the Tufsen, the Svaj- 
daltbrce, and the Stenegbrce, and on the right by the Delefjeld, the Liabrw 
(6100 ft.), and the Midtdalsle/ifti. The last sseter , that of Nerstedal, lies 
about 12 Kngl. 31. above Fortun. Excursions may be made from it to the 
head of the valley, to the Ilvand, a lake situated 4300 ft. above the sea- 
level, and to the Tundredalskirke, 

Jotunheim. HORUNGER. 17. Route. 161 

Fortun (where Ole SolfesUen is a good guide) is the best start- 
ing-point for a visit to the Horunger. The road (see p. 152) 
ascends to Oaarden Berge, at the entrance to the Helgedal, beyond 
which there is a bridle-path, leading in 2y 2 -3hrs. to the saeters of 
Ojessingen and Turtegred (2790 ft.; p. 152). Above Gjessingen is the 
*Klypenaase, an admirable point of view, a visit to which obviates 
the necessity of ascending to the Oscarshoug (comp. p. 152). Those 
who wish to penetrate farther into the Horunger cross the bridge over 
the Helgedalselv mentioned at p. 152, i/ 2 hr. below Gjessingen, 
and ascend to the Riinggadn-Sseters or the Skagastele. To reach 
the former we ascend directly to the right in 20 min., or follow 
the stream for 6 min. and then climb to the right. The lowest of 
the five Riinggadn-Sceters is the most comfortable. The route to 
the Skagastele turns to the left 6 min. beyond the bridge, crosses 
the Riingselv by another bridge, and in 40 min. reaches the two 
saeters, of which the upper one is to be preferred. The scenery 
here is very striking. The view embraces part of the immense 
*Horunger, one of the wildest mountain-groups in Jotunheim, 
with their precipitous slopes, picturesque pinnacles, and numerous 
glaciers, to which the green valleys below present a pleasing con- 
trast. The sharpness of the peaks and ridges is caused by the 
rapid disintegration of the 'gabbro' rock of which the mountains 
are formed. The name Horunger is said to be an ancient Aryan 
word, probably signifying 'large mountains' (akin to the Greek 
oqog, Slavonic gor, and the horje in the Voss district). 

On the side next the Riinggadn opens the *Riingsbotn, a huge 
basin containing a large glacier, behind which towers the lofty 
Riingstind (7000 ft.). On the E. the 'botn' is bounded by the 
Dyrhaugsfjeld and on the W. by the Levnaase or Nonhougen, which 
is prolonged towards the S. by the Soleitinder and the Austabot- 
tinder. The best survey of the Riingsbotn is obtained by ascending 
the Riingselv for 8/4- 1 hr. beyond Riinggadn. A walk of lV2 nr - 
more brings us to the glacier, which we may cross, skirting the 
Riingstind, to its S. side, and then descend into the Stelsmaradnl 
(p. 100). 

The Skagasttflsbotn lies between the Dyrhaugsfjeld on the W. 
and the Kolnaase on the E. Its floor is covered by the Skagastvlsbrce, 
with a small ice-lake, which may be crossed to the Midtmaradal 
(p. 101). To the S.E. tower the Skagastelstinder, among them the 
Store Skagastelstind (7875 ft.), the ascent of which cannot be 
accomplished from this side. This 'botn' is reached more easily 
from the Skagastflle than from Riinggadn. 

The nearest Dyrhaugstind may be ascended either from the 

Skagastele or from the Riinggadn in about 3!/2 hrs. In the first 

case we ascend to the S. to the Dyrhaug, and continue straight on. 

. From the Riinggadn we descend to the Riingselv, cross the bridge, 

and then ascend the E. bank of the stream to the (1 hr.) hill above 

Baedeker's Novwav and Sweden. 3rd Edit. H 

162 Route. 77. DYRHATJGSTIND. 

the gorge, whence we obtain a good view of the Riingsbrse. We 
then climb to the left to the top of the Dyrhaug, and follow the 
crest, partly over debris, to the (2y.> hrs.) summit of the first 
*Dyrhaugstind (6537 ft.). The view hence is remarkably fine. 
Towards the E. we survey the Skagastelstinder, to the right of which 
are the wild Maradalstinder ; to the W. the Soleitinder, Austabot- 
tinder, and Riingstinder ; and to the S. the other Dyrhaug stinder, ris- 
ing in an amphitheatre to the last and highest (6965 ft.), which 
is still unnamed. To the left, lower down, lies the Skagastelsbrce, 
with a small ice-lake (4267 ft.), and to the right is the Riingsbrct. 
Between the Skagastelstinder and the Dyrhaugstinder peep the 
snow-clad mountains on Lakes Bygdin and Tyin. To the N. rise 
the Fanaraak and the Smerstab stinder, and towards the W. stretches 
the enormous Jostedalsbra as far as the Lodalskaupe (p. 106). The 
traveller is particularly cautioned against venturing too far along 
the sharp arete with its loose crumbling stones. 

The Styggedalsbotn, the third of these characteristic basins 
of the Horunger, bounded on the W. by the Kolnaase, on the E. 
by the Simlenaase, and on the S. by the Styggedalstind, is most 
easily visited from the Helgedals-Sater (p. 155), situated in the 
Helgedal about 1 hr. above the bridge mentioned at pp. 152, 161.' 
A guide should be brought from Fortun. * 

Through the Helgedal and over the Reiser to the Skogadal, see- 
pp. 155, 154. 

From Gjessingen to Bcevertun and Rejshjem, see pp. 152-150. 

18. From the Gudbrandsdal to Mseraak on the 

From Bredvangen to Lindsheim, 83 Kil. (52 Engl. M.), road with fast 
stations; from Lindsheim to Grjotlid, 35 Kil. (22 M.), and on to the 
Breidctlsvand, road with slow stations. From this point we either row 
to the other end of the lake, and walk or ride thence to Mjeraak (comp. 
p. 164), or proceed the whole way by the bridle-path (11-13 hrs.). 

A peculiarity of all the routes from the Gudbrandsdal to the western 
fjords is that they ascend gradually to a lofty and comparatively level 
mountainous tract, after traversing which for some hours they descend 
abruptly several thousand feet to the fjords. This final descent, partly 
over snow, coming at the end of a long and rough walk or ride, is far 
more fatiguing than the ascent at the beginning of the expedition. The 
marked contrast between the wild scenery of these mountains, with their 
sharp and exhilarating air, and the rich vegetation of the smiling fjords, 
where the weather is often oppressively hot, may be regarded as one of 
the chief curiosities of Norway, especially as these entirely different 
regions are often within two or three hours' walk of each other. The 
contrast would, indeed, be hardly more striking were the Lake of Como 
transferred to the heart of the wildest snow and glacier scenery of Switz- 
erland. The route via Rejshjem (p. 147) to Fortun on the Sognefjord 
(comp. RR. 16 c, 17 f) is finer than the route to Mseraak here described. 

Route to Andvord and the Church of Lorn, see p. 130. By the 
Church of Lorn the Rejshjem road turns to the left, while our route 
leads to the W., skirting the S. bank of the Ottuvnnd. The high 

LINDSHEIM. 18. Route. 163 

mountain on the left is the Lomsegg (p. 149), and that to the 
right (N.) the Loms Honing (5650 ft.). The country here is 
tolerably well peopled. On the slopes of the valley lie a number 
of farm-houses, the lands of which are separated from each other 
by long stone walls, and the rye and barley-fields are frequently 
enlivened with reapers, gleaners, and persons engaged in irrigating 
the soil with the help of large shovels (Skyldrek). Part of the road 
is bordered with alders, a tree rarely seen in Norway. 

14 Kil. Aanstad, a good station, to the B. of the church of 
Skenker. Farther on, the road traverses thick deposits of sand, 
the remains of old glacier-moraines. On the right we pass the 
confluence of the Aurelv, descending from the Aursje, with the 
bluish-green Ottaelv, which the road soon crosses. On the left 
we obtain a view into the Lunderdal, with its immense moraines ; 
to the left rise the glacier-clad Hestbrapiggene (p. 149), and in 
the background the Holatinder ; on the right the valley is bounded 
by the Orjotaafjeld, the Tvcerfjeld, and the Svaahei, of which the 
two first are upwards of 6250 ft. in height. 

A little farther on, we pass the ruins of a bridge. From the 
Svaah0 (6110 ft.*) descend several waterfalls from a height of nearly 
•3000 ft., besides a number of avalanche-tracks. The mountains 
are somewhat monotonous, but of imposing dimensions. The Otta 
- is crossed by a bridge in the old Norwegian style. Up the valley we 
obtain a fine view of the snow-clad Qlittertind (p. 146). The river 
expands into the form of a lake, on which there are several boats. 

11 Kil. Lindsheim , a good station. Lars, the landlord, a 
well-informed man, sometimes acts as a guide. Tastefully painted 
clock and cupboard. QSkrivarbred'' and 'Bagers' are two kinds of 
cake esteemed by the natives.) 

A good road leads from Lindsheim through the Broledal, past the Lia- 
vand, to Faaberg in the Jostedal. This route is described by Mr. Milford in 
his 'Norway' as one of surpassing grandeur, the view of the Jostedal and 
of the huge towering Lodalskaupe being almost unparalleled. If the trav- 
eller is prepared for a very fatiguing expedition of 15 hrs. (on the second 
day), he drives from Lindsheim to (16 Kil.) Mork in the Brotedal, walks 
or rides by the Dyringssceler and past the picturesque Liavand to the 
Sotasmler (2470 ft.), and thence to the Rekjeskaalvand (3070 ft.), where 
the night may be spent at the (20-25 Kil. from Mork) Musubyttsceler. Next 
day the Svartbytdal is ascended to the Hanspikje (4519 ft.), whence the 
route descends steeply through the Sprengdal to the Jostedal. In the 
latter valley tolerable quarters may be obtained at the Faaberg - Slel 
(p. 106), 30-35 Kil. from Musubyttsseter. 

From Mork a road leads to Opstryn, ascending the JVordfjordbrce to the 
Kamphamrene (4065 ft.), from which there is a tremendous descent of extra- 
ordinary abruptness into the Sundal (967 ft.); finally through the Hjelledal 
to Hjelle on the Strynsvand (see p. 190). 

From Lindsheim to Grjotlid the traveller is conveyed in a 
stolkjserre, which is required by the authorities to have broad 
wheels. As long as the road remains in the valley of the Otta, it 
is of the ordinary width, but afterwards becomes so narrow that 
two vehioles can scarcely pass each other. It was constructed to 


164 Route 18. AAMOT. 

facilitate the intercourse between the denizens of the upper Gud- 
brandsdal and those on the western fjords. For the greater part of 
the way it leads through a vast wooded and stony wilderness, but 
is useful to the proprietors of the saeters on the neighbouring hills, 
whose traffic it facilitates, and even to the inhabitants of the Upper 
Gudbrandsdal, who find it cheaper to bring some of the necessaries 
of life over the mountains on horseback from the western fjords 
than from Lillehammer in carts. 

After leaving Lindsheim the road passes the Nordbjergskirke, 
erected in 1864. Above the thin pine -woods we observe the 
Gjedingsbcek, which descends from the Heiberg. — The Dennfos 
Bridge which crosses the Ottaelv commands a view of three valleys, 
the Tundradal to the >S., the Brotedal to the W. (see above), and the 
BUlingsdal to the N., at the junction of which lies Aamot ('meeting 
of the streams'). 

Beyond this point the road begins to ascend considerably, and 
traverses a vast tract of rocky debris (Vr). On the left flows the 
Ottaelv, which descends from the Hagerbottenvand and forms the 
0ibergsfos. Looking back, we obtain a view of lofty mountains 
with glaciers, including the Tvarfjeld a7id Bjernskred. 

The Hegerbottenvand with its wooded islands occupies a 
higher region of the valley. In the background is the Skridulaupbrce, 
with the Glitterhe and the Framrusthovd, and to the right, on the 
hill , lie the Hegerbotten-Satre (3040 ft.). Passing a saw-mill 
(Saybrug), we next reach the Fredriksvand and Polvand (1930 ft.). 
The road now ascends continuously through wild forest, where 
thousands of fallen trees and branches broken off by the wind 
( Vindfald) are left to decay. This scenery will often recall the 
interesting pictures of Hr. Cappelen, the Norwegian artist. The 
road skirts for nearly y 2 ar - an unbroken series of cataracts formed 
by the Otta, forming the Polfos. At rare intervals the traveller 
meets with 'Sseterfolk' bringing their whey in 'Myseflasker' down 
from the mountains. 

Farther on we pass a waterfall on the right, and then by a 
wooden bridge cross the Thordalsfos, an imposing waterfall descend- 
ing from the Thordal on the N., and fed by the glaciers and 
snow at the head of that valley. On hills formed by -deposits of 
debris, to the right, lie the sseters of Billingen, to the S. of which, 
on the opposite side of the Otta, are the Aasensatre. A number of 
the pines in this neighbourhood are curiously shaped. The country 
looks parched and monotonous, as a peculiarity of the climate here 
is that rain is very rare in summer (comp. p. 131). The large 
glacier-streams Otta and Thordalselv flow through a dry and barren 
wilderness. To the right, farther on, we observe the Nysatre, 
and we next pass the Vulurnnd(2Q8b ft.), a pretty mountain-lake, 
into which the Vuludalselv falls. The road is now comparatively 
level. On both side sand in the distance rise snow-clad mountains. 

to Mipnmic. GRJOTLID. IS. Route. 165 

On the left is tlie Skridulaupbra , with its ice -basin ('Botri). 
We then pass the Heimdalsvand and Grjotlidsmind , and after a 
drive of 35 Kil. from Lindsheim reach — 

Grjotlid ('stony slope'), a Fjeldstue or small mountain-inn 
belonging to the government, and containing two double beds. Ex- 
cellent trout (Fjelderreter) are generally to be had, but otherwise 
the fare is simple. The tenant Christ may be taken as guide to 
Mseraak (4 kr. ; horse and guide 8 kr., with fee of 1 1/2-2 kr.). 
Reindeer and bears abound in the neighbourhood. The latter arc 
epicures in their way, carrying off pigs when they can capture 
them, but despising goats' flesh. 

From Ghjotlid to Opstkyn (8-10 hrs.). This route from the Gud- 
brandsdal to the Nordfjord is less interesting than that to Mseraak. It turns 
at once to the S.W. to the Ileilstuguvand, passes the base of the Skridu- 
lanpbrce which lies to the S. , and leads through the Valsenddal and 
across the boundary of Bergens Stift to Hjelle in the Hjelledal. Froir 
Hjellc across the Strynsvand to Toning and Visnces , on the Nordfjord 
see p. 190. 

The mountain-route from Grjotlid to Mreraak (10-12 hrs.) is 
very fatiguing and somewhat deficient in variety of scenery. Driv- 
ing is practicable as far as the Breidalsvand. Beyond Grjotlid 
trees disappear entirely from the landscape. The flora is of an 
Alpine character. After 1 hr. a large valley diverges to the N.W., 
through which a little - frequented path leads to the Kalurdal. 
We cross the Kjcerringselv , and sooii reach the Breidalsvand 
(2885 ft.), a lake about 6 Engl. M. long, the clear waters of 
which reflect the Vatsendegg. On the N. side rises the Breidals- 
eyg, with its snow-fields and rocky wildernesses (Ur), which the 
path traverses. Pedestrians must also wade through the Hamsaelv. 
It is therefore better to traverse the lake by boat, riders sending 
on their horses to the W. end. The path next runs at a consider- 
able height above the Djupvande or chain of lakes extending into 
the higher mountains, each of which is a little higher than the one 
below. The Vpleidsegg, which becomes grander as we advance, rises 
in the form of a huge wall of rock to the S.W., with a flat summit, 
presenting the appearance of having been sharply cut off, and is 
covered with a snowy mantle (Litken), offshoots from which descend 
to the green lake. Avalanches fall into the water at very frequent 
intervals. At the W. end of the lake is a small Fjeldstue, erected 
by government, the woman ( presiding over which sup- 
plies coffee (V2-I kr. ; n °t a suitable place for spending the night, 
and far from clean). The Budeie also has charge of 100 sheep and 
50 goats. Maeraak is reached from this hut in 4-6 hrs. more. 

We now ascend in 20 min. to Stavbrcekkene (Stav, 'stratum', 
'layer'; Brek, 'cliff'), with the highest Djupvand, from which the 
T)jupvandsfos descends. To the W. tower huge walls of rock, beyond 
which is the ice-fall of the Nordf jordbrcs, a glacier virtually un- 
known, with the Bindalshom forming its centre. There is now no 
distinct path, but our route leads round the E. side of the lake for 

166 Route 19. SK.LERGEHAVN. 

1 Tir., crossing numerous torrents and waterfalls. At the N. end of 
the lake we ascend for about 20 min. more, over rocks worn smooth 
and almost polished by glacier-friction, and at length reach the 
culminating point of the pass (about 3500 ft. above the sea-level), 
the watershed between the Gudbrandsdal and the western fjords, 
where we obtain a *Vibw of the finely shaped mountains around the 
Geiranger Fjord, which itself becomes visible a little farther on. 

The direction of the path is now indicated by small and hardly 
noticeable heaps of stones (Varder); the descent is extremely 
steep, and this is perhaps the most unpleasant part of the whole 
route. We soon reach the Oplandske Dcd, the highest basin of the 
valley, once filled by a lake, and bounded on the E. by the 
Holencebba , rising above it like a wall. In this basin lies a large 
and thriving gaard (1365 ft.), beyond which the route, now a 
kind of cart-track, again descends very steeply. Fine waterfalls 
arc seen in every direction, and several other gaards are passed. 
Below us lies the fjord with the small church 200 ft. above it; on 
the height opposite, to the N., lies the gaard of Vesteraas. ■ — ■ At 
length, in 3-4 hrs. from the summit of the pass, we reach Mceraak, 
see p. 186. 

19. From Bergen to Throndhjem by Steamer. 

80 Nautical Miles (320 Engl. M.J. Steamboat 5-6 times weekly in 
15-60 hrs., usually starting late in the evening (fares 32 or 25 kr.). A 
berth should be secured at once (comp. p. xix). The large steamers call 
only at Aalcsund (18 hrs. from Bergen), Molde (4-4'/2 hrs. more), and 
ChristUmssund (12 hrs. more). The fare from Bergen to Throndhjem, 1st 
el., is 32 kr. ; price of provisions &c. on board, see p. xix. 

The voyage is on the whole of little interest. There are, however, 
a few line points , such as the mountain called Horntlen (or Smalsar- 
liov/i) , the promontory of Stadt, the charming little town of Molde with 
the view of the Romsdals-Fjord, and the promontory of Stemshesten. The 
view of Throndhjem from the sea is also picturesque, and in fine weather 
the snow -clad mountains of the interior are visible in the distance, 
especially between the Sognefjord and Molde. These views, however, do 
not counterbalance the monotony of the rest of the voyage, and the so- 
called 'inland-route' to Molde (R. 21) is far preferable to the direct 
steamboat-voyage. For it must not be forgotten that the finest scenery 
is, as we have repeatedly observed, generally to be found in the inner 
recesses of the fjords, and not at their mouths. The distances in the 
following description are given in sea-miles and calculated from Bergen. 
. Bergen, see p. 68. The steamer threads its way through the 
Skjiergaard, or belt of islands, lying off the district of Nord-Hor- 
limd, which, together with Seind-Horland, to the S. of Bergen, 
constituted the ancient Herdafylke. The first important station is 
(11 S.M.) Skjargehavn, a little to theS. of the Sognefjord (R. 16). 
We next pass the entrance to that fjord, which shows no sign here 
of the magnificent scenery of its inner ramifications. The shapeless 
mountains have all been worn clown by glacier-action , and most 
of them are entirely barren. 

To the N. of the Sognefjord the steamer skirts first the districts 

FLOR0EN. 19. Route. 167 

of Sendfjord and Nordfjord (the latter extending to the promon- 
tory of Stadt, p. 169), which together formed the ancient Firda- 
fylke. We cross the Aafjord, and then the Dais fjord , at the en- 
trance to which is the Prcesta station. Some of the vessels do not 
touch at Praeste, but steer towards the W. to Vara , from which a 
visit may be paid to the interesting island of A Iden (1550 ft. in 
height), which is known as the 'IVorsfce HesV '. The proprietor of 
the island, who lives on the W. side , possesses upwards of 1000 
sheep. He and his two 'Husmand', who live on the E. side, spend 
the whole year in the island. On leaving Praeste the steamer tra- 
verses the Granesund (with the Atlee on the left) and the Stany- 
fjord, passes Stavnas, the westernmost promontory of Norway, and 
reaches the Stavfjord, which forms the entrance to the Ferdefjord. 
The steamer that touches at Vara skirts the E. side of the island 
of Alden and steers thence to the Stavfjord. 

The Dalsfjokd and F«tbdefjokd are traversed once weekly by a 
steamer from Bergen, taking 3 days to the voyage there and back. 

The Dalsfjord (in 'Sefndfjord', not to be confounded with the arm nf 
the Voldenfjord, p. 170) runs inland for a distance of 50Kil. (31 Engl. M.). 
At the entrance rises the massive Atlee (upwards of 2000 ft. in height). The 
steamer plying on this fjord passes Stramsnms and Dale ("Inn), which lies 
on the S. side, about halfway up the fjord. Above Dale rise the Dalshesl 
(2365 ft.) and the dome-shaped Kringlen (2468 ft.). Farther on are the Lake- 
lands/test, behind which rises the flat and generally snow-clad Blejan 
('mantle'; 4400 ft.),' and the imposing Kvamshest (4120 ft.; p. 180). the 
last steamboat-station on the fjord is Sveen (good quarters), near the E. 
end , from which a hilly road leads to (11 Kil.) Langeland and (11 Kil.) 
Ferde (p. 181). About 1 kil. beyond Sveen is Osen, whence a road leads 
to Scmde (p. 180). 

The Ftfrdefjord, 60 Kil. (37 M.) in length, though less striking than 
the Dalsfjord, also abounds in bold mountain-scenery. The most import- 
ant place is Nausldal on the N. bank. At the end of the fjord rises 
the majestic Kvamshest, at the foot of which lies the skyds-station Ferde, 
whence we may drive to Mo and Nedre Vasenden on the J0lstervand 
(p. 181). 

20 S.M. Floreen (Inn), an island between the S»ndfjord and 
Nordfjord, is an important station, being touched at by some of 
the direct steamers to and from Molde and Throndhjem, and also 
by the Sendfjord and Nordfjord steamers. This station, which has 
rapidly assumed the dimensions of a small town (500 inhab.), 
forms the E. focus of the traffic of the Nordals, R'fce, and Hedals 
fjords, and partly owes its prosperity to its former success in the 
herring-fishery. On a solitary rocky islet to the W. of Floreen is 
the Stabbensfyr (lighthouse). 

The coasting steamers, which now run between the mainland 
and the belt of islands, next touch either at KaUemag on the 
Frejen or at Kjelkenas on the large island of Bremanger, which lies 
at the mouth of the Nordfjord. At the E. end of the island is the 
perpendicular and apparently overhanging *Hornelen (3000 ft.), 
rising immediately from the water. An attendant of Olaf Trygg- 
vason (end of the 10th cent.) is said once to have attempted to 
scale this mountain and to have been rescued by the king himself 

168 Route 19. NORDFJORD. From Bergen 

from imminent peril. On the E. side of Hornelen is the rocky 
island of Mare. The steamer then traverses the often very rapid 
Skatestrem , the entrance of the Nordfjord , and the Vaagsfjord, 
and stops at the station of (27 M.) Mold*, or the opposite village 
of Scsternces, on the Vaagse. 

The Nordfjord, extending to the E. of Molde for about 55 
Engl. M., is one of the finest fjords in Norway, the innermost 
arms being especially picturesque. A steamer from Bergen plies 
on this fjord once weekly. Leaving Bergen on Monday at midnight 
the steamer reaches Flore(see above) at midday, Molde(see above") 
at 5 p.m., Nordfjordeid (see below) at 11 p.m. on Tuesday, and 
Sandene (see below) on Wednesday morning, &c. Leaving Visnass 
(see below and p. 190) on the return voyage on Wednesday at 
11 a.m., it reaches Molde at 12.30 a.m. on Thursday, and Bergen 
at 9 the same evening. The scenery of the inner branches of the 
fjord is described in the accounts of the land-routes (pp. 183-85, 
and R. 22). 

The first station is Rugsund on the S. bank, the second is 
Bryggen on the N. bank, from which a road crosses the lofty Maur- 
stadeid (2060ft.) to (20Kil.) Aahjem on the Vanelvsfjord (p. 169). 
A little beyond Bryggen, on the S. bank, is Daviken, where Claus 
Frimann , the poet (d. 1829), once lived. On the N. side, to the 
E. of Daviken, diverges the Eidsfjord, running towards the E., 
with Nestdal or Nausdal on its N. bank, and Eid at its head, 
whence we may proceed via the (6Kil.) Nordfjordeid to Vedvik 
or to Nord on the Hornindalsvand (see p. 184). — The S. arm of 
the Nordfjord is now called the Isfjord and farther up the Hund- 
viksfjord, from which, to the S.W., diverges the Aalfotfjord and 
beyond it the Hyefjord and the Oloppenfjord. 

The few steamers which ply in the Aalfotfjord and the Hyefjord 
call at Jelsnces at the entrance to the Aalfotfjord , pass the line 
*Waterfall of the 0xendalselv on the right, and then cross the Hye- 
fjord, calling at Hestences. At the entrance to the Hyefjord rise 
two imposing mountains , the Skj&ringen on the W. and the 
Eikenmshesl on the E. , each about 4000 ft. in height. The extensive 
snow-fields and glaciers on both sides of the fjord have hitherto 
remained almostly entirely unexplored. 

The steamer then traverses the Oloppenfjord to Sandene, charm- 
ingly situated at its head, whence a road leads past the Eidsfos to 
Vasenden on the Bredheimsvand (p. 181). 

The steamer now returns to the main fjord , calling at Rys- 
fjaren, Utviken (p. 183), Indviken (p. 183), Faleide (p. 184), Old- 
eren (p. 193), and sometimes Loen (p. 191) and Visnces (p. 190). 

The large coasting steamers traverse the strait between the is- 
land of Vaagse and the mainland, touching at Osmundvaag. They 

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to Throndhjem. STADTLAND. 19. Route. 169 

then pass the islands of Burma and Selje0, the latter of which 
contains the ruins of a Monastery of St. Alban (12th cent.) and 
the shrine of Sunniva, an Irish saint, the patroness of Bergen. 
Opposite the Seljee lies Selje, with the church oi Hove, on the 
S.W. bank of the peninsula of Stadtland, a lofty plateau 17 Engl. 
M. long and 2'/2"8M. broad, stretching out into the sea in the form 
of a hand and forearm. The peninsula terminates in the promontory 
of Stadt , well known for the tremendous storms by which it is 
visited. The natives declare that the breakers here are sometimes 
20 fathoms in height. A tunnel for the steamers has been pro- 
jected through the Mandseid (see below), the narrow isthmus con- 
necting the peninsula of Stadtland with the mainland. 

A visit to the Stadtland takes 10-12 hrs. Provisions must be taken 
with the party, and 'forbud' must be sent on to Drage if driving or rid- 
ing is contemplated. From Selje we row along the precipitous rocky 
bank in l-l J /2 hr. to Drage (poor quarters), above which rise the 
Bkrcelna (1400 ft.) on the E. and the Vetenakken on the W. From Drage 
a road leads E. to the chapel of Zekanger and then to the N.W. through 
the Merkedal, passing the Dalsbevand to (15 Kil.) Ervik, a poor 'Sand', 
exposed to all the violence of the ocean , with inhabitants who support 
themselves on milk and fish. From Ervik we may ascend (with guide) 
the -Kjaerringen (1680 ft.), which commands an admirable view of the 
ocean, the Stadtland , the islands as far as Aalesund, and the Stfndmi-rre 
Alps to the S. An easier path diverges to the right about 20 min. from 
Ervik and ascends through a small valley. — Those who do not wish to 
return to Selje may proceed from the Kjeerringen to the E., through the 
Aareviksdal and along the S. slope of the Store Varden, to (l'/2-2 hrs.) 
Ellevik, and row thence, enjoying a fine view of the Revikhorn (1410 ft.), 
to the Haugsholm (see below). Visitors to the Stadtland approaching from 
the N. disembark at the Haugsholm and make the tour in the reverse 

Beyond the promontory of Stadt the larger steamers cross the 
Vanelvsgab and pass the Sande, containing the famous Dvlstens 
Cavern, about 200 ft. above the sea, the recesses of which have 
been only partly explored. They then skirt the W. sides of the 
large islands of Gurske and Hadreidland , touch at Hereen, and 
soon reach Aalesund (see below). 

Those who leave the steamer at Selje (see above) may avoid the 
tempestuous passage round the Stadtland by making the following 
tour. From Selje we row through the Moldefjord to (I hr.) 
Gaarden Eide, whence a good but rather steep bridle-track crosses 
the Mandseid (820 ft. ; see above) to Enerhaug , situated on the 
Kjedepollen, the innermost branch of the Vanelvsfjord. Then we 
proceed by boat in l^fe hr. to — 

Aahjem, at the S.W. end of the Vanelvsfjord, and the terminus 
of the Aalesund and Volden steamers (plying twice weekly). Near 
Aahjem are the church and parsonage of Vanelven. — From Aahjem 
to Bryggen on the Nordfjord, see p. 168. 

After leaving Aahjem the Volden steamer calls at Sandvik 
on the Stadtland (whence a footpath leads to Selje , see above ; 
2 hrs.), the island of Haugsholm (route to Eltevik, see above), 

170 Route 19. DALSFJORD. From lieryen 

Eidsitit on the !S»vdefjord (see below), and several other unim- 
portant stations. It then traverses the Revdefjord and the Volden- 
fjord and reaches Volden (p. 171) in 5-6 hrs. 

The following is a pleasant excursion of two days, beginning 
at Aahjem and ending at Volden. (The traveller is recommended 
to take with him some tea or coffee essence and other portable 
provisions.) We first drive up the Almklovdal for 8 Kil. (5 Engl. M.). 
At a point 3 Kil. before reaching Almklov we leave the carriage in 
order to ascend (with guide) the hill above the Storlivatn, which 
commands an admirable view of the Sevdefjord. We then de- 
scend, passing the Kilsbrekkevatn, to (2 hrs.) 0ver-Berg, the highest 
gaard in the Serdal, about 800 ft. above the sea-level. Thence the 
steep road descends in 3 / 4 hr. to Neder-Berg and the Serdalsgaarde 
on the Serdalsvatn, where a carriage can be hired to continue the 
journey. In about 1/2 nl '- ' w ' e reach Vik and the church of Sevde, 
on the S#vdefjord, the E. bank of which is extremely precipitous 
and picturesque, while the W. bank is flat and studded with 
pleasant gaards. Among these is Eidsaa, a station of the Aalesund 
and Volden steamboats (see above). 

From Vik we may drive in the same carriage up the Norddal, 
passing the waterfall of Sarpen, to Tverberg, the highest gaard in 
the valley. Thence we proceed on foot, with the aid of a guide, 
skirting a brook and several small lakes and at last ascending 
somewhat rapidly to a sseter above the Dalsfjord, commanding a 
magnificent view. We then descend by a well-marked sster-track 
to Indselscet, 3 hrs. from Tverberg, where good accommodation for 
the night may be procured. The Dalsfjord (not to be confounded 
with the fjord mentioned at p. 167), an arm of the Voldenfjord, is 
about 17 Kil. (lO 1 ^ Engl. M.) in length and is enclosed on both 
sides by mountains 3000-4000 ft. high. At the 8. end of it, 
5 Engl. M. from Indselsaet, lies Stensvik. 

On the second day we row in 4 /2 nI - t0 Dale, and then (with 
guide) ascend through the Dalsdal and descend through the Laur- 
dal to Birkedal (see below). The traveller is recommended to 
combine with this route an ascent of the Felden (3855 ft. , 4 hrs. 
from Dale), which commands a survey of almost the whole Sfliid- 
mere, the Stadtland , and a large part of the Nordfjord with the 
Gjegiialundsbrae and Aalfotebras on its S. side. The Jostedalsbne 
forms a conspicuous feature in this prospect. Towards the E. the 
Felden terminates in a huge 'botn', or mountain-basin, above which 
rise the imposing Torene(Store Toren&ObO ft., Lille Toren 3880 ft.). 
— The descent from the Felden to the Laurdal is not to be at- 
tempted without a guide. In 4-5 hrs. we reach Sendre Birkedal, 
whence a path leads to the S. via Smerdal to Nestdal on the Eidsfjord 
(p. 168), while a road (carriage not obtained without waiting for 
about 3 hrs.) leads to the N. to Kile and (8 Kil.) Felsvik on the 

to Throndhjem. AALESUND. 19. Route. 171 

Kilefjdrd, the latter of which is called at by the Aalesund steamers 
once weekly. We may also reach Volden by small boat in 2-272 hrs. 

Volden (near the *Reds<Bt Station), situated in a fertile district 
on the N.E. bank of the picturesque Voldenfjord, is a good centre 
for several interesting excursions. The chief of these are those to 
Aahjem and the Stadtland, see above; via, 0rstenvik and Brautesat 
to Smbe on the Jerundfjord, see p. 173; across the Austefjord to 
Ferde and by carriage to Kaldvatn (p. 175), and thence to the 
Jerundfjord (p. 175) or the Hornindalsvand (p. 184). 

Leaving Volden, the steamer passes the entrance of the 0rsten- 
fjord, traverses the Vartdalsfjord and the Bredmnd, and stops at — 

42 S.M. Aalesund (H6tel Scandinavie, R. 1 kr. 60e\, S. and 
B. 3 kr., well spoken of; Schj elder op 's Hotel), a thriving com- 
mercial town with 5800 inhab., founded in 1824, and pictur- 
esquely situated, partly on the mainland, and partly on islands 
which protect its harbour. The neighbouring fishings of Storeggen, 
to the W., are in great repute, even attracting fishermen from 
Sweden. The town forms the capital of the Storfjord, the numer- 
ous arms of which all unite here , and is also the great mart 
of the torsk fishery. The fish are caught, to the number of 
5-6,000,000 annually, in large and coarse nets, about 7 ft. 
in width, with green glass buoys attached to them. The prin- 
cipal part of the town lies on the Vcere, and the church is in 
Helvigen. The Qode and the Valdere are each provided with a 
lighthouse. The Aalesundsaxlen , a hill surmounted with a vane 
('Fleie'), commands a good survey of the town, with the Lang- 
fjeld to the S.E. The well-constructed reservoirs which supply 
the town with water are situated here. — A walk may be taken 
to the E. to the church of Borgund (which of course must not be 
confounded with Borgund in the Lserdal , p. 95). — Farther 
distant, to the S. , is the old castle of Hrolf Gangr , the ancient 
conqueror of Normandy. — A good road leads from Aalesund to 
Vestnces on the Romsdalsfjord via. Sjeholt (comp. p. 188). To the 
Jerund fjord and Hellesylt, see R. 20. 

Owing to the number of steamboats that touch here, Aalesund offers 
numerous opportunities for making excursions to the fjords. Besides the 
larger coasting vessels, steamboats start from Aalesund — 

1. Once weekly via 0rstenvik (p. 174), Volden (see above) and Eidsaa 
(p. 170) to Aahjem (p. 169) in 12 hrs. 

2. Thrice weekly via Molde (p. 195) and Vestnces (p. 188) to Veblunyt- 
nas, Nces, and Sten, (p. 197), in 11 hrs. 

3. Thrice weekly via Aune (p. 203) Langskibse, Sjeholt, Hove (Stov- 
dalen), Slingstedt (Stranden), Sytte (p. 186), Kellvig and Ttredal (p. 186) 
to Hellesylt and Merok (p. 186). 

The large steamer runs from Aalesund to Molde in 4-5 hrs., 
without stopping. The small local coasting steamers touch at 
0»tnces (on the Harhamse), Hildre, Drenen (on the Hiefjord), and 
OjeUten (on the Tomrefjord) , and reach Molde in 572-6 hrs. 

51 S.M. Molde, see p. 195. 

172 Route 1<J. CHMSTIANSSIND. From Beryen 

Beyond Molde the steamer at first steers towards the W., then 
turns to the N. and enters the Julsund. The islands of Ottere 
and G or sen are passed on the left, the Julaxlen (1810 ft.), and 
later the wedge-shaped Gjendemsfjeld (2080 ft.) on the right. The 
first station is Bud, which is also connected with Molde by a local 
steamboat and by a good road. On the left lies the island of Ona, 
also a steamboat-station, with a signal-light. The promontory of 
Stemshesten (2550 ft.) now comes into sight, beyond the Bodfjeld, 
and a little later we see the lofty Tustere (p. 173), to the N. of 
Christianssund. The Stemshesten forms the S. boundary of the 
Nordmere as the Stadtland forms that of the Sandmere. The sea 
here is as rough as at the Stadt. The steamer now emerges from the 
island-belt and passes the Hustadvik, at the head of which lies the 
village and church of that name. We then pass the small Fuglen 
('Bird Island'), with a signal, on the left, and on the right observe 
several gaards at the base of Stemshesten (Stemme, Hanas, etc.), 
which have regular steamboat-communication with Christianssund 
(see below). Fine view of the snow-mountains of the Romsdal. 
The steamer next passes the signal-stations of Hvidholmsfyr and 
Hestskjcersfyr (white building), and then steers between the Kirke- 
land and the Inland to — 

58 S.M. Christianssund. — M^llekop's Hotel, R. 1 kr. 25, D. 
Lkr. 20«r. ; O. Tkoness's Hotel, small but good, the landlady speaks 
English, German, and French. 

Christianssund, an important trading town with 12,000 inhab., 
the staple commodity of which is fish, is picturesquely situated 
on four small rocky islands, in the midst of which lies the har- 
bour. These islands are Kirkelnndet, to the S.W., with an old 
and a new church and the hotels; Inlandet to the E. ; Nordlandet 
to the N., with a church and some fine woods; and Godmadslandet 
or Skorpa to the W., with the drying - places for the 'klipfisk'. 
Small steamboats ply between the different islands. From the 
harbour we ascend the street to the right, and then visit the New 
Church, which is surrounded with pretty promenades, commanding 
a fine view of the mountains to the S.E. We then return to the 
harbour via the Old Church. The Vagttaarn also commands an 
extensive view. — In the sea, opposite Christianssund and about 
12 Engl. M. distant lie the small islands or 'fiskevjer' of Grip, 
with a population of 200 fishermen and a chapel. A little farther 
out is the little archipelago of Gryptarran. 

The Klipfisk, or dried cod, the preparation of and trade in which 
form the principal industry of Christianssund, is mostly exported to Spain, 
where it is known as Bacallao Seco (from Lat. bacillus, a stick). It is 
always packed in 'Vogers', each weighing nearly 401bs. Some of the prin- 
cipal firms carry on so extensive a business that they keep several large 
steamers merely to convey the fish to Spain. The Christianssund merchants 
often possess enormous wealth, and many of the beautiful villas on the 
sheltered Fanestrand, near Molde (p. 197), belong to them. 

Christianssund affords opportunity for several pleasant excursions in 
the fjords, which here stretch far into the mainland. Perhaps the finest 

to Thronanjem. BEIAN. 19. Route. 173 

of these is the Sundalsfjord , at the head of which lies Sundalse-ren 
(p. 206), whither a steamer ('til Sundalen') plies from Christianssund twice 
weekly (Mon. and Thurs., returning Tues. and Frid.). The intermediate 
stations are Stensvig, Gulseth, Gimnces , Strand-Buttenfjordseren (comp. 
p. 2021, 0re , Torvig, Berge, 0degaard-8tremmass, Gjul, Koksvik-Thingvold 
(p. 203), Angvik (p. 203), Eidseren (p. 200), Fjeseide, Jordal, 0ksendalen, and 
Opdel. The voyage takes 8 hrs. 

Another line of steamers ('til Todalen') plies from Christianssund twice 
weekly (Tues. and Frid., returning Wed. and Sat.) to (7 hrs.) SurendaU- 
eren at the head of the Halsefjord, whence a high-road leads to 0rkedal 
and Throndhjem (see p. 203). The steamer returns from Surendalsiaren on 
the following morning, thus allowing ample time for a visit to the "Lille- 
dal, a wild and grand mountain ravine, enclosed by precipitous rocky 
walls like those of the Kikisdal (p. 197). The ravine, which is 7 Engl. 
M. in length, is traversed by a carriage-road. 

A third line of steamers ('til Hevne') plies twice a week to the (4 hrs.) 
Vinjefjord, returning the same day. 

A fourth steamer ('til Kornstad') traverses the Kvernaesfjord to Eidc 
on the Isingvaag, whence we may drive to the Fanestrand and Molde 
(slow stations ; see p. 197). The steamer then turns to the N.W., and calls 
at Kornstad, Vevang, and Kornvog on Stemshesten (p. 172; in all 4 hrs.). 

From Christianssund to Throndhjem, see also p. 203. 

The course of the steamer beyond Christianssund is on the whole 
well protected by islands. To the W. lies the small island of 
Grip, to the N. of which is Oripshelen, affording an unimpeded 
view of the open sea. To the right are the lofty islands of Tustere 
and Stabben, between which are seen the distant snow-mountains 
of the Sundal and the Eikisdal. Farther on JEde, with a steam- 
boat-station, and the low but extensive Smelen are passed on the 
left. The scenery now becomes monotonous. To the N. of Smelen 
is the Ramfjord, which separates it from the large island of Hitte- 
ren, with the station of Havnen. The only other station which the 
large steamers visit is Beian, at the entrance to the Throndhjem 
Fjord, so that travellers can proceed to the North Cape, without 
touching at Throndhjem. The scenery improves as we approach 
our destination. 

80 S. M. Throndhjem, see p. 213. 

20. From Aalesund to Hellesylt (Molde) by 
0rstenvik and 0ie. 

105 Kil. (62 Engl. M.). This route takes two days. From Aalesund 
to /Cfrslenvik, 45 Kil. (28 M.), steamboat ('Lodden' and 'Robert') twice weekly 
(Tues. and Frid. 6 a.m.) in 3'/2 hrs. (going on to Volden and Aahjeni, 
pp. 169, 170). From 0rstenvik to Scebe, 25 Kil. (15'/2 M.), drive (quarters 
for the night at Rise , near Sseb«r). From Sieb0 to 0%e, 10 Kil. (6 Jr.), 
row. From 0ie to Hellesylt, 25 Kil. (lo'/a M.), ride to Haugen and drive 
the rest of the way. 0ie is a slow, but Haugen a fast station. Side- 
saddles may be obtained at either. — A steamer plies from Aalesund tn 
Hellesvlt direct twice weeklv in U hrs. (Tues. and Frid., returning on 
Wed. and Sat.). 

This beautiful route, part of which is by water and part by land, 
traverses the district of Smdmm-e. If the traveller, after arriving by this 
route at Hellesylt, proceeds to visit the Geiranger Fjord (p. 185) and ascends 
from Mseraak to Stavbrii'kkene (p. 165), he will then have seen some of 
the grandest and most interesting scenery in the whole of Norway. The 

174 Route 20. 0RSTENVIK. From Aalesund 

district of Stfndmtfre, with its fjords and snow-mountains, comprises all 
the characteristic features of the country, the picturesque, the sublime, and 
the severe, while the inhabitants ('Meringer'), many of whom are prosper- 
ous and wealthy, are still noted for their primitive honesty and simplicity. 
— On the route from 0rstenvik to the Nebbedal there are as yet no 'fast' 
stations, so that the traveller must either send 'Forbud 1 , or run the risk 
of waiting several hours for horses at the end of each stage. If possible, 
therefore, horses should be engaged for the whole journey from j0rsten- 
vik to Saibfl (or Rise), without stopping at Brautesfet, the intermediate 
station. A supply of provisions for the journey should be procured at 
#rstenvik. The only tolerable quarters for the night are at Eise. 

Strom's \S0nd1n0res Beskrivelse' (1762-66), a copy of which the station- 
master at Brautesiet possesses, is recommended to the notice of the tra- 
veller as containing, though an old work, the best existing description of 
this most attractive district. Another interesting work is Pedev Fyllinq'it 
'Folksagn fra S0ndm0re' (2 vols.; Aalesund, 1874-77). 

Aalesund, see p. 171. The steamer first steers across the ex- 
posed Bredsund, To the N.W. lies the Valdere, to the W. the Gode, 
and to the E. the Hese with the pointed Sukkertop ('sugar-loaf). It 
then traverses the Brandalsfjord to the Hadreidland , with the 
Hadreid-Kirke, an island with mountains nearly 4000 ft. in height, 
and then crosses to Sere Vartdal, on the Vartdals fjord. Grand moun- 
tain scenery. Numerous ancient coast-levels and terraces of detritus, 
interesting to geologists, are observed. Comp. the Map, p. IDS. 

We next pass the Liadalshorn, rising on the mainland to the E., 
and enter the 0rstenfjord , at the head of which we stop at the 
station of 0rstenvik (*Svendseris Inn), magnificently situated at 
the base of the Saudehorn (4320 ft.), and affording a view of the 
picturesque mountains farther inland. 0rstenvik (like Volden, 
p. 171) is recommended as headquarters for excursions in the 
neighbourhood. The valleys are clothed with rich vegetation. 

From 0rstenvik we now drive through the beautiful 0rstendnl 
or Aamdal, passing the church of 0rsten, and traversing, a smiling 
district commanded by a noble background of mountains. 5 Kil. 
Oaarden Aam, at the entrance to the Follestaddal. 

A road diverges here to the left and ascends the Follestaddal to Kjelaas 
(14 Kil. from J0rstenvik), whence a bridle-path leads to (8 Kil.) Standal 
on the Jizrrundfjord. Boat hence to Ssebtf (8 Kil.), see below. 

Our road to Seeba next ascends an ancient moraine. To the S. 
towers the majestic Snetind. 

9 Kil. Brautesixt (primitive station). We next pass the school- 
house, and then, on the right, the Vatnevand. The road gradually 
ascends to a height of 900 ft., passing the entrance to the Bjerdal 
on the right, through which a path leads to the Austefjord(p. 171). 
From the top of the hill and on our descent to Saeber we enjoy a 
superb **View of the Jerundfjord mountains. The Bonddal, which 
we now descend, contains several farms. On the left the valley 
is bounded by the Stokkehorn, the Gretdnlstind, the Lilledalshorn, 
and the Sabenxle; on the right by the Sakshom (4500 ft.), the 
Storhorn (4485 ft.), the Lillehorn, and the Lilleskaardalstinder, 
which somewhat resemble the Trolltinder in the Romsdal (p. 127). 
On the right, between these mountains, l\eiheSleditla.T\& Kvlntudnl. 

to HeMesylt. J0RUNDFJORD. 20. Route. 1 75 

16 Kil. Rise (a fair station, kept by the Lensmand) is about 
10 min. drive from Sseb-e , with its new church, situated on the 
Jerundfjord. This fjord and the Norangsfjord freeze in winter, while 
the main fjord remains open. As the 'Baadsskydsskaffer' lives 
about 1 Engl. M. from the station, the traveller should lose no 
time in ordering a boat with two rowers ('To Mand Rorfolk'). 

Sseber forms the best starting-point for a visit to the magnificent 
**Xerrundfjord, which the Norwegians themselves usually consider 
the finest of all their fjords. From its entrance, about 12 Engl. M. 
to the S.E. of Aalesund. it extends towards the S.E. to Bjerke, a 
distance of 25 Engl. M., and is bounded by huge rocky precipices 
and wild mountain-slopes, above which peep a number of snow- 
clad summits. Here, as in other parts of Sendmere, the flattened 
mountains so characteristic of Norway are replaced by bold and 
picturesquely formed peaks, separated from each other by profound 
ravines and sharply defined indentations, reminding the traveller 
of the dolomite mountains in the Tyrol. The fjord, as usual, is 
really a long, narrow valley filled with water. 

At the E. end of the fjord, opposite Standal (p. 174), rises the Molaup. 
According to tradition, there once dwelt in the ' Trolgjel Molaup'' a giantess 
CGygre'), who was wooed by a giant CJutuV) dwelling in the Raamands- 
gjel to the S. of Ssebjj. One day she paid him a visit by boat, but found 
him in so weakly a condition that she spat at him in disgust and thus 
converted him into stone. On her way back she was overtaken by a 
storm, and sprang out of the boat between the gaards of Nses and Molaup 
with such violence that her foot- print CGygrefetef) is still to be seen mi 
the spot. With her other foot she pushed off the boat so vigorously 
that it dashed across the fjord, made a deep indentation in the mountain 
by Gaarden Stavscct, and then sank. It still lies there in the form of the 
Stavswtflu, a rock where the best fishing in the fjord is obtained. 

Above Sseb0 and the Norangsfjord the J0rundfjord becomes narrower 
and wilder, being a huge ravine bounded by almost perpendicular moun- 
tains nearly 5000 ft. in height. From Bjerke at the S. end (12 Kil. from 
Ssebtf; Inn}, which lies several hundred feet above the fjord, the traveller 
may pay a visit to the Tyssefos , and drive via Rerstad and Rueid to 
Kaldvatn, and thence over the Kviven to Hvmindal (p. 184). An interest- 
ing trip by boat may also be taken to the Raamandsgjel with the Raa- 
mand rising to the S. of Hustadsnceset. 

At Ssebethe Jerundfjord is about 2 Engl. M. in breadth. Oppos- 
ite Saebe on the "W. bank, lies Gaarden Skor, with a pretty water- 
fall. A little to the S., at Gaarden Leknas, is the entrance to the 
^Norangsfjord, the only branch of the Jerundfjord. A scene from 
this fjord by Frich is one of the pictures with which Oscarshall is 
embellished (p. 11). On the right side of the Norangsfjord rise 
the Stolbjerg (4490 ft.) and the Jagta (5240 ft.), on the left the 
Lekncesnakken and Slogen, and at the head of the fjord lies a gla- 
cier. The Norangsfjord resembles a large and sequestered Alpine 
lake. On the right, at the base of the lofty and menacing Stol- 
bjerg, is Stennas, with its two gaards. Farther on is the Elgenaaf 'on. 

10 Kil. 0ie, at the head of the Norangsfjord, is a poor station. 
There are two gaards at 0ie, one to the left, belonging to four 
different families, and another to the right, with eight proprietors, 

176 Route 20. NORANGSDAL. From Aalesund 

all of whom gain their livelihood by cattle-breeding. Some of the 
interesting houses have the old-fashioned Ljor, or aperture for 
smoke in the roof. To facilitate the carrying of pails the peasantry 
here use a 'Hisse 1 , or leathern strap over the shoulders, with a 
transverse piece of wood across the chest, from which the pails 
( L I)ailf) are suspended. 

A road now leads inland to the Stavberg-Satre (see below), 
beyond which there is a bridle-path only. It is, therefore, usual to 
ride from 0ie all the way. Saddles have been provided by the 
Turist-forening for the use of travellers. If Torbud' has not been 
sent to 0ie, travellers must be prepared to wait several hours for 
horses, as in summer the men and horses are engaged in the fields, 
while the women are often in the pastures with their cattle, leaving 
their children at home alone. The traveller is often expected to 
fasten his own baggage to the 'llest ? ; and as a diminutive urchin 
of ten years is often the only attendant, the hirer will generally 
prefer to walk and allow the child to ride. 

Leaving 0ie, we ascend the strikingly wild and picturesque 
*Norangsdal, which forms the prolongation of the fjord. The 
road ascends gradually to an upper plateau of the valley with a 
series of lakes, immediately beyond which the Nebbedal descends 
to the E., the highest ground between the two valleys being about 
940 ft. above the sea-level (comp. p. 134). A little way from 0ie 
the road crosses a i Bcelte', or rising neck of land, and enters a broad 
basin, containing the hamlet of Skylstad, from whose inhabitants 
the sun is shut out during the greater part of the year. 

A fatiguing path leads hence across Skylstadbrekken (2575 ft.), between 
Slogen and Smerskredfjeldet, to the N.E. to Stranden on the Sunelv (p. 
187), and thence to the N.W. , via, Gaarden Brtmslad to Awe in Sekelveti 
(p. 188). Imposing scenery. 

The valley is bounded on the S. by the Konnehorn (4200 ft.), 
the Nonshom, and the Middag shorn (4450 ft.), and on the N. by 
the Smerskredfjeld , culminating in the Skruven (528o ft.). The 
road now quits the inhabited part of the valley and ascends 
through a stony wilderness (Ur), under which several moun- 
tain-torrents disappear. The Norangsdalselv is crossed twice. By 
the second bridge the scenery is singularly impressive. The moun- 
tains rise perpendicularly from the valley, and avalanches which 
have descended from them cover the river at places , forming 
bridges of snow. Above us rises the precipitous Staven (4960 ft.), 
under the shade of whose rocks the cattle seek refuge from the 
midday heat. Farther on, the valley suddenly expands , and we 
reach the Stuubergsvand, which we pass on the N. side. At its E. 
end are three sjeters ( Stavberg-Stetre), where cream may be obtained 
[Remme, 'cream'; Kolle, the round wooden vessels in which the 
milk is kept). This lake is the first of a series of five, situated 
one above the other, which the road passes. The Uravand, the 
Hjuvvand, and the Hjelstrenmd are the following lakes. The road 

to Hellesylt. NEBBEDAL. 20. Route. 177 

terminates at the siBters, and the bridle-path now skirts the hill 
to the S., (while the river is often lost to view among the rocks 
and ceases even to be audible. The last lake but one loses most 
of its water in dry seasons, when it is reduced to a single pool 
near its outlet. 

14 Kil. Fibelstad - Hougen (poor quarters, civil people), a 
gaard 1210 ft. above the sea, lies in the upper part of the 
*Nebbedal, which is traversed by a good road. The station is sur- 
rounded by most imposing mountains. To the S. rise the Meraf- 
tasnibba ('afternoon peak'; Merafta being a form of Midafteri), the 
Islenibba {isle, or vesle, 'small'), and the huge Kvitegg ('white 
ridge'; 5590 ft.). To the N. is the Fibelstadnibben, with its abrupt 
wall of rock, and to the "W.. beyond the Skar, towers the Smerskred- 
fjeld. From the Kvitegg descend several glaciers, the birchwoods 
below which are still infested with bears. 

Leaving Fibelstad-Hougen , so called to distinguish it from 
Indre Hougen on the road to Grodaas (p. 185), we observe to the 
left, beyond the Fibelstadnibben, the Satredal and Trygyestad-Nak- 
ken, and to the right the Blaafjeld. The Nebbedal, with its pastures 
sprinkled with birches, presents a pleasant appeacance in summer, 
but is described by Magdalene Thoresen in her village-tales as 
a most dismal and dangerous place in winter and spring , when 
avalanches are frequently precipitated into it. About 6 Kil. from 
Hougen we reach Tryggestad on the Horsindal and Hellesylt road, 
whence a retrospective view is obtained of the double -peaked 
Fibelstadnibben. From this point a good road descends to (11 Kil.) 
Hellesylt (see p. 185). 

From Hellesylt to Molde, see R. 21. 

21. Overland Route from Bergen to Aalesund and 


Comp. the Maps at pp. 106, 168 and 194, which join each other, as indicated 
in the general map at the end of the book. 

The 'overland route' from Bergen to Molde (or to Aalesund), a con- 
siderable part of which, however, is by water, is far preferable to the 
direct steamboat-voyage. It passes some of the grandest and wildest glacier 
and fjord scenery in Norway, all of which lies so near the road that it 
is easily surveyed from the traveller's Stolkjaerre or boat. Until recently 
the roads were so had and the stations so miserable that this magnificent 
region was comparatively unknown, but the facilities for traversing it are 
now so improved that the journey presents no difficulty or privation 
worthy of mention, and is frequently undertaken by ladies. 

398 Kil. (247 Engl. M.). Steamboat from Bergen to Vadheim (136 Kil. 
or 84y 2 Engl. M.) 3 times weekly in 7-10 hrs. (fares 7 kr. 60, 4 kr. 25 0.). — 
Road from Vadheim to Fevde i Bredheim, 87 Kil. (54 11.). — Boat from 
F**rde to Bed, 12 Kil. or 7>/2 M. (a row of 2 ! /4 hrs.). — Road from Red to 
Utviken, 17 Kil. (10'/2 M.), from Moldestad over a very steep and high hill, 
which is best surmounted on foot. — Boat from Utviken to Faleide, 11 Kil. 
or 7 M. (a row of 2 hrs.). — Eoad from Faleide to Hellesylt, 46 Kil. 
(28'/2 M.). — Steamboat from Hellesylt thrice weekly to Sjeholt (51 Kil. or 
31>/ 2 M.) in 6 3 /4 hrs. — Road from Sj0holt to Vestnces, 26 Kil. (16 M.). — 

Baedeker's Norway and Sweden. 3rd Edit. 12 

178 Route 21. VADHEIM. From Bergen 

Steamboat from Vestnses to Molde (12 Kil. or 7*/a M.) 6 times weekly (or 
by small boat in 2!/2-3 hrs.). 

As the scenery between Vadheim and Ferde on the Ftfrdefjord is of 
little interest, while the Dalsfjord and the Ftfrdefjord are well worth 
seeing, the traveller may prefer, if the Stfndfjord steamboat suits, to 
travel by it as far as Sveen on the Dalsfjord (13 hrs.), or to Ferde on the 
F^rdefjord (22 hrs.), and begin his overland journey from one of these 
points. The S#ndfjord steamer usually leaves Bergen on Wednesdays at 
midnight. — The distance from Sveen (slow station) to F#rde by road, 
via Langeland, is 22 Kil. only. 

Travellers by this route from Bergen to Molde should bear in mind 
that most of the stations are 'slow', and that many of them afford neither 
food nor quarters for the night. It is therefore essential to the success 
of the journey that a plan should be carefully laid down beforehand, 
and that Forbud should be sent to the stations at which detentions 
would otherwise occur. It need hardly lie said that a week or a fort- 
night might very pleasantly be devoted to this route and the excursions 
which may be made from it, but 4-5 days only are allowed for it by most 
travellers. In the reverse direction passengers by Tuesday's steamer from 
Aalesund or Sjuholt pass the night at Hellesylt, take the steamer early 
next morning to Mseraak, and order a small boat to await their return at 
the mouth of the Geiranger Fjord about 7.30 a.m., thus regaining Helle- 
sylt about 9 o'clock. Passengers by Saturday's steamer from Aalesund or 
Sjuholt are conveyed into the Geiranger Fjord the same evening, spend 
the night at Maraak, and take the steamer on Sunday morning to Helle- 
sylt. — Those who can devote 10-12 days or more to this route should 
make Faleide, Visnses, or Olduren their headquarters for the magnificent 
mountain-excursions mentioned below, and Hellesylt their starting-point 
for a visit to the Norangsfjord (see R. 20) and the mountain-pass at the 
head of the Geiranger Fjord. The tour thus extended will then embrace 
far more of Norway's sublimest scenery than could be seen in any other 
part of the country in the same time. 

Plan of Excuksion. This route may easily be accomplished by a 
good walker in five or six days, if he- so times his departure from Bergen 
as to catch the steamer from Hellesylt to Meeraak. The following outlines 
may be useful for ordinary travellers with luggage, and especially if 
ladies are of the party, but they may be modified at pleasure, and they 
are of course dependent on the steamboat time-tables, with reference to 
which they are framed. Comp. Communicationer. 

Five Days (vid Vadheim). 1st. On Saturday from Bergen by steamer 
to Vadheim, and drive to Nedre- Vasenden. 2nd. Sunday at Nedre-Vasenden. 
(Or on Saturday to Sande only, and on Sunday to Nedre- Vasenden.) 3rd. 
On Monday to Utviken. 4th. On Tuesday to Hellesylt. 5th. On Wednesday 
by steamer to Sjeholt, drive to Veslnces, and cross by boat to Molde (or 
by steamer from Hellesylt to Aalesund). — Or we may proceed by steamer 
from Hellesylt through the picturesque Norangsfjord and Jerundfjord to 
Sabe, drive thence to 0rslenvik, and again by steamer to Aalesund. Comp. 
E. 20. 

Seven Days (via Vadheim). 1st day. On Monday or Friday at midnight 
by steamer from Bergen to Vadheim , and drive to Sande. 2nd day. 
To Nedre-Vasenden. 3rd day. To Utviken. 4th day. To Orodaas. 5th day. 
To Hellesylt. 6th day. To Mceraak. 7th day. To Aalesund or Molde. (Or 
spend Sunday at Sjeholt.) 

Four Days (via Sveen on the Dalsfjord). 1st. On Wednesday from 
Bergen to Sveen, and drive on Thursday to Nedre-Vasenden, or, still 
better, to Ferde at the E. end of the Fjzrrdefjord (or take the Nordfjord 
steamer to Flora (p. 167), and thence drive to FUrde). 2nd. On Friday to 
Faleide. 3rd. On Saturday to Hellesylt and Maraak. 4th. On Sunday to 
Aalesund or Molde. (Or spend Sunday at Sjeiholt, as above.) — Or : — 
On Wednesday night by the same steamer to Ferde on the Ferde/jord. 2nd. 
To Utviken. 3rd. To Mceraak. 4th. To Aalesund or Molde. 

[In the reverse direction: 1st day. From Molde to Sjeholt. 2nd day. 
to Hellesylt. 3rd day. Visit Geiranger Fjord (p. 185; on Tuesdays by steamer, 

to Molde. YXLAND. 21. Route. 179 

on other days by rowing-boat), and proceed to Utviken. 4th day. To Nedre- 
Vasenden. 5th day. To Sande, or even to Vadheim. 6th day. To Bergen 
(Mon. 7.30 p.m.) or to Lwrdalseren (p. 97; Wed. and Sat. 10 a.m.) or to 
Gudvangen (p. 109; Sat. 10 a.m.). — Or: — 1. On Monday to SJerholt. 
2. On Tuesday to Hellesylt. 3. On Wednesday to Mceraak, Hellesylt, and 
Utviken. 4. On Thursday to Ferde. 5. On Friday to Vadheim and thence 
by steamer to Bergen.] 

As the only fast stations on this route between Vadheim and Faleide 
are Ferde on the Ftfrdefjord (p. 181), Aardal (p. 182), and Ferde on the 
Bredheimsvand (p. 182), the traveller should send Forbud (p. xxi) to all the 
slow stations where detentions would otherwise occur. This may be done by 
post-cards addressed to each 'Skydsskaffer', stating the day and hour of the 
traveller's expected arrival and the number of horses desired. Meals may 
also be ordered beforehand in this manner. For the first day's journey 
from Bergen (or Molde) Forbud should be sent two days in advance, but 
for the other days it is enough to send it on the evening before. Horses 
should also be ordered at once for the next morning at the station where 
the night is passed. The stations between Faleide and Hellesylt are all 
fast, but Hellesylt (p. 185) itself is slow. Between Hellesylt and Molde 
the only fast stations are Sjeholt and Ellingsyaard (p. 188). Carriages, how- 
ever, can usually be obtained without delay at Hellesylt, Vestnses, and 
other steamboat-stations. — Tariff for 'skyds', see pp. xxii, xxiil. 

The only good Inns are at Vadheim, Sande, Ferde on the F#rdefjord, 
Nedre-Vasenden, Utviken, Faleide. Orodaas, Hellesylt, Mceraak, and Sjeholt. 
Tolerable quarters at Red (p. 183). 

The best descriptions of the scenery on this fine route are given in 
Finn's Turistbref fran en Eesa i Norge Sommaren 1875 (Stockholm, 1876), 
Dane's Norske Bygdesagn (Christiania, 1872), Peder Fylling's Folksagn (see 
p. 174), and Magdalene Thoreseri's Billeder fra Vestkvsten af Norge (Copen- 
hagen, 1872). 

The steamboat voyage from Bergen to Vadheim takes 7-10 hrs.; 
see pp. 114, 113. 

Vadheim (slow station ; *Inn , by the pier, unpretending") is 
prettily situated at the head of a northern bay of the Sognefjord 
(see p. 113). To the W. is a waterfall with a manufactory, above 
which rises the Noreviksheia. Comp. the Map, p. 106. 

Between Vadheim and the Nordfjord the road skirts the W. 
side of the imposing mountains which are covered by the im- 
mense Jostedalsbrae (p. 103), the largest glacier in Norway, whence 
a number of offshoots descend to the vicinity of dark green fjords 
and lakes. — On leaving Vadheim we at first gradually ascend the 
Vadheimsdal, which is enclosed by walls of rock 1500-2000 ft. in 
height. The road threads its way between the river and the cliffs, 
often passing over large fields of debris (Vr). The first gaard, sit- 
uated on the left, is the Ytre Dalm, which is somewhat exposed 
to danger from avalanches. The sun is visible here in winter only 
for a very short time. The road next ascends between the Dregge- 
bonipen on the right and the Fagersletnipen on the left. On a rocky 
height to the left lie the gaards of Dreggebo , beyond which the 
road returns to the left bank of the river. It then skirts the dark 
Yxlandvand (430 ft.), and crosses to the W. side of the valley. 
To the E., on the top of a rocky hill, lies the hamlet of Yxland. 
We then proceed along the Upper Yxlandvand and reach the cul- 
minating point of the road near the gaards of Aaberge (512 ft.), 


180 Route 21. SANDE. From Bergen 

situated to the right , on the hank of a small lake in a basin sur- 
rounded by mountains. To the N. rises the Kvamshest (see below). 
The rest of the route through the wooded Aabergedalis, monotonous. 
Passing Gaarden Lofald on the right and the parsonage of that 
name on the left, we cross the Quia or Holmedalselv, and reach — 

15 Kil. Sande (*Sivertsen's Inn, comfortable), in the Indre 
Holmedal, with a church and several gaards. To the S. rises the 
7)regyebonipen(y>. 180). adjoining which are the Hegehei fitibO ft.) 
and the Stenscetfjeld (2470 ft.). To the N.W. towers the majestic 
Kvandals field (3325 ft.). 

A pleasant Walk may be taken from Sande to (0 Kil.) Horsevik, on 
the Viksvand (525 ft.), which affords tolerable fishing. On an island near 
the N. bank is the church of Ifcestad. To the left rises the Kvandalsfjeld. 

Horsevik lies about 10 Kil. (G Engl. M.) from Vile, at the N.E. end of 
the lake, whither we may proceed by boat. From Vik a road leads 
through the Haukedal to (8 Kil.) Mostadhaug on the HaukedaUvand, 
whence we row to Rervik, situated on the W. bank, 3-4 Kil. to the N. 
A cart-track leads hence to Holsen and along the Holsenvand to (16 Kil.) 
Mo (p. 181). This route is more interesting and picturesque than the one 
described below, but is recommended to active walkers only. 

On the Viksvand, nearly opposite Vik (see above), at the entrance of 
the Eldal, lies Eldalsosen, whence a route leads through the valley to 
Hnf, Mjell, and Svceren (see p. 112). 

Unless the traveller has ordered horses by Forbud, he should 
arrange with the driver at Sande to go on with the same horses all 
the way to Fflrde. Otherwise he will probably undergo a detention 
of several hours at Langeland. Travellers in the opposite direction 
are generally permitted by the station-master at F«rrde to go on 
without change of horses, especially when there is only one pas- 
senger in a carriole. 

On leaving Sande the road passes the church on the left, and 
ascends rapidly to the right to Gaarden Tunvald at the base of 
the Tunvaldfjeld. Fine retrospect. The hilly road then passes the 
Lundsgreinen on the right and reaches a height commanding a 
view of the Dalsfjord ('Sendfjord') mountains (p. 167); in the 
distance the L0kelandshest , nearer the Kvamshest or Store Hest 
(4396 ft.), which farther on bears a remarkable resemblance to a 
huge horse, and of the smiling basin of Lundebygd at our feet. 
Beyond this basin we reach Gaarden Skilbred , on the moorland 
banks of the Skilbredsvand, whence we enjoy an unimpeded view 
of the Kvamshest and Lillehest (2985 ft), with the snow -field 
between them. In clear weather these mountains are reflected in 
the lake. We then pass several pleasant gaards, and reach — 

11 Kil. (pay for 14) Langeland (where little is to be had 
except beer), situated at the S. end of a lake about 4 Kil. in 
length, the hilly W. bank of which our road traverses , while the 
road to Sveen (p. 167) descends to the left. Our road passes the 
Scfiters of Espeland and Hafstad , at the N. end of the lake, and 
reaches its highest point (about 1150 ft.), commanding a fine view 
of the valley of Ferde and the imposing mountains at the head of 

to Molde. NEDRE VASENDEN. -21. Route. 181 

the Angedal (to the N.J. Only a small triangular portion of the 
Ferdefjord is visible. The hilly road next descends past the saeters 
of Preste and Halbrand, skirts the Solheimsheia on the left, passes 
the Halbrandsfos on the right, and reaches — 

11 Kil. Hafstad i F«rde {Inn, well spoken of), situated 1 Engl. 
M. from the head of the Ferdefjord (steamers on the fjord, see p. 
156). On the opposite side of the Jelsterelv, which is here crossed 
by a large bridge , are the Telegraph Office and the Church , the 
latter situated on an ancient moraine. To the N. rises the Ferdenip 
(2795 ft.), to the E. the Viefjeld (2210 ft.) and the mountains 
round the Holsenvand, and to theS.W. the Solheimsheia (1285 ft.). 
A pleasant walk may be taken along the Jedsterelv to the pier on the 
fjord, of which little is seen from this point. Another may be taken 
to the (Y2 hi. ^ Halbrandsfos, on the way to Langeland (see above). 

On leaving Farde we obtain a view to the left of the Angedal, 
at the head of which rise the Sandfjeld (4100 ft.) and the Rupe- 
fjeldenefilQOft.). Our road traverses the well-cultivated valley of 
the Jelsterelv, and passes the Viefjeld on the left. Near the gaards 
of Bruland, which lie on an alluvial terrace, the stream forms the 
pretty Brulandsfos. The road then crosses the long Farsundebro, 
at the end of the clear Movatten , from which the stream issues, 
and skirts its N. bank. A fine view is enjoyed here of the Sand- 
dalsfjeld to the N.E., the Halvgjatrde to the E., and the Aasen- 
fjeld to the S., while in the distance appear several offshoots of the 
Jostedalsbrw. Beyond the Movatten we pass on the right the agri- 
cultural school (Landbrugsskole) of Mo. A few minutes farther on 
is the tine Huldrefos, in the midst of park-like scenery. After 
20 min. drive through a solitary pine-forest we pass on the right 
the road to Holsen and Haukedal, mentioned at p. 180. The culti- 
vation decreases as the road ascends. At the gaard of Flaata we 
obtain a fine view of the Jygrafjeld to the N. and the Sanddalsfjeld 
to the S. of the Jelstervand, at the W. end of which lies — 

19 Kil. Nedre Vasenden (slow station ; neither comfortable nor 
cheap) , the 'lower end of the water'. The traveller should here 
provide himself with provisions, as nothing else can be obtained 
before Red. The journey along the Jalstervand by boat is pleasant 
but rather long. Before continuing this journey travellers should 
take a walk across the bridge over the Jtflsterlv, which here forms 
some fine rapids. 

The road now runs along the N. bank of the pretty *J«lster- 
vand (670 ft.), which is about 14 Engl. M. in length from E. to 
W. On the N. side it is bounded by the Jygrafjeld, and on the S. 
by the Sanddalsfjeld , the Klana, the Orken, and the Sadeleggen. 
On the S. side, which is called by the natives the 'Nordside' on 
account of its facing the N., appear several stretches of the Joste- 
dalsbr<e, and at the head of the Kjesnaisfjord , which diverges to 
the S.E., is the blueish-green Glacier of Lunde, descending from 

182 Route 21. BREDHEIMSVAND. From Bergen 

the N. Both banks of the lake are studded with gaards , most of 
them on the 'Solside'. The lake and the stream flowing out of it 
contain excellent trout. The road skirts the base of the Jygrafjeld 
and reaches the gaards of Sviddal, at the mouth of the Bergsdal. 
It then traverses the fertile Aalhusbygd, passing the entrances of 
the Nedrebodal and 0vrebodal , skirts the Bjersatfjeld (3310 ft.), 
and crosses the Aardalselv. 

15 Kil. Aardal, commanding a fine view of the gaards of 
Myklebostad. — A little beyond Aardal we pass the new church of 
Helgheim, whence we have an admirable view of the Kjesncesfjord, 
with the Bjerga (5510 ft.) on the N. and the Seknesandnipa 
(4970 ft.) on the S. At the upper end of the lake is 0vre Vasenden 
or Skei. Travellers in the reverse direction who fail in procuring 
horses here should proceed by boat instead of on foot. 

The road now surmounts a small watershed and then leads to 
the N. through a broad valley , containing the Feglevand and the 
Skredvand , the amount of water in which varies considerably. 
To the E. the Fosheirnfos descends from the Bjerga (see above). The 
scenery becomes really fine when we reach the Bolsatervand, be- 
yond which lie the Stardal and several glaciers of the Jostedalsbrse. 

Pedestrians who are willing to forego a visit to the Bredheimsvand 
may proceed from Skei by the good skyds road (no tariff; arrange he- 
forehand) to the E. , through the Stardal, to Aamot (tolerable quarters, 
attendance meagre), and walk thence (with a guide, arrange terms before- 
hand) across the Oldenskar (6130 ft.) to Rusteen, at the end of the Olden- 
vand (p. 194). This expedition, through magnificent scenery, should he 
undertaken only by practised walkers (l'/2 hr. to the foot of the Aamol- 
brcc, lVs hr. to its highest point; and about l'/u hr. more for the steep 
and fatiguing descent). 

The beautiful but hilly road now follows the bank of the Stor- 
elv and then skirts the small Paulsvand. The Skjorta (4090 ft.) is 
here conspicuous to the "W. To the right, shortly before reach- 
ing F«rde , we pass the precipitous Kwpenaava , the valley below 
which is strewn with huge blocks of rock. 

16 Kil. (pay for 19) Ferde iBredheim, a poor hamlet, lies 
near the S. end of the *Bredheimsvand, or Breumsvand (200 ft. ; 
900 ft. deep), here called the Ferdefjord, a magnificent lake about 
10 Engl. M. in length, enclosed by imposing mountains. Comp. 
the Maps, pp. 106, 168. • — The road terminates here, at a lofty old 
moraine , and we embark in a rowing-boat , in which we skirt 
the E. bank of the lake. To the left rises the precipitous Skjorta, 
with the Oamledalsfos, to the right the dizzy heights of the Svens- 
kenipa (4770 ft.). The Myklandsdal is next passed on the left, and 
the Ordal on the right. To theN., in the background, rises the 
Duneggen (3650 ft.). Farther on the Skarstenfjeld rises to the left. 
Beyond this point is the Ncesdal, to the left, with several gaards. 
Shortly before reaching Red we pass the mouth of the Vaatedalselv, 
and see several offshoots of the Jostedalsbrse at the head of the 

to Molde. UTVUVKW. '21. Route. 183 

12 Kil. Red (tolerable quarters), a hamlet picturesquely situ- 
ated on the E. bank of the Bredheimsvand , near the church of 
Brcdheim. The 'landskyds-station' is on the hill to the left, a 
little beyond the hamlet; the 'baadskyds-station' is close to Red, 
at the foot of the hill. 

At the N.W. end of the lake, which is unattractive beyond this point, 
lies Vasenden, whence a road crosses the Eid (255 ft.) to Sandene on the 
Qloppenfjord (p. 168). 

The road to Utviken gradually ascends the N. side of the fertile 
Bredheimsdal, passing several pleasant gaards. Beyond Flote a 
road on the right diverges to the Bergemsvand. 

Moldestad, a group of farms about 500 ft. above the lake, 
commands a line view of the valley and the Jostedalsbrse. A road 
to the Sanddalsvand here branches off to thcE. — Between Molde- 
stad and Utviken our road crosses a very steep hill, about 2200 ft. 
in height, and most travellers will prefer walking the greater part 
of the way (11 Kil.). The pony-carts usually take about 3 hrs. to 
cross the hill, while a good walker will easily cross it in 2hrs.; but 
those who walk should insist on being preceded by the carts and 
their attendants, who, if left to themselves, are apt to be uncon- 
scionably slow. After walking for about 3 / 4 hr. we obtain a strik- 
ing view of the whole Bredheimsbygd , the large valleys to the 
E. and S., and the Bredheimsvand. The most conspicuous moun- 
tains are : the Gjetenyken (5825 ft.), with its huge glaciers, towering 
above the Sanddalsvand to the E . ; the Vora and the pointed 
Eygenibba to the S., between the Sanddalsvand and the Bergems- 
vand ; to the W., the Raadfjeld; to the S.W., the Skarstenfjeld 
(see below), overshadowing the Bredheimsvand. On reaching the 
top of the hill we And ourselves in a desolate mountain-plateau 
(2100ft.), strewn with blocks of rock brought down by the glaciers 
and with small moorland ponds. The Skarstenfjeld, with its sharply 
defined outline and large 'botn', is now very conspicuous to the S.W. 
In about 1 hr. we reach the N. margin of the plateau, whence we 
obtain a beautiful *View of the Invikfjord, and of the Laudals- 
tinder , Hornindalsrokken (p. 185), and other mountains to the N. 
The road now descends rapidly, commanding occasional views of 
the Jostedalsbrse, to ( 3 / 4 hr.) — 

17 Kil. (pay for 20) Verio (Utviken (*Loen's Inn), prettily 
situated on the Invikfjord. Travellers proceeding to the S. should 
take provisions for the journey to Nedre- Vasenden. 

A steamboat plies from Utviken to Faleide once weekly (1885 
on Wed. at 5 a. m.) in l!/ 2 nr - If tne steamer does not suit we 
take a rowing-boat (with 2 men, 2 1 / 4 kr.). On starting we see the 
Slevbergfjeld with several gaards to the left , at the foot of which 
is the breeding-place of a colony of Skarvers , a kind of gull. In 
a bay to the right lie the church and hamlet of Indviken. By 
Indviken opens the wild Prcestedal, enclosed by the Skarstenfjeld 

184 Route 21. GRODAAS. From Bergen 

on the N. and the Sterlaugpik(2270 ft.) on the S. We then skirt the 
promontory of Hildehalsen, and reach — 

11 Kil. Faleide (*Tenden's Hotel, often crowded in summer, 
English spoken ; several good guides here), pleasantly situated on 
the N. bank of the fjord, and called at once weekly (Wed., p. 183) 
by the Bergen and Nordfjord steamers. Faleide is a good starting- 
point for a variety of excursions. Towards the E. the view is 
bounded by a magnificent background of mountains : to the left 
the serrated Aarheimsfield (2020 ft.), to the right of which rise 
the huge Skaalan (6355 ft.) in the distance, and the Auflemsfjeld 
(5050 ft.), somewhat nearer; to the S. is the Algjel field (2780ft.), 
overtopped by the Skarstenfjeld (5060 ft.). 

Excursions from Faleide: to the N. to Gaarden Langetoeler (about 
820 ft.); to the E., along the bank of the lake, to Gaarden Svarvestad, 
which is fitted up in an old-fashioned style; by boat to Indmken and 
thence on foot to the Prastedal (p. 183), or to "the Skarstenfjeld (see 
above ; ascent in 4-5 hrs. ; celebrated view) ; by boat in l'/a hr. to Rake and 
thence to the top of the Opheimsfjeld (see p. 191) ; or finally to the im- 
posing glacier-valleys of Olden, Btryn, and Loen (R. 22), spending the 
night at Olden, Visnses, or Loen, so as to shorten the 10-12 hrs. expeditions. 

If the inn at Faleide is full, the traveller may proceed to Vis- 
nas (Inn), 6 Kil. farther up, and the last steamboat-station ; or 
he may row across the fjord to (14 Kil.) Olderen (p. 193). 

The road from Faleide to Hellesylt at first ascends rapidly 
to a height of 800 ft. above the sea, commanding fine retrospective 
views of the fjord and the Skarstenfjeld (p. 183). It then descends 
through a somewhat uninteresting wooded district, passing the 
gaards of Langesceter, Flore, and Sindre, to the Kjosbunden , the 
S.E. arm of the Hornindalsvand. In descending we have frequent 
views of the Holmefield to the W., the Gulekop to the N., etc 

12 Kil. (pay for 17) Kjos. The next stage, from Kjos to 
Grodaas, maybe performed by water ; but although the road is hilly, 
it is quicker to drive along the banks of the lake. 

The Hornindalsvand is the geological prolongation of theEids- 
fjord (p. 168), 185 ft. above the level of the sea and 1500 ft. in 
depth. From Vedvik and Nord (p. 168) to Grodaas it is 16 Engl. 
M. in length (steamboat 'Delen', thrice weekly in 3y 2 hrs.). To 
the N., opposite the mouth of the Kjosbunden, opens the Oterdal, 
extending between the Snetuen on the left and the Hornsnakken 
on the right. 

6 Kil. (pay for 8) Grodaas (L. P. Navelsaker's Inn , English 
spoken; Raftevold's Inn, both good), charmingly situated at the E. 
end of the Hornindalsvand, near the church of Hornindal, which 
we pass in continuing our journey. 

From Hornindal a path crosses the Kviven (2780 ft.) to (4-5 hrs.) the 
skyds-station Kaldvatn, whence we may drive towards the E. to (20 Kil.) 
Bjerke on the Jerundfjord (p. 175), or to the W. to Ferde on the Aiiste- 
fjord. on which a boat may be taken to (18 Kil.) Yohlen (p. 171). 

From Grodaas the road ascends the Hornindal, passing several 
pleasant gaards, the Denefos , and the entrance to the Hjortdal. 

to Moccle. HELLESYLT. 21. Route. 185 

Farther up the valley expands and is bounded on both sides by 
snow-clad mountains. On the right rise the Qulekop, the Seelje- 
sceterhom (f)490 ft.), and the Mulsvorhorn ; to the left, the Brcekeg 
and Lilledalseg. Below the SeeljesaHerhorn opens the Knudsdal. 

9 Kil. (pay for 11, but not in the reverse direction) Indre 
Hougen. Travellers on their way to the N. do not usually stop 
till the next station — 

6 Kil. Kjelstadli (1390 ft.), another very poor place, while 
those proceeding towards the S. (from Hellesylt) change horses at 
Kjelstadli, in order to avoid stopping at Hougen. 

From Kjelstadli the *Hornindalsrokken (5010 ft. ; Rok, 'distafF), an ap- 
parently inaccessible pinnacle of rock , commanding a magnificent view 
of the Langefjeld to the E. and the S0ndm0re mountains to the N., may 
be ascended in 5-6 hrs. (there and back, lOhrs.). The traveller drives for 
2 hrs. up the Hornindal, ascends by a path through birch-wood, and fin- 
ally has a steep climb to the top. 

Beyond Kjelstadli we enter another grand mountainous region. 
To the left opens the valley of Kjelstad , with the gaard of the 
same name and several glaciers ; to the right the Eerhusdal. The 
road descends to Tronstad (1130 ft.), formerly a station, a little 
to the N. of which, by Tryggestad, opens the Nebbedal (p. 177). 
The road descends along the left bank of the Sundalselv, the valley 
of which soon contracts to a profound ravine. To the left opens 
the Mulskeddal. Splendid view of the Sunelvfjord and its 
mountains. The road crosses the stream , passes the church of 
Sunelven, and reaches - — 

13 Kil. Hellesylt {*Jergen Tryggestad! s Inn, R. 1, S. l'/4 kr. ; 
the landlord speaks English), with the church of Sunelven, grandly 
situated at the head of the Sunelvfjord , an arm of the Stor- 
fjord. Avalanches (Sneskred) often fall here in winter. J»rgen 
Tryggestad is the tenant of the Helsetvand, 3^2 Engl. M. distant, 
which affords good fishing. — Comp. the map p. 168. 

From Hellesylt a pleasant Excuksion of 14 hrs. (there and back) may 
be made to the Nebbedal and the Norangsfjord (p. 175). We drive to 
Fibelsiad-Hougen (p. 177) in l 3 /t hr. and walk or ride thence to Hie (p. 175) 
in 3-3'/2hrs. From 0ie we row as far as the Jjzrrundfjord and then return 
(2'/a-3 hrs.). 

A steamboat plies from Hellesylt once weekly to Maeraak (Tues. 
evening), and twice weekly to Sjeholt and Aalesund (Wed. and 
Sat. morning). If the steamer does not suit, the traveller should 
row from Hellesylt to Mrcraak, about 12 Engl. M. (in 3-4 hrs.). 

About 3 Kil. to the N. of Hellesylt, on the E. side of the Sun- 
elvfjord, diverges the **Geiranger Fjord, abounding in beautiful 
waterfalls, which, however, are apt to dwindle in hot summers. At 
the entrance to it are the Nokkeneb fjeld (Neb, 'beak'J, on the right, 
and Gaarden Madvik on the left. In winter when the avalanches 
descend from the Stabbefonn , above the Nokkeneb, the windows 
at Madvik are frequently broken by the concussion. On the right, 
farther up the fjord, rises Lysurncebbet , and on the left is the 
Langflaafjeld , both upwards of 4000 ft. in height. We next ob- 

186 Route 21. MJEUAAK. From Bergen 

serve the isolated Orauthorn, beyond which the fjord contracts. 
On the N. (left) side, near Oaarden Knivsflaa, are the Knivs- 
flaafossene or 'Seven Sister Waterfalls', of which only four are now 
visible, formed by the Knivselv, and falling over a perpendicular 
cliff into the fjord. On the S. bank lies Oaarden Skaggeflaa, in 
an apparently inaccessible site, about 1600 ft. above the fjord, and 
reached by a precipitous and dizzy path. Near the gaard is the 
Skaggeflaafos or Ojeitfos. In the vicinity is a deep ravine with the 
Jutulbro ('giant bridge'). On both sides of the fjord are seen num- 
erous small waterfalls, some of which descend in the form of 
spray or mist, betraying their existence only by the disturbed 
state of the water into which they fall. Others descend from over- 
hanging cliffs in a veil-like form, and are best seen from one side. 
In cloudy weather, when the tops of the mountains are shrouded in 
vapour, the waterfalls seem to fall directly from the clouds. Shortly 
before reaching Maeraak we pass several curious rocks , assuming 
the shapes of grotesque profiles. To the left are the veil-like Aa- 
fjeldfos and the gaard of Grande (see below). Fine view of the 
mountain -background towards the E. At the head of the fjord, 
about 12V2 Engl. M. from Hellesylt, lies — 

Maeraak or Merok (^Martin Merok's Inn, moderate), pictures- 
quely situated. Mseraak commands a view of a very small part of 
the fjord only, but the Storeira, 5 min. higher, enjoys a beautiful 
and extensive prospect. An interesting excursion may be taken 
hence to the Storsceterfos (2000 ft. above the sea-level, about 
3 hrs. there and back, a stiff climb ; guide 1-2 kr.). 

In the background, behind Mseraak, rises the Solencebba, the base of 
which is passed by the path to Orjotlid (p. 165) and Skeaker (p. 163) in the 
Gudbrandsdal. A fine new road is being made. This magnificent route 
should if possible be visited from Masraak (on foot or on horseback) as 
far as the 'Fjeldstue' or refuge-hut on the Stavbrcekkene (10-12 hrs. there 
and back). 

Grande, a gaard on the N. bank of the fjord, about 3 Kil. from 
Maeraak, is the starting-point of an exceedingly grand mountain route 
to Ytredal (20 Kil.). The path ascends very steeply for 2 hrs., command- 
ing a survey of the Holensebba Fjeld and part of the Geirangerfjord, and 
then crosses the broad moor-covered plateau to (1 hr.) Eide, from which 
a carriage-road descends past the clear lake through a beautiful valley 
to the Sorddalsfjord (carriage in about 3 hrs. to Ytredal, 2 kr.). From 
Ytredal to Sylte (see below) a row of IV4 hr. — Excursions may also 
be made to Hellesylt (p. 185), Sjeholt (p. 188), and the Ta fjord (p. 187). 

The steamer returns from Mseraak to the Sunelvfjord, which 
is bounded on the "W. by the Aakernces fjeld, and on the E. by the 
Nonsfjeld and the Snuhorn. On the W. bank, opposite the en- 
trance to the Geirangerfjord, lies Ljeen, whence an old post-road 
ascends the Ljeenbakker (2600 ft.) in zigzags. On the E. bank 
are several gaards. Farther on the steamer again turns to the E. 
into the Norddalsfjord , an arm of the Storfjord , where it passes 
St. Olafs Snushorn, a grotesquely-shaped cliff, and touches at 
Ytredal, Belling, with the Norddalskirke, and Sylte (Gunnar Gtb- 
ningssetei's Inn), on the N. bank. A curious vein of light quartz 

to Movue. SLYNGSFJORD. 21. Route. 187 

here is called St. Olafs Slange or Syltormon. To the B. rises the 
lofty Egguraxlen. — From this point onwards the route may he 
traced on the Map at p. 194. 

From Stlte to Vebluhgsnjes. This interesting route usually takes 
I'/* day, but may be accomplished in 1 day if the traveller drive to 
Langdal. The road at first ascends the old moraine of Langbrekken. 
At the top of the hill is a cross in memory of St. Olaf, who in 1028 
fled from Sylte to Lesje in the Gudbrandsdal. The road then ascends 
the Valdai, passing several pleasant gaards, which are much in vogue as 
summer-quarters among the citizens of Aalesund. At Rem, the first large 
gaard, carrioles and horses may he obtained. Beyond Rem we cross the 
wide stony tract of Skjwrsurden and pass (5 hrs. drive from Sylte) the gaard 
of Grening on the right. One hour farther on lies (24 Kil.) Oaarden 
Langdal, where good entertainment and also, if desired, quarters for the 
night are obtainable. The road then ascends past the uppermost saeters 
of the Valdai to the top of the Stegafjeld pass, where a magnificent 
survey is unfolded of the Romsdalshorn, the Vangetinder, Kongen, and 
Dronningen, with the fjord in the distance to the North. Beyond this 
point a footpath, indicated by 'Varder' (guide necessary; engage before- 
hand) crosses the fjeld, skirting several small lakes and sometimes over 
snow. It then turns towards the Isterdal on the right, descends the 
Slegane in innumerable windings and passes the Isterfos, several hundred 
feet high, commanding a fine view of the Islerdalsfjeld to the left and 
the W. side of the Trolltinder (p. 127) to the right. In about 6 hrs. 
from Langdal we reach the Soggesceter, where milk and bread may be 
obtained. To Veblungsnws 2 hrs. more (see p. 127). 

A visit may also be paid from Sylte to the imposing ''Tafjord, the 
easternmost bay of the Norddalsfjord, whence paths rarely frequented lead 
to Orjotlid (p. 165) and to Stuefloten (p. 125). The Tafjord, though inferior 
to the Geiranger, also boasts of very grand scenery. After leaving Sylte 
we observe the solitary farm of Kaste on the hill to the right. On the 
left is a fine waterfall; and on the same side, farther on, is the Muldals- 
fos, descending from the inhabited Muldal. The steamer steers through a 
strait into a kind of amphitheatre. A waterfall on the right rebounds 
from a projecting rock, which divides it into two parts. In the back- 
ground is the village of Tafjord, on the hill above which, to the right, 
are iron-mines belonging to an English company. Lofty snow-mountains 
peer over the banks of the fjord in every direction. 

The steamer now continues its western course , and touches at 
'Bygden' Linge, with its picturesque gaards, and at the Liabygd. 
A line view is obtained as far as Hellesylt to the S., and the 
mountains of the Geiranger Fjord become particularly conspicuous. 
The steamer then crosses to Stranden or Langlo - Stranden (see 
also p. 176), with the church of Slyngstad , on the S. bank. The 
scenery here presents a pleasing combination of softness and gran- 
deur. In the background rises the Hemdalshom. 

The fjord now assumes the name of Slyngsfjord. The steamer 
steers round the projecting Stordalsnces or Holmen , and touches 
at the gaards of Hove and Vinje , at the entrance to the pictur- 
esque Stordal. To the S.W. rises the lofty, snow-clad Storeggen. 
Our course now continues to the N., passing on the left the huge 
Iiamstndhorn, the Sjevikshorne, and the Orebstadhom. On the N. 
bank lie the gaards of Vugsvik, Vestre, and Amdam. On the S. 
band are Ramstad, whence a carriage-road leads to (11 Kil.) Aure 
(p. 188), and the steamboat-station of Sjevik. The steamer then 
rounds the Gausnces, and enters a bay, at the end of which lies — 

188 Route 21. VESTN.ES. 

Sjtfholt (Sjeholt Hotel), charmingly situated amid luxuriant 
vegetation at the S.E. base of the Lifjeld. To the N.E. rises the 
Snaufjeld, and to the S. the snow-capped Storkorn. On the op- 
posite bank of the stream -which here enters the fjord is the church 
of 0rskog. 

Walks. Towards the W. to the ('/a hr.) 'Laksvarpe 1 (called ^Gilge" 
in the Sogn district) , or apparatus for catching salmon , with white 
boards to attract the fish. — To the 0rskogdal , which contains a pretty 
waterfall. — To reach the top of the Lifjeld we ascend the Solnerdal for 
1 hr., and then climb to the left for '/ 2 hr. The S. slope of the Lifjeld 
is called Apalscel/jeld, where there is a deserted iron-mine , from which 
a tramway descends to the fjord. 

From Sj»holt to Aalesund (38 Kil. or 24 Engl. M.), we may 
proceed either by the road via, (13 Kil.) Flaate and (13 Kil.) 
Redscet, or by the steamboat. The latter, which plies several times 
a week and takes 4 hrs. to the voyage, first touches at Langskibse, 
on the N. bank of the fjord, which is here called the Nordfjord 
(not to be confounded with the Nordfjord mentioned at p. 168). 
The next station is Aure in Sykelven , charmingly situated on a 
S. bay of the fjord in the midst of imposing scenery (comp. p. 176), 
and often crowded in summer with visitors from Aalesund (from 
Aure to Skylstad-0ie, see p. 176). In the background rises the 
pointed Stremshom (3240 ft.). We next pass, on the left, Tusvik, 
which also affords accommodation to summer visitors. Passing 
the Jerundfjord (p. 175) on the left, the steamer steers to the 
N.W., between the Sule on the left and the Oksene on the right, 
and soon reaches the beautifully situated town of Aalesund(j>. 171). 

From Sj»holt to Molde. The road at first gradually ascends 
through the pretty 0rskogdal to a moorland plateau, in which lies 
a small lake. The traveller will here notice numerous 'Loer, or 
small huts for containing the hay ; the long poles are for marking 
the way in winter. We then cross the boundary between the 
Bergens-Stift and the Throndhjems-Stift, and descend into the 

15 Kil. EUingsgaard (575 ft. ; no accommodation). The scen- 
ery now becomes more attractive. To the right rise the Sprovfjeld 
and the Jcegerhom ; to the left the Skortind. The road now skirts 
the W. bank of the beautiful Tresfjord , passing several gaards, 
crosses the mouth of the narrow Misfjord, and reaches — 

11 Kil. Vestnees (*Inn), a scattered village with a church, 
beautifully situated near the Moldefjord. Steamboats six times 
weekly to Molde and four times weekly to Veblungsna;s (p. 127). If 
the steamer does not suit, we cross the fjord by boat in 2'/2-3 hrs. 
to (12 Kil.) — 

Molde, see p. 195. 

22. The Valleys of Stryn, Loen, and Olden. 

Comp. the map, p. 168. 

As the steamer ('Nordfjord') visits the Nordfjord only once a week, 
comparatively few travellers can avail themselves of it. Leaving Bergen 
on Mon. at midnight, it reaches Floreen (p. 167) on Tues. at noon, Utviken 
on Wed. at 5 a.m., Faleide at 6V2, Visnces at 7, Olden or Olderen (p. 193) 
at 8, and Loen (p. 191) at 8V2, the same morning. It starts on the return 
voyage at once, reaching Faleide at 11 1/2 a.m., Utvik at 1 p.m., Flore at 
8'/2 on Thurs. morning, and Bergen at 9 in the evening. 

Faleide (p. 184) is the best head-quarters for visiting the grand and 
picturesque valleys of Stryn, Loen, and Olden; but fair accommodation may 
be obtained at Oldgrren or Visnses, and unpretending quarters in Loen. 
Each of the three excursions requires 10-12 hrs. from Faleide; but travel- 
lers may avoid the long row across the lake, by spending the nights suc- 
cessively in OldOren, Visnses, and Loen. To cross the fjord two men and 
a good-sized boat are necessary. The 'Rorskarle', who receive 6 kr. each 
for a single excursion and 5 kr. per diem extra if a night is spent on the 
way, act as guides ; but in the actual glacier-climbing they are of com- 
paratively little service. They provide their own food; the traveller 
must also take with him bis own provisions from Faleide, Visnses, or 
Old/jren, as in the valleys generally only milk and bread can be obtained. 

The entrance of the Nordfjord from the W., see p. 168. — 
From theE. end of the Jnvikfjord, the innermost branch of the Nord- 
fjord, the three valleys Stryndal, Loendal, and Oldendal extend 
into the heart of the Norwegian Fjeld , and to the Jostedalsbra 
(p. 103). The greater part of the floor of each of these valleys is 
occupied by a lake, 7-10 Engl. M. in length, formed by an ancient 
moraine-formation, which separates it from the fjord and is called 
the Eid. At the upper end of the valleys the glaciers, extending from 
the higher snow-fields of the Jostedalsbra?, descend so far that from 
the middle of the lake they seem actually to reach its banks. All 
three lakes, but especially those in the Oldendal and Loendal, are 
enclosed by rocky walls 4-5000 ft. high, over which rise mountain- 
peaks to the height of 6500 ft. On all sides hang huge glaciers, 
some ending abruptly in precipitous walls of rock, over the brink 
of which are precipitated large masses of ice detached from the 
main body. This phenomenon is known as the 'calving' of the 
glaciers. From the numerous Assures in the rocky wall glacier- 
streams fall into the lakes, tingeing with a milky hue the green 
waters below. At the mouths of many of these streams are situated 
gaards or sseters, occupied only at night, the owners coming by boat 
in the evening to milk their cattle, and returning in the morning 
to their farms. Higher up the valley, however, the sseters are often 
permanently inhabited. The people are still very primitive and 
somewhat dirty. Their salutation on meeting a passer-by is Qodt 
Mot (Mede); to each other when working, Signe Arbeidet (Gurf 
vel signe Arbeidet). "When the traveller finds a gaard with no one 
within, he lights a Are for himself, takes what milk and bread he 
requires, and leaves a remuneration on the window-sill. 

I. Excursion to the Stryndal : to the end of the Stryns- 
vand hrs., to the Gredungsbra 8 hrs. 

1 90 Route 22. STRYNDAL. Excursions 

Starting from Faleide in a rowing-boat we pass the gaards of 
Berg and Lunde, enjoying a view, to the right, of the Aarheims- 
fjeld and of the Grytefjeld, farther to the N. To the right is 
Visnas (p. 168; good quarters at Fru Mugaas's); to the left, the 
large gaard of Fife, belonging to the Lendsmand. After a journey 
of l l /-2 hr. we leave the boat (retaining the rowers) at the skyds- 
station of — 

Toning (Inn), whence a picturesque road leads along the N. 
bank of the Strynelv, past Ytre Eide, the church of Nedstryn, and 
the gaards of Gjerven and 0vre Eide, to the Strynsvand (80 ft.). 
This lake, which is about 10 Engl. M. in length, is at first narrow, 
but afterwards, at Lindvik, expands into a beautiful sheet of water. 
We obtain a boat here (40 ».), which is manned by the rowers 
brought from Faleide, and proceed to traverse the lake. We first 
pass, on the left, the gaards of Tenden, Sunde, and Eikences, and 
on the right, those of Ytre and Indre Lunde. We then skirt a pro- 
jecting headland, and observe the gaards of Dispen, Meland, and 
Bergstad. When we reach the broader part of the Strynsvand we 
see to the N. the Marshydna (5410 ft.), farther on , the Flofjeld 
(5140 ft. ), with the Bindalshorn (5950 ft.) behind it, and the high- 
lying gaards of Flo (770 ft.) in front. To the right are the gaards 
of Holmevik, 0renas, and Tunold, and higher up those of Brakke 
and Aaning, above which towers the Brakkefjeld. From this point 
we. proceed, in a S.E. direction to the Church of Opstryn , above 
which, to the S.W., appears the Fosncesbra, descending from the 
Skaalan (see below). On the other side we have a view of the Gloms- 
dal and Videdal, with the Glomnceseggen and the Midtstelshydna 
rising between them. At the mouth of the Videdal lies Hjelle. 

Travellers who wish to visit Grjotlid or Mork in the Gudbrandsdal, 
land on the E. bank near Hjelle, whence the road to Grjotlid (p. 165) 
leads through the Videdal. The road to Mork (p. 103) diverges to the 
right, near the gaard of Grov, and leads through the Sundal and across 
the Kamphamrene. 

To the right appear the gaards of Fosnces and Dorreflot, and 
then the entrance to the sombre Erdal, at the upper end of which 
the Gredungsbra is visible. In front, to the right, is the Tinde- 
fjeldsbra with the Tavsehydna, and to the left, the Ryghydna 
(5325 ft.) and the Sceterfjeld (6200 ft.), the whole forming a most 
imposing picture of mountain and glacier scenery. 

After a row of 3 hrs. we land (6 hrs. from Faleide) at the gaard 
of Merk or Grenfur , cross the Erdela to the gaard of Erdal, and 
ascend the *Erdal, via Berge and Tjmlhaug, to Qaarden Oredung 
(30-40 min.; tolerable quarters). Proceeding thence, with a view of 
the glacier that stretches down between the Strynskaupe on the 
left and the Skaalfjeld on the right, we arrive in 2-2'/2 nrs - at the 
loftily-situated Gredungssater, at the foot of the fissured *Gre- 
dungsbrce (2330 ft.), past which leads the route to the Jostedal 
(see p. 106). 

fromFaleide. LOENDAL. 22. Route. 191 

An excursion from the Gredungssseter over the Jostedalsbrse to the 
Lodalskaupe (p. 106), and thence into the Bedal (p. 192) takes 8-10 hrs., 
and should not be attempted without an experienced guide (to he obtain- 
ed at Gredung). By this expedition the traveller avoids the necessity of 
returning to Toning, and can go directly to Loen through the Loendal. 

II. Excursion to the Loendal : to Loen from Faleide 2 hrs., 
from Olderen 1 hr.; on foot to Vasenden 3 / 4 hr.; to the upper end 
of the Loenvand, by rowing-boat, 2 hrs.; thence on foot to within 
sight of the Kjendalsbrm V2" 3 A ^ r -i t0 * ne glacier itself V'2 _3 /4 nr - 
more. The Loendal, as the finest, should be kept to the last. 

The passage from Faleide (p. 184) to Loen is very picturesque. 
To the E. rise the Skaalan (6360 ft.) with its glacier-filled 'Schaale' 
opening to the N.W., the Sandenibben, and the Auflemsfjeld (see 
below), behind which, as we proceed, the Melheimsnibben comes 
also into view. On the S. bank are the gaards of Aarholm, Algjel 
(high up, with a waterfall and saw-mill), Vanberg, Hceggestad, 
QiUesdal, and Skarsten, the last giving its name to the Skarsten- 
fjeld (5060 ft.). On the N. side rise the Aarheimsfjeld (p. 184) 
and the Opheimsfjeld ; the latter may be ascended from Bake in 
2 hrs., and commands a magnificent view. A still more extensive 
prospect is obtained from the top of the Lofjeld (i/ 2 hr. to the E.). 
To the S. we now gain an uninterrupted view of the Oldendal 
(p. 193). Travellers land at the 'N»st' (boat-houses), about lOmin. 
walk from the village. — From Oldaren (p. 193) also Loen can 
be reached by water only. 

Loen (where, if necessary, lodging can be obtained in the house 
of the 'Bondemand', Johannes Loen, or in that oi Anders Markusson 
Loen), with a little church belonging to Stryn, lies at the entrance 
to the *Loendal , which is watered by a clear little stream and is 
bounded on the N. by the Lofjeld, and on the S. by the Auflems- 
fjeld (5050 ft.). A carriage-road, affording beautiful views of the 
snow-covered Bedalsfjeld, and farther on of the Kronebra and the 
Kjendalskrona, ascends from Loen through a park-like landscape, 
passes the mouth of the Fosdal and the Haugfos, a 'horse-shoe' 
waterfall formed by the Loendalselv, and brings us in 35 min. to 
the hamlet of Vasenden. Fine view from the bridge to the right. 

We now reach the **Loenvand , a mountain lake of the most 
imposing description, about 7^2 Engl. M. long. A boat is obtained 
here (40 ».), the rowers for which must be brought from Faleide 
(comp. p. 189). Soon after starting we enjoy an uninterrupted 
view over the whole lake. On the left, above the gaard of Sande, 
rises the Sandenibben (5430 ft.), on the right are the Auflemsfjeld 
and the Melheimsnibben (5425 ft.). From all the mountains, but 
especially from the Ravnefjeld (6560 ft.) on the right, large gla- 
ciers descend, all, however, ending at a considerable altitude. 
At the lirengsnassater, to the left, a waterfall descends from the 
Skabbra ; farther on , on the same side , are the gaards of Helle- 

192 Route 22. NyESPAL. Excursions 

sater. On the opposite side of the lake is a huge glacier, the 
Hellesceterbra, terminating abruptly at a height of 3900 ft., from 
which there roll down during the warm weather almost constant 
avalanches of ice. These fall first over a sheer precipice of 1000 ft. 
and then flow onward in a partially covered stream, finally spread- 
ing themselves out in a fan-shaped form, and almost reaching 
the verge of the lake. At the time when there are no avalanches 
about 10 waterfalls pour over the precipice. 

On the left are the gaard of Hogrending and a waterfall de- 
scending from the Osterdalsbrce. The right bank is uninhabited. 
On the left rises the Kvcernhusfjeld (5700 ft.) , with the gaard of 
Redi at its foot. To the right is the precipice of the serrated 
Itavnefjeld, the base of which we now skirt towards the S. On the 
left we have a view of the Bedal, with Gaarden Bedal, and in 
the background the Skaalfjeld with the Skaalbrce. 

From the gaard of B#dal we may visit the Bedalssceler and the ad- 
jacent Bedalsbrcc (Sceterbne, Vfe-2 hrs.) or, spending the night on the 
soeter, we may ascend the Lodalskaupe (8S50 ft.; p. 106) in 8-10 hrs. The 
traveller must, however, secure his guide beforehand in B#dal, as on the 
sseters generally girls only are to be found. 

The lake now contracts to the dimensions of a 'Sund'. In front 
towers the huge *Nonsnibba, rising sheer to a height of over 
6000 ft. To the right opens the Kvandal or Nasdal, with its gla- 
cier, adjoining which is the *Utigardsfos , a waterfall 2000 ft. 
high , descending from the glaciers of the Eavnefjeld. Passing 
through a bend of the lake, we find ourselves in the centre of the 
magnificent **Amph,itheatre of Nsesdal, bounded by the Ravne- 
fjeld on the W., the Nonsnibba on the S., and the Badalsfjeld on 
the E. Between the two latter we see the Kronebrce and the Kjen- 
dalskrona (G000 ft.]. The grandeur of the scenery here is elsewhere 
unequalled in S. Norway. On the alluvial land at the mouth of 
the Kvandalselr, the outflow of the Kvandalsbne, lie the turf-roofed 
gaards of Ncesdal. We land at the mouth of the stream after a row 
of about 2 hours. 

At the end of the lake the valley continues in the same direc- 
tion for about ^ nr -> then bends to the right, so as to command 
an unimpeded view of the *Kjendalsbrce, on which a waterfall de- 
scends to the right. Prom this point we may either return , or, 
following the path which crosses the river twice, push on to the 
glacier in 1 hour more. The glacier is receding. From the highest 
moraine we obtain a good view of the deep-blue ice-cavern at its ex- 
tremity. Those who penetrate thus far may cross the glacier (but 
not without trouble) to the * Waterfall, which descends from a 
height of 650 ft. and is scarcely inferior in size to the V0ringsfos. 

From N*sdal across the Jostedalsbr* to the .Tostedal. This 
fatiguing expedition (with Jacob and Simon Ncesdal as guides ; about 
25 kr. ; a compass and provisions should be taken) requires about 15 hrs. 
The road leads from Nsesdal to the (l 3 /4 hr.) Krundahsater , where 
the night should be spent, so that the whole of the next day may be 
devoted to the main expedition. The most fatiguing part is the ensuing 

from Faleide. OLDENDAL. 22. Route. 193 

ascent of about 2'/2 hrs. over rocks to the glacier, which we cross in about 
5'/^ hrs. more (highest point 6685 ft.). We descend along the Tvwrbrcc to 
the (3 hrs.) Bergscetre, at the upper end of the Krondal (p. 105), and 
2-2'/2 hrs. above the church of Jostedal (p. 105). 

III. Excursion to the Oldendal : to Olderen 2 hrs., to the 
Oldenvand 1 hr. , to Rusteen 2 hrs. , to the Brigsdal Olacier 
2-21/2 hrs. 

The row from Faleide (p. 184) to (14 Kil.) Olderen takes 
2 hrs., from (11 Kil.) Visum (p. 190) 1% hr. Beyond Gillesdal 
we obtain a full view to the S. of the Oldendal , as far up as 
the pass of Sunde. To the right rises the Cecilienkrona (see 
below), to the left the Ravnefjeldsbraj. 

Oldtfren or Olden [Inn, unpretending but good, excellent head- 
quarters for excursions in the neighbourhood) lies at the mouth 
of the beautiful Oldendal. As this is not a skyds-station it is 
unlikely that the traveller can obtain a 'stolkjaerre' here, but he 
may order one to await him atEide on his return (in about 8 hrs.; 
fare iy 2 kr.). 

The picturesque walk from Olderen to (4 Kil.) Eide can be 
easily accomplished in 1 hr. After 20 min. we cross the milky 
stream, which here forms the Lekenfos. We then proceed to the 
W., skirting the Floenvand, on the E. bank of which lies the 
ruined gaard of Opheim, destroyed by an inundation (Flom) in 
1879. In !/ 2 hr. we reach — 

Eide, at the N. end of the *01denvand, a lake 7 Engl. M. in 
length and barely 3 / 4 M. in breadth, which stretches hence towards 
the S. and is enclosed by lofty walls of rock. A rough bridle- 
path on the W. bank may be used if no boat can be procured. 

The first half of the passage is less interesting than the second. 
To the left lies the gaard of Sandnas, to the right an ancient mo- 
raine with the gaard of Bennces, above which rises the Bennas- 
Klaaven. Waterfalls plunge headlong from the rocks on every 
side. To the right towers the huge Store Cecilienkrona (5825 ft.), 
the steep sides of which give no foothold to gaard or s*ter. To the 
left, by the side of mountain-torrents, lie the gaards of Haahjem, 
Strand, and Ojerde. To the S. the lake appears walled in by the 
Synsnibben, but as we approach Sunde, we obtain a view, through 
an opening to the right, of the Orytereidsnibben (5620 ft.) and the 
Yrinib, with their glaciers. — The strait of *Sunde, through which 
we next pass, has been formed by the deposits brought down on 
the left by two streams descending from the Gjerdeaxlen (6420 ft.) 
and the Neslenibben(i8Q0it.^. On the same bank are the gaards of 
Sunde. On the right another stream, formed by the outflow of the 
glacier of the Cecilienkrona, enters the lake near the gaard Flaaten. 
The current in the narrow Sunde is rather strong. The reflection 
(Skyggebillede) of the glaciers and waterfalls in the greenish-milky 
water produces a very curious effect. — On rounding the sombre 

Baedeker's Norway and Sweden. 3rd Edit. 13 

194 Route 22. OLDENDAL. 

steeps of the Synsnib, we obtain a magnificent **View of the S. 
half of the lake, which here expands to its former dimensions. 
The Malkevoldbrce, a huge and imposing glacier, is seen descend- 
ing from the head of the Oldendal to the lake, a distance of 6 Engl. 
M. To the right towers the majestic Yrinib , from which several 
waterfalls are precipitated , while at its base lie the gaards of 
Bak-Yri and Indre-Yri. At the end of the lake is the Rustefjeld, 
with a large waterfall, descending in two leaps. Other cascades 
fall from the Kvamfjeld, to the left. 

After a row of 2 hrs. we land at Rusteen, where a bed, bread, 
and milk may be obtained. The gaard lies on the alluvial land 
formed by the deposits of innumerable glacier streams. Our route 
gradually ascends across this low-lying and at places marshy tract 
to Hojalm, and then traverses an old moraine to ^/^hr.) Matlkevuld, 
whence a path leads to the S.W. through the Oldenskar to the 
Stardal (guide, Christen Rusteen; see p. 182). Opposite Malke- 
vold are the Augsburgnibba and the glacier and gaards of Aabrekke, 
in the Brandsdal. At the last gaard we again descend to the left 
into the valley, passing a mill (kvarnhus) on the right. The path 
then leads to the left along the stream , in the direction of the 
* Malkevoldbrce , in which there is a large ice -cavern. After 
20 min. we cross a marshy piece of ground , beyond which we 
thread our way among large boulders, and in 20 min. more we 
cross the stream and ascend to the E. through the Brlgsdal to 
(10 min.) — 

Oaarden Brlgsdal (490 ft.), where milk can be procured. On 
the opposite side of the main valley is the *Nonsfos, a pretty 
double fall. Comp. the Map at p. 106. 

We now ascend on the right bank of the Brigsdalselv to the 
C/2 hr.) Waterfall of that stream. The ascent is easy at first, but 
soon becomes very steep , and at places demands actual climbing. 
Beyond the fall we ascend over ice-worn rocks to a new zone of the 
valley, where we suddenly obtain a beautiful view of the *Brigs- 
dalsbra; , the blue ice masses of which tower above forests of birch 
and alder. Our route now leads through the trees, and in 20 min. 
brings us to the foot of the glacier (1000 ft.), which descends from 
the Jostedalsbra; on the E. On every side are strewn huge blocks 
of ice , which have become detached from the glacier. Another 
glacier , from which waterfalls and occasionally ice-boulders also 
descend, is seen to the S., high up. 

The following fatiguing and difficult expedition, affording a fine 
survey of the majestic beauties of the Jostedalsbrae , is occasionally 
made from this point. Ascending the Brigsdalbrce we skirt the rocky 
hill at the head of it (5500 ft.), and reach the Mculkevoldbrce. We then 
descend the latter glacier , traversing a disagreeable tract of debris , and 
finally cross the Brigsdalselv to Gaarden Brigsdal (see above). This ex- 
pedition should be attempted only with the aid of Christen Rusteen, as 
the Faleide guides are by no means at home in this region. 

Geograph. Aust. v. 

•"^ SlailliMi tA 



' \^ ~1>& wpjnflfiyaard 
Hkuipstd /K ,7 t r 

23. Molde and the Moldefjord with its Branches. 

Molde, tin account of its multifarious steamboat connections, is an 
excellent starting-point for various interesting tours. A visit to the 
neighbourhood of the Moldefjord and to the Romsdalsfjord may be 
especially recommended. The latter visit should be made from Molde 
rather than in the reverse direction, as in the former case the landscape 
increases in impressiveness as we proceed, whereas, if we visit the 
Romsdal first, the succeeding scenery becomes less grand at every step. 
Those who intend to return to Molde should go by land and return l>y 

Steamers leave Molde for Bergen and Throndhjem 4 times a week ; for 
Aalesund, 6 times; for Vestnces, 3-4 times; for Veblungznws, 3-4 times; for 
Eidsvaag and Naste via, Alfarnws, twice. For Bod they sail generally twice 
a week ; and for the islands of Hare, Sande and Ona weekly or fortnightly. 

Molde (*(ifjmd-ilalel, opened in 1885, well situated, with a 
line view; * Alexandra, formerly Simonscn's Hotel, at the W. end 
of the town, also with view, R. 2-21/2 ^ r -, A. 40 »., B. 1.50, 
I). 3, S. IY2 kr. ; *Molde Hotel, in the main street, near the 
steamboat anchorage), a clean little town of 1700 inhab. , is 
pleasantly situated on the N. bank of the Moldefjord. Although 
the long islands of Hjcerte and Faare afford excellent shelter to 
the harbour, yet its trade for the most part has been gradually 
diverted to Aalesund. Being sheltered by hills of considerable 
height from the N. and W. winds, the vegetation in the neighbour- 
hood is unusually luxuriant. Roses and other flowers are more 
abundant than in most other parts of Norway, and some of the 
houses are picturesquely overgrown with honeysuckle. The pre- 
dominant pine and birch are mingled with horse-chestnuts, limes, 
ashes, and cherry-trees. The main street of the little town, running 
parallel with the bank of the fjord, presents a trim and clean ap- 
pearance. At the back of the town, a little above the main street, 
is a road skirting the hill-side, and commanding beautiful views. 
On this road stands the Church, with its pretty churchyard. We 
follow the road to the E. as far as a mill and small waterfall, near 
which we observe a very large cherry-tree. A branch of this road 
descends again to the coast-road, which leads to the E. past the 
prettily situated Oaard Molde and along the Fanestrand, as this 
part of the bank is called, nearly 4 Engl. M. in length, where a 
number of the merchants of Christianssund possess pleasant villas 
(see also p. 197). 

The road running to the W. from the church , and another 
diverging from the main street at the house No. 26 and passing 
through an avenue of birches, both lead to the Humle-Have or 
' Dahls-Have, a charming private garden , beyond which a path 
ascends to the (1 hr.) Varde on the *Moldehei (1350 ft. ; several 
finger-posts 'til Varden). On the top are a refuge-hut and a huge 
weather-vane. The view is one of the most picturesque in Norway. 
At our feet lies the beautiful fjord, with Molde nestling on its N. 
bank; on the opposite bank, beyond Vestnaes , rises a long range 
of picturesquely shaped mountains, partially covered with snow, the 


\ 96 Route 23. STOR TUEN. Moldefjord. 

most prominent of whicli'is Lauparen(see below) ; to the left of these 
(S.E.), in the distance, rise the Troll tinder (p. 127), Romsdalshorn, 
and Vengefjeldene in the Romsdal, and still more to the left (E.) 
theSkjortan in theEikisdal(p. 200). By walking 10-15min. farther 
to the left we also obtain a view of the open sea. (A good pano- 
rama is to be had at Olsen's book-shop at Molde, and at Cammer- 
meyer's in Christiania, price l'^kr.) — Those who have not time 
to ascend the Moldehei should follow the road for 10 min. beyond 
Humle-Have, turn to the right, and ascend the *Rakna.shaug, a 
knoll commanding a charming view similar to that from the Molde- 
hei, though less extensive (from the inns to this point and back 
i i2- s /i nr 0- At the foot of this hill lies the leper hospital of 

To the N.E. of Molde rises *Stor Tuen ('great hill' ; 3200 ft.), 
known in Molde as the Tursten, another remarkably fine point of 
view, which should be visited if time permits (2'/-2-3 hrs. ; guide 
advisable). The route ascends on the farther bank of the brook at 
the E. end of the town, passing a few houses and traversing a 
partially cleared wood. The barren 'Tue' forms the background 
of the valley. After 3 / 4 hr. the valley divides ; we keep to the 
right, and in 1/4 hr. more cross a bridge. The path then ascends 
towards the summit in a straight direction , through pines, 
birches, juniper-bushes, and ferns, and is marshy at places, but 
presents no difficulty. The dying and dead pines , with their 
silver-grey trunks, on the (l'/4 nr upper boundary of the wood 
are very picturesque. Thence to the summit about 20 min. more. 
The flora here is of an Alpine character. The very extensive view 
embraces the fjord and the mountains to the N., E., and S., while 
the boundless Atlantic stretches to the W. — On the mountain 
are several small lakes or tarns (Tjcern) which form the source of 
the brook by which we have ascended. 

a. Steamboat Voyage from Molde to Veblungsnses 
in the Romsdal. 

The Aalesund steamers ('Laurvig'', 'Lodden', and 'Robert') leave Molde 
thrice weekly at 12 or 12.30 p.m. , for Veblungsnais and Na'S (4 hrs.), re- 
turning on the following mornings. There are also two local steamers 
weekly; one leaving Molde on Tues. at 4 p.m. and going direct to Nais; 
the other leaving on Sat. at 9 p.m. and calling at Vestnces, Nordvik, 
Veblungsnais, and Nais. These leave Nses on the return-voyage on Tues. 
at 7 p.m., and Sat. at 2 p.m. respectively. The excursion from Veblungs- 
npes or N8es to Ormeim (p. 126) and hack takes an entire day. 

The Aalesund steamer and the Saturday local steamer first steer 
towards the (1 hr.) S. bank of the Moldefjord, where, at the en- 
trance of the Tresfjord, lies Vestnces (p. 188), whence a road leads 
to Sj»holt, see p. 188. The Lauparen (5155 ft.) is here the most 
conspicuous of the mountains in the background. Passing the ver- 
dant Gjermundsnces, we next come to the island of Scekken, where 
the Aalesund steamer stops at Vestad. Beyond this point the fjord 

Moldefjord. ROMSDALSFJORD. 23. Route. 197 

takes the name of *Romsdalsfjord. We here enjoy a fine view of 
the furrowed Vengefjeldene and other mountains of the Romsdal, 
of the Langfjord with the Skaalan to the N., and of numerous 
lofty peaks to the S. At the foot of these last is the thickly- 
peopled Vaagestrand, with its high-lying white church. 

The steamer then skirts the peninsula on which rises the Oxen 
(^2675 ft.), with the R»dvenfjord (p. 198) to the E. Some steamers 
stop at Nordrik, lying with the church of Eid on the low neck at 
the S. end of the peninsula. 

To the S. rise the Troldstolene , with the St. Olafs-Stol, a 
'Rotn' formed by two hills and supposed to resemble a chair. The 
steamer then enters the little bay of Void, with an old wooden 
church and numerous boat-houses (Neste). A beautiful mountain 
background with a couple of glaciers forms the end of the green 
and richly cultivated valley. 

Farther on, the huge mountains on the Ind fjord, which stretches 
from Sevik towards the S. for about 4 Engl. M. , become promi- 
nent. They are generally known as the Isterfjeldene, and are as yet 
quite unexplored by the tourist. To the N. is Thorvik (p. 19S). 
The magnificent view from this point includes the Isfjord, the 
Smerbottenfjeld to the N. , and the massive mountains of the 
Romsdal to the S. ; to the left is the Nasfjeld, and in the back- 
ground the peaks of the Vengefjeldene , the blunted Kallskrua- 
fjeld and the Romsdalshorn (p. 127). An adequate idea of the 
immense size of these mountains may be obtained by remembering 
that most of them are as high above the sea as the Konigsspitze 
or the Ortler above Sulden. 

Veblungsnses and Uses, on the E. bank of the Rauma, which 
descends from the Romsdal, see p. 127. To penetrate into the 
*Romsdal beyond Ormeim is not recommended, see p. 125. 

The eastern arm of the Romsdalsfjord is called the Isfjord. In 
winter it is entirely frozen. At its upper end lies Sten and the 
church of Hen, whence we may walk via Grerdal to the N. end of 
the Eikisdalsvand (p. 201). 

b. Land Route from Molde to Veblungsnaes. 

44 Kil. Road. The stations are all fast with the exception of Moltle 
itself, where a carriage should be ordered in good time, and of Dvergs- 
nies , to which 'Forbud' for a carriole should be forwarded. In the 
reverse direction this is unnecessary, as a boat is always to be had. 
Those who have visited or who do not care to visit the Fanestrand may 
go ,by steamer (p. 200) or rowing-boat from Molde to Alfarnws. Beer is 
almost the only refreshment to be got on the way. 

Immediately to the E. of Molde begins (as already mentioned 
at p. 195) the *Fanestrand , a coast-road shaded with birches, 
ashes, maples, larches, etc., and affording fine views of the fjord 
and the mountains of the Romsdal in the distance. At Lerbrovik. 
halt-way to Strande, the Strand, the first part of which is studded 
with numerous villas and caanlo !>»»»• — lore lonely. To the 

198 Route 23. ALFAR1SLES. Moldefjord. 

left diverges a road to 0degaard and Eide on the Isingvaag (33 Kil. , 
with 'skyds' ; comp. p. 173). To the right we enjoy an unimpeded 
view of the island of Boise with its high-lying church, and of the 
headland of Dvergsnaes. 

9 Kil. Strande, at the mouth of the Fanefjord, along which 
the road now leads (see p. 199). We, however, proceed hy rowing- 
boat, which we may either take only to the gaards of- — 

4 Kil. Dvergsnas or Dversnces (Forbud, see above), on the 
opposite bank of the Fanefjord (driving or walking thence to Sels- 
n*s) or for the whole way to Alfarnaas. 

The road leading to the S. along the coast from Dvergsnaes is 
very hilly ('bakket'), so that we must often alight and walk. We 
pass the gaard of Ojednccs, and cross the brook that descends from 
the Skaalan. The Vaagsmtergaard, with a steam-mill, is the pro- 
perty of an Englishman. From an eminence , which the road 
crosses, we obtain a fine view of the Trolltinder (p. 127), while 
in the foreground is the Havnevik, and to the right the Vee ('holy 
island'), with a church. We then descend to a small bay, and 
ascend the eminence on the S.W. side of the Langfjord, to — 

9 Kil. Selsnces. From Dvergsnoas to Salsnaes the fare is 
1 kr., but from Selsnaas to Dvergsnaes (Sfllsnaes being a fast station) 
1 kr. 80 0. — Sedsnaes commands a tine view of the Langfjord to 
the E. and the Romsdalsfjord to the S., with the islands of Ve», 
Saekken (p. 194) , and the peculiarly shaped Hestholmen. — We 
next cross the Langfjord in a rowing-boat to — 

4 Kil. Alfarnaes, a steamboat-station (see p. 200), recalling by 
its charming situation the scenery on the Lake of Geneva. 

The next part of the road, extending to the S. along the shore 
of the Eedvenfjord, is the most beautiful of the whole route. The 
country is well cultivated. We pass in succession the gaards of 
Sandnces, Freiscet, Seljences, and Holmeim. Opposite we have a 
view of Nordviken and the church of Eid (p. 197), and of the Oxen 
(p. 197). In the distance are the Troldstolene (p. 197). Atthegaard 
of Leereim the road to Nordvik turns off to the right, while that 
to Thorvik ascends in a straight direction. Suddenly there bursts 
upon the traveller a splendid view of the Oravatten to the right, 
of the Gjerscetvatten, and of the Vestnasfjeld, with the waterfall of 
Skjolen. To the left of the last rise the massive Vengefjeldene 
(p. 197), to the right the Trolltinder, the Isterfjeldene, and the 
mountains on the Indfjord. The whole forms an immense amphi- 
theatre, thickly wooded on its lower slopes, and having its centre 
occupied by the Gjerssetvatten, in whose bosom the mighty moun- 
tains around are mirrored. Hence to Thorvik (see below) in 1 hr. 
The road next descends along the N. side of the valley, ascends 
again through a narrow pass, and, skirting the hill of h'lungenas 
on the right, leads through pine-woods to — 

14 Kil. Thorvik (fare from Alfamtes, S^ kr.). Thorvik lies 

Moldefjord. EIDSVAAG. 23. Route. 199 

at a considerable height above the fjord,, but we can drive right 
down to the beach. 

From Thorvik we proceed by boat (one rower generally enough; 
53 e.) to Veblungsnms (4 Kil.) or to Nas, 2 Kil. farther (p. 127). 

c. From Molde to the Eikisdal. 

Most travellers omit the Eikisdal, but the scenery in it is so magni- 
ficent, that it is worth while putting up with the small privations which 
this tour unavoidably entails. To Neste, situated at the entrance of the 
valley, we may go either by the road or by steamer. The steamer leaves 
Molde every Mon. and Wed. at 7 a.m., reaching N/zfste in 6 hrs. and re- 
turning the same day. It depends therefore upon what day is chosen for 
the trip, whether the journey to or from Nizfste should be performed by 
land. Three days should be allowed for the excursion, and may be di- 
vided as follows, beginning with the land route: — 1st day. To Eidsvaag. 
2nd day, on foot or by boat to Neste, on foot or by carriole to Overacts, 
by boat across the Eikisdalsvand to Reilen-Utigaard. 3rd day, by boat 
back to Overaas, on foot to Jfeste, and in the afternoon by steamer 
to Molde. 

If the traveller prefers to begin with the steamer, he should proceed 
on the first day to Reiten- Utigaard ; spend the second night at Eidsvaag; 
and return on the third day to Molde. 

Land Route from Molde to N»stb (70 Kil. or 4372 Engl. M.) ; 
with the exception of Molde all the stations are fast. • — From 
Molde we drive along the Fanestrand (p. 197) to — 

9 Kil. Strande (p. 198). The road now skirts the bank of the 
Fanefjord, on whose S. side rises the mighty Skaalan (3590 ft.). 

13 Kil. Eide (good quarters), where the route to Christians- 
sund, described on p. 202, diverges to the N. The vegetation 
is still luxuriant, and wall-fruit grows in the openair. — The 
fjord ends at the church of Kleve ; but the road continues along 
the N. side of the valley to — 

9 Kil. Istad. A little beyond this the road forks, the branch 
to the left leading to Angvik (p. 203), while our road runs to the 
right, through a monotonous wooded district, called the Osmark, 
with a view of the majestic Skaalan on the right. 

Crossing the Storelv, the road passes on the right the Osvand 
and the gaard of Ousiaas, and after traversing a more solitary 
region skirts the Sjerscetervand, with the gaard of the same name, 
and the Scetervand. Thence it descends steeply, commanding a 
beautiful view of the Langfjord and the snow-peaks to the S. 

15 Kil. Tjelde, on the Langfjord, is hardly suitable for night 
quarters. — The road proceeds towards the E. at a considerable 
elevation above the Langfjord , and afterwards descends , always 
with a fine view of the mountains to the S., among which the 
Skjortan is conspicuous. We next pass the old wooden church of Red 
(about to be pulled down) and several substantial-looking gaards. 

10 Kil. Eidsvaag (*H. Sverdrup's Hotel), situated at the E. 
end of the fjord , which is here shallow, and at low water com- 
pletely covered with sea-weed. A picturesque walk may be taken 
to the new church, 10 mill, to the N. 

200 Route 23. N0STE. Moldefjord. 

From Eidsvaag a road leads over the Tiltereid to Eidswen on the 
finndalsfjord (9 Kil.); see p. 206. 

Our road continues to skirt the bank of the fjord, and passes 
the large gaard of Varpenas and the parsonage of (5 Kil. from 
Eidsvaag) Nasset, where the novelist Bjernson spent part of his 

Farther on the road becomes bad and very hilly, at places en- 
joying pretty views of the Eirisfjord on the right , and of the 
Skjortan on the left (see below). At about 3 Kil. from Niesset 
it passes the two gaards oiBogge (steamboat-station), 4 Kil. farther 
Bredvik, and then Strand, and the Liasceter. The stages from 
llredvik to Nflste are best performed by boat (l'/o hr.). 

14 Kil. Neste (see below). 

Steamboat Route from MoLDEToNesTB(comp. p. 199; steamer 
'Molde', no provisions on board). — The steamer steers between the 
little islands of Hjctrte and Faare, and passing the Bohe to the 
left, enters the Moldefjord. After touching at Sakken&s on the 
island of Sakken, it proceeds past the Vee to the stations of Sels- 
nas and Alfarnces (p. 198), to which point travellers forVeblungs- 
nres may also use the steamer. 

The vessel next enters the Langfjord (17 Engl. M. long and 
about 2 M. broad), on the N. bank of which towers the huge 
Skaalan (p. 199). The S. shore, near which our course lies, is to a 
large extent well-cultivated, though monotonous. The steamboat- 
stations are Midtet and Myklebostad, with the church of Vistdal, on 
a little bay, from which the Vistdal stretches into the interior. On 
the beach there are several boat-houses (Neste) ; in the background 
elevated old coast-lines and snow-peaks. The steamer passes the 
entrance of the Eirisfjord (see below) and calls at Eidsvaag (p. 199), 
at the E. end of the fjord. 

The steamer now retraces its course for a short distance, rounds 
the Nces , with the parsonage mentioned above , and enters the 
Eirisfjord, which stretches 6 Engl. M. to the S.E. from the end of 
the Langfjord. On the W. is the Ernasfjeld, with the gaard of the 
same name at its foot. To the E. are the gaards oiBogge (steamboat- 
station, see above), on a steep but fertile slope. In front rises the 
Skjortan (5660 ft.) or Kvitkua ('white cow'); and below are the 
Strandelvsfos and the Drivafos, a thin thread, of water. Farther to 
the right are the Koks#ren, the Meringdalsnabbet, and the Tufttind, 
with a curious 'Botn' at its summit. To the extreme right is the Nesle- 
axlen. After a voyage of 6 hrs. the steamer reaches the terminus — 

N«ste, or Eirisfjordseren. The slow station for skyds (humble 
accommodation ; live beds) is 3 min. farther to the right. — On 
the arrival of the steamer, pedestrians should walk ^ '■> hr. farther 
on to the gaard of Thorhus, near the Sira-Kirke, where pleasant, 
but somewhat primitive accommodation is to be had. Or they 
may go on to 0veraas (p. "201). 

Moldefjord. 0VERAAS. 23. Route. 201 

The fertile and lovely valley , which is generally called Sira- 
dalen after the above-mentioned church, is watered by the Eikis- 
dalselv, and is surrounded by immense mountains. Beyond the 
church the road divides into two branches , both debouching on 
the Eikisdalsvand. The one to the right emerges beside the gaard 
of Aasen ; the other, crossing to the right bank of the river at 0ver- 
aas, skirts the imposing height of Oogseren (4325 ft.), which con- 
ceals the Skjortan from view. The summit of the ancient moraine 
separating the Eikisdalsvand from the Siradal, the only break in 
which is formed by the little stream, commands a line retrospect. 
About 1 hr. beyond the church, we reach the gaards of — 

8 Kil. (from Nerste) 0veraas (tolerable quarters), situated on 
the S. side of the moraine, at the N. end of the Eikisdalsvand. 

The ^Eikisdalsvand (200 ft.) Alls a narrow rocky basin about 
12 Engl. M. in length. On both sides tower mountains covered 
with snow and glaciers, from which descend impetuous waterfalls. 
Even in August the snow-fields stretch down almost to the lake, 
although the sides of the valley are clothed with pine and other 
woods, which afford shelter to bears. The produce of the numerous 
nut-trees is collected at the end of September and beginning of 
October, and forms the 'Romsdalsn»dder' of commerce. The lake 
is almost always frozen over in winter, but the ice is seldom 
strong enough to support a man's weight. Avalanches are frequent, 
and showers of stones also occur. A north wind generally prevails 
till about 10 or 11 a.m., and the boatmen make use of it by hoist- 
ing sails made of woven alder-twigs (Lenseil). At other times the 
lake is generally perfectly still, and reflects in a most remarkable 
manner the surrounding mountains and waterfalls. There are but 
few human settlements on its banks, under the threatening masses 
of rock above. The inhabitants are much more taciturn than those 
of the rest of Norway , and wear only the darkest clothing. 

For the row to Reiten (3-3!/2 hrs.) two rowers are required 
(tariff 21 0. per Kil., or 3 kr. 78 ». for the whole journey ; there 
and back 7kr. 56 e., besides gratuity). At first we see only a small 
part of the lake, with the precipices of the Gogseren and Aas- 
hammeren to the left , and the gaard of Meringdal, commanded by 
the Meringdalsncebbet and the Sjedelen (564 ft.), to the right. 

By and by, however, the mountains recede, and the view 
over the lake is unimpeded. High on the left is the Snetind. To 
the right the' Nyhoitind (c. 6200 ft.) is visible above the Sj»de- 
len. To the left again the waterfall of Tongjem, and the two gaards 
of Viken, with the Vikesaxltn above. On the W. side is the AZvels- 
brce , above which is the imposing peak of the Jurafjeld. Above 
the gaard of Hoeim, where good milk may be had, rise the snow- 
fields of the Hoeimfjeld, commanded by the Hoeimtind (5640 ft.). 
Farther to the right is the RtmgnnUnd , to the left the Aagottind 
(4950 ft.) and the Iljerktind. 

202 Route 2.3. UTTOAARD. 

The *Maradalsfos or Mardelafos now becomes conspicuous to 
the right of the Rangaatind, near the head of the lake. This very 
large and beautiful waterfall is formed by the Mardela, which 
flows from an upland valley, about 2600 ft. above the sea-level, 
and falls sheer over an abrupt precipice, 650 ft. high. The mass 
of water thus precipitated rebounds from the rock below and rises 
in the air in clouds of spray. It then disappears and re-appears 
farther down in two arms, which unite to form another huge fall. 
On the lake, at the bottom of the fall, resides a 'Faderaadsmand', 
or peasant proprietor of a small plot of ground. A finer view of 
the fall is obtained by landing, but the upper fall is inaccessible. 

The lake now makes a slight curve to the S.E., and the gaard 
of Reiten, situated at the point where the Aura-Elv flows into the 
lake , comes into view. Above the gaard we see a beautiful veil- 
like waterfall and the Bjoraafjeld. — From the landing-place we 
walk to (20 min.) the gaard of — • 

Utiganrd (good accommodation) , which is a favourite resort of 
sportsmen in search of reindeer. Ola and Hans Utigaard are cele- 
brated hunters and guides. A pretty walk up the valley, passing 
some mills to the left, driven by a small stream that springs from 
the earth in the immediate vicinity, brings us in 20 min. to the 
Eikisdals Chapel, where the pastor of Niesset (p. 200) holds service 
4 times in the summer (no service in winter). Following the path 
we next come to a bridge over the Aura, near which is an ap- 
paratus for catching salmon. 

The road leads farther up the valley, passing numerous pretty gaards, 
to Finswi (12 Kil. from Reiten). Another hour (guide desirable, l /.>-i kr.) 
brings us to the Aurestupene or Auvstaupa, the falls formed hj the Aura, 
which issues from the Aursjff. 

From Overaas (p. 201), from Hoeim (p. 201), and from Reiten (see above) 
the traveller may walk by fatiguing mountain-paths to Slen on the Isfjord 
(p. 197) in 10-12 hrs., and in 1 lir. more to Nws in the Komsdal. This 
should be attempted only with a guide, if possible with one of the Uti- 
gaards, from whom, in any case, information should be obtained. 

24. Land Routes from Molde to Throndhjem. 

225 Kil. (140 Kngl. M.). As parts of the sea-route from Molde to Thrond- 
hjem are usually a little rough , many travellers will prefer one of the 
two following routes, which, however, are otherwise unattractive. Most 
of the skyds-stations are 'slow', and 'Forbud' should always be sent on. 

a. By Battenfjordstfien and Christianssund. 

Departure from Molde not later than (i a.m. To Battenfjordseren, 
38 Kil. (24 Engl. M.), by carriole; thence in 2'/i hrs. to Christianssund by 
steamer, starting on Tues. and Frid. afternoon and Sun. evening. 

From Molde by (9 Kil.) Strande to (13 Kil.) Eide, see p. 199. 
— Our road turns off to the N. at this point, and ascends to — 

9 Kil. Furswt, a slow station. Those who have not sent 'Forbud' 
cannot count upon reaching Battenfjordseren (i Kil.), and the 
steamer-station Strand (not a skyds-station), at the S. end of the 

ANGVIK. 24. Route. 203 

Battenfjord, before midday. They will find it better to make this 
stage on foot. — The Battenfjord is surrounded by mountains, 
2500-3000 ft. high. The steamer touches at Gimnas (see p. 173; 
also a slow skyds-station ; good quarters), situated at the entrance 
to the fjord; then at Gulseth, Stensvig, and Christianssund. 

On any other than the three days that have been named , we 
may drive from Fursaet in a carriole to (16 Kil.) Gimnces (see 
above), whence we take a rowing-boat to (8 Kil.) Fladsat, on the 
Frede ; thence by land across the island to (9 Kil.) Bolyen i Brems- 
na>s, and again by boat to (9 Kil.) Christianssund. 

Christianssund, see p. 172. From here to Throndhjem it is best 
to take the steamer 'Statsraad Riddervold', which performs the 
journey both ways 3 times a week (12 hrs. each way). Avoiding 
the open sea, it sails to the S. through the Vinjefjord, passing 
the large Tustere, Stabben, and Ertvaage. It touches at the stations 
of Laurvig , Storeen , Magereen, Havnskjel, Kongensvold, Beian, 
Brakstad and Redberg. 

Throndhjem, see p. 213. 

From Christianssund we may also take the Surendal steamer, twice 
weekly (Tues. and Frid. 8 a.m.), to (7 hrs.) Swendalseren, and thence 
follow the land route described below. 

b. By Angvik and Orkedal. 

With the exception of the first stage, this route is monotonous , and 
on the whole little to be recommended. The stations are fast, with the 
exception of Heggeim, Angvik, Koksvik i Thingvold, and Bolscet, to which 
'Forbud' should therefore be sent. The accommodation at almost all the 
stations is tolerable. 

From Molde to (31 Kil.) Istad, see p. 199. — Then follow the 
slow stations of (11 Kil.) Heggeim and (11 Kil.) Angvik, a station 
of the Sundal steamer (p. 173), whence we cross the Sundalsfjord 
by rowing-boat to (6 Kil.) Koksvik i Thingvold, also a station of 
the Sundal steamer. At both of these places a steamer calls twice 
weekly in each direction. We then proceed by carriole to (7 Kil.) 
Bolscet, and by rowing-boat to (7 Kil.) Stangvik (good quarters), a 
station of the Surendal steamer. Then again by carriole to — 

15 Kil. Aasen, not far from the steamboat-station of Suren- 
dalseren and the Surendal. 

10 Kil. Haanstad; 16 Kil. Aune; 9 Kil. Foseide, near the 
church of Rindalen ; 14 Kil. Garberg; 19 Kil. Aarlivold. 

12 Kil. Bak i 0rkedalen. [About 8 Kil. to the N. lies 0rke- 
dalseren (p. 207), whence on Mon., Wed., Frid., and Sat. after- 
noons the steamer 'Orkla' sails for Throndhjem.] 

19 Kil. Eli,- 10 Kil. Saltnassanden ; 8 Kil. Heimdal, a sta- 
tion on the Christiania and Throndhjem railway (p. 212). 


25. From Domaas (Molde or Lillehammer) to Storen 

154 Kil. (95'/^ Engl. M.). Road, with fast stations, comparatively 
little used since the opening of the railway described in R. 26. Travellers 
from Molde who combine this route with a visit to the Romsdal usu- 
ally take four days to reach Throndhjem from Aak or Veblnngsnms (p. 127), 
though it is possible to travel more quickly. 1st day, to Stuefloten 
(p. 125); 2nd day, to Domaas; 3rd day, to Rise or Aune; 4th day, to 
Steren, and in the evening by train to Throndhjem. — Walking is recom- 
mended from Domaas to Fogstuen (6 Engl. M.), from Jerkin to Drivstuen 
(1U 31.), and from Austbjerg to Bjerkaker (8 31.). 

From Molde or Lillehammer to Domaas, see R. 15. Domaas lies 
at the S. base of the Dovrefjeld, the most famous of the Norwegian 
mountain ranges , which separates Southern (SendenfjeUke) from 
Northern (Nordenfjelske) Norway. As the Norwegian mountains do 
not form well-denned chains like the Alps, but consist of vast table- 
lands, intersected here and there by valleys, there are no passes here 
in the Swiss sense of the word. After reaching the lofty plateau the 
road runs for many miles without much variation of level, and then 
descends gradually to the 'nordenfjelske' valleys. A great part of 
the route traverses lofty , bleak , and treeless solitudes , passing 
rock-strewn tracts, swamps, gloomy lakes, and dirty masses of 
snow, and is therefore far from picturesque. The solemn grandeur 
of the scenery, however, has a peculiar weird attraction of its own, 
and the pure mountain-air is remarkably bracing and exhilarating. 
For botanists, zoologists, and sportsmen there are also abundant 
attractions. Beyond Kongsvold, however, the character of the land- 
scape changes. The road traverses the highly picturesque gorges of 
the Driva and the Orkla, beyond which the country presents a more 
smiling aspect and is comparatively well peopled. As Throndhjem 
is approached the vegetation will strike the traveller as being re- 
markably rich for so northerly a latitude (nearly the same as that 
of the S. coast of Iceland). 

The road at first ascends very rapidly , traversing moor and 
swamp, scantily overgrown with stunted pines. Looking back , we 
obtain an imposing survey of the mountains. To the W. lies the 
Lesjevand (p. 122), which we passed on the way from the Romsdal 
to Domaas. In about 1 hr. we reach the plateau. The road then 
crosses the Foysaae, an affluent of the Glommen. To the left are ex- 
tensive mountain-plains where the sources of the Driva take their 
rise, the waters of which descend to Sundal. On the Fogstiihe we 
observe three sjeters on the right and others to the left. To the 
N.W. rise the Hundsje and Skreda-Fjeld , and beyond them the 
Snehatta, the snow-field and glacier of which in its W. basin 
('Botn') are distinctly visible. 

10 Kil. (pay for 11) Fogstuen (3190 ft.; tolerable station) is 
one of the four 'Fjeldstuer', or mountain-inns, which were founded 
by government on the Dovrefjeld for the accommodation of travel- 

JERKIN. 25. Route. 205 

lors so far back as 1107-10. The landlords still receive an annual 
subsidy from government, and it is part of their duty to keep the 
roads open in winter and to forward the mails. The other three 
'Fjeldstuer' are Jerkin, Kongsvold, and Drivstuen. 

'From my inmost soul I commended the gpod king Eystein, who in 
1120 built these four Fjeldstuer on the Dovrefjeld for the benefit of way- 
farers crossing the mountain'. (L. v. Buch.) 

From Fogstuen the old road, now disused, leads across the lofty 
Hardbakke (3750 ft.) direct to Toftemoen in the Gudbrandsdal (p. 122). — 
L. v. Buch, who traversed this route at the end of April (i.e. in winter) 
writes: 'The lofty pyramid of the Snehsetta then came in sight in the 
midst of the fog, several miles to the north. So rises Mont Blanc , when 
seen from the Brevent , from its mantle of ice. It is not a mere moun- 
tain , but a mountain on a mountain. A great and sublime apparition 
commanding the whole of this solitude'. 

The road from Fogstuen to Jerkin is nearly level the greater 
part of the way, and the scenery is monotonous. We pass several 
lakes (Nysater Lake, Vardesjer, and Afsje) formed by the Fogsaae, 
which farther on is called the Folda. On the left rises the insig- 
nificant Vardesjelw , and on the right are the Blaaheer. On the 
Vardesje (also known as the Foldasje) , and to the right farther 
on, there are several saeters. 

21 Kil. Jerkin (3140 ft. : excellent station), situated in the 
midst of wild and desolate scenery , is a good starting-point for 
reindeer-stalkers and anglers , and also for the ascent of the Sne- 
hsetta. The *Kitchen of the old house, with its antique carved fur- 
niture, is an object of great interest. One of the chairs dates from 
1676. Pleasant walk to the Jerkinhe, the highest point on the old 
road (4100 ft.-). 

The Snehsetta (7770 ft. ; 'snow-hat'), which ranks about sixth among 
the mountains in Norway in point of height, is most conveniently ascended 
from Jerkin. The ascent was accomplished for the first time by Esmark 
at the end of last century , and has very frequently been made since. 
(Guide 2, horse 4 kr. ; 'Niste', or provisions, necessary.) For 3-4 hrs. we 
ride across an exceedingly bleak rocky and mossy tract, crossing several 
torrents , and lastly ascend on foot for 2-3 hrs. over snow and ice. For 
the whole excursions 12 hrs. at least should be allowed. In clear weather 
which is rare on the Dovrefjeld) the view is very extensive in every 
direction, but deficient in picturesqueness and far inferior to that from 
the Galdh^rpig (p. 148). The chief object of interest is the finely shaped 
mountain itself, composed of mica-slate. 

A not unattractive route, with fast stations, leads from Jerkin through 
the Foldal to Lille -Elvdal in the valley of the Glommen (railway-sta- 
tion , p. 208). The stations are : 17 Kil. Dalen , 17 Kil. Krokhaagen, 
18 Kil. Ryhaugen, and 33 Kil. Lille-Elvdal. From Krokhaugen a road leads 
to the S. to the Atnevand and the Rdndane (see p. 210). 

The new road from Jerkin to Kongsvold ascends a hill to the 
W. , and then descends gradually to the Svonaae , the course of 
which it now follows. We enjoy a very striking *Vibw of the 
Snehsetta, which looks quite near. The road crosses the boundary 
between the Stift of Hamar and that of Throndhjem , and gradu- 
ally descends into the valley of the rapid Driva , the course of 
which it follows down to Aune. 

13 Kil. Kongsvold (about 3100 ft. ; excellent station) also 

206 Route 25. DRIVSTTJEN. From Molde 

forms good headquarters for sportsmen. The Snehsetta may he 
ascended hence almost as easily as from Jerkin. Beyond Kongs- 
vold the road descends through the very picturesque *Ravine 
of the Driva, the first part of which at least should he tra- 
versed on foot. In -winter the route formerly used was the frozen 
and snow-clad river , while the summer-route, called the Vaarsti 
( 'spring-path'), was a very steep and tortuous path on the right 
hank of the stream. Pedestrians are recommended to follow this 
disused route , which is very interesting , and to send on their 
horses to the point where it rejoins the road. This ravine is hounded 
hy enormous precipices, from which numerous waterfalls descend, 
while the Driva itself forms a series of magnificent cataracts. Fine 
Alpine flora. 

15 Kil. Drivstuen (good station), the fourth of the 'Fjeld- 
stuer' on the Dovrefjeld. The valley expands and the vegetation 
becomes richer. Birches and pines clothe the slopes. A few fields 
of barley and potatoes also appear. Scenery still fine. The road 
passes the Aamotselv and crosses the Driva by a handsome new 
bridge, a little beyond which is a gorge called Magalaupet (Laup, 
'gorge', 'gully'), crossed hy a genuine old-fashioned Norwegian 
bridge , where the traveller should alight to inspect the scene. 
The Driva forms imposing waterfalls here. The broad Drivadal, a 
lower and more fertile zone of the valley, now suddenly comes in 
view, and we descend to — 

12 Kil. (pay for 17) Rise (tolerable station). The Vinstra, 
descending from the right, falls into the Driva here. The Dovre- 
fjeld terminates at — 

10 Kil. Aune (about 1750 ft. ; good station), sometimes called 
Ny-Aune or Ny-0vne , in the Opdal. To the W. rises the lofty 
Munkevoldsfjeld, and to the E. the Allmandbjerg. 

From Aune an interesting road diverges to the left, following the 
Driva, which is afterwards called the Sundalselv, and descends the Sundal 
to Sundalstfren (71 Kil.). The stations on this road are all fast. — The 
somewhat hilly road leads first to (11 Kil.) Aalbu and then descends through 
a ravine, passing Gravaune, to (16 Kil.) Sliper (1800 ft.). It next crosses 
the Graauren , a hill at the side of which the Driva rushes through a 
deep gorge. At (9 Kil.) Gera begins the 'Sundal, a valley which vies 
in grandeur of scenery with the Romsdal. The road follows the course 
.if the Sundalselv pretty closely. 17 Kil. Storfale. Avalanches and stones 
frequently fall from the dizzy heights of the Romfogkj (erring erne , Kleng- 
fjeld, and Hoaasncebba , and at some of the most dangerous points the 
traveller is warned by his attendant to drive as quickly as possible 
('Sneeskred ! kjjjr til'). 

18 Kil. Sundals0ren (accommodation at the 'landhandlerV) , at the 
8. end of the Sundalsfjord , on which a steamer plies thrice weekly in 
8 hrs. to Christianssund (comp. p. 173). The neighbouring mountains rise 
to a height of 5000-6000 ft., the most conspicuous being the Greivncebba 
and Hofsncebba to the N., and the Kalken to the S. To the S. opens the 
romantic "Lilledal, which may be visited by carriage in 3-4 hrs. (road to 
Dale, 11 Kil.). — If the traveller misses the steamboat, he should take 
a rowing-boat to (22 Kil.) Bidseren (p. 200) and drive thence by carriole 
fo Eidsvaag (p. 199). 

to Throndhjem. ST0REN. 25. Route. 207 

Beyond Aune the road quits the valley of the Driva and be- 
comes uninteresting. It follows the course of the Byna and crosses 
the low watershed between that stream and the Orkla, which after- 
wards falls into the Throndhjem Fjord at0rkedalseren (see below). 
Beyond — 

14 Kil. Stuen, or Ny stuen (good station), the road descends 
to the Orkla , which is crossed by a handsome bridge. The river 
forms a fine waterfall here. Then a steep ascent to — 

11 Kil. Austbjerg (1365 ft.; tolerable), from which the road, 
still ascending , and traversing forest , follows the magnificent 
* Ravine of the Orkla, the bed of which is 700 ft. below us. Beau- 
tiful views , particularly of the snow-mountains to the S.W. (To 
Orkladal and Tenscet, see p. 210.) 

12 Kil. Bjerkaker (good station) lies at the highest point of 
this part of the road. 

From Bjerkaker a road with fast stations leads to (74 Kil. or 4b' En;;l. 
31.) ttrkedalseren on the Throndhjem Fjord, whence a steamboat starts 
for Throndhjem four times weekly (see p. 214). The road passes Guard 
Noel, where a famous drinking-horn is still shown, presented by 
Christian V., out of which Charles XIV. John (Bernadotte), Oscar I., and 
Charles XV. respectively drank when on their way to be crowned at 
Throndhjem. The horn bears inscriptions relating to its history. A huge 
birch-tree at Hoel, 9 ft. in circumference, is also worthy of notice. The 
first station is (14 Kil.) Haarstad. Farther on we pass Gaard Uf, with 
a very old building , the wood-carving on which is said to have been 
executed by the 'Jutuls' (giants) with their finger-nails. Next station 
(14 Kil.) Grul; then (11 Kil.) Kalstad i Meldalen, from which a road 
leads to the W. via Garberg and Foseid to Surendalseren (p. 203). Our 
road, which leads due N., passes Lekkens Kobbervterk, crosses the Orkla, 
and next reaches (15 Kil.) Aarlivold (good quarters), whence a road to 
the S.W. also leads to Surendals#ren , while another road leads to the 
E. to (17 Kil.) Kraakstad and the (17 Kil.) Hovin railway-station (p. 212). 
From (12 Kil.) Bak, the next station on our route, a road leads to the 
E. via, (17 Kil.) By and (12 Kil.) Sallncessaalen, to (11 Kil.) Heimdal , a 
railway-station near Throndhjem (p. 212). We next reach (8 Kil.) 0rke- 
dalsaren (Inn, kept by the schoolmaster), from which Throndhjem may 
be reached by steamboat in 3-4 hrs. (comp. p. 214). 

Beyond Bjerkaker the scenery continues fine. The road tra- 
verses the Soknedal and follows the course of the Igla, and after- 
wards that of the Stavilla-Elv and Hauka-Elv , the united waters 
of which fall into the Quia at Staren. The vegetation becomes 
richer, and the traveller might imagine he was approaching a more 
southern region instead of so high a latitude. 

12 Kil. Oarlid (good station) lies on a height to the left. The 
road descends through a picturesque ravine with waterfalls and 
mills. In the reverse direction this stage is trying to the horses. 

10 Kil. Prcesthus (very poor station). Handsome gaards to the 
right. Adjacent is the church of Soknedal or Sogndal. 

14 Kil. Engen i Steren (Hotel, adjoining the railway-station). 
Travellers arriving here and intending to start again by train 
should drive direct to the railway -station. — From Steren to 
Throndhjem (about 2 1 / 2 hrs. by train), see p. 212. 


26. From Christiania to Throndhjem. 

561 Kil. (347Kngl. 31.). Railway (Nordbaneme). In summer a through- 
train runs daily, accomplishing the whole distance in 16 hrs. (fares 36 kr., 
32 kr., 20 kr. 88 0.). Other trains stop for the night at (11 hrs.) Koppang or 
(13 hrs.) Tensat, arriving in Throndhjem the following afternoon (fares, 
29 kr. 70, 17 kr. 53 0.). Tickets for the slow trains cannot in any way he 
made available for the through express. It is advisable to write or tele- 
graph to the hotels at Tenswl or Koppang in order to secure a com- 
fortable room. — There are 11 railway-restaurants on the line. Dinners 
are provided for travellers going N. at Hamar and Steven (1 kr. 25 jar.), 
notice being given to the guard; travellers going S. dine at Singsais or 
Hamar. But these arrangements are liable to change. 

With the exception of Lake Mj0sen there is almost nothing on this 
route to induce the traveller to make any stoppage or detour. The best 
views between Hamar and Renaare to the right, thence to Throndhjem, 
to the left. This last portion of the journey, especially after Rjjros, is 
the most beautiful. The scenery is monotonous, and the extensive forests 
on the E. frontier present attractions only to sportsmen and anglers. Of 
the numerous lakes in the district traversed by the railway the largest 
is the Fwmund-Sje, which may be visited by carriole from Rena or 

From Christiania to (68 Kil. or 42 Engl. M.) Eidsvold (410 ft), 
see p. 115. — The railway journey from Eidsvold to Hamar pre- 
sents little variety of scenery, hut is preferahle to the longer 
steamboat journey. To the left we have a view nearly the whole 
way of the Mjesen (p. 115), the Skreiafjeld (p. 115), and the 
Helgee (p. 116); to the right, in the distance, are the mountains 
of the 0sterdal. The train follows the right (W.) hank of the 
pretty Vormen to its efflux from the Mjesen, near — 

75 Kil. (461/2 Engl. M.) Minne (465 ft.). At the Minncsund 
it crosses the river by an iron bridge, 65 ft. high and 1 180 ft. long, 
and then skirts the E. bank of the Mjesen. 

84 Kil. (52 M.) Vlvin (420 ft.), commanding a fine view of 
the Bay of Feiring , on the opposite side of the lake. The train 
now enters the Hcdemarkens Ami. 97 Kil. Espen (425 ft.), situated 
on the picturesque bay of Korsedegaard. 102 Kil. T<m0era(54Oft.), 
with the church of the same name. In the fertile environs lie the 
gaards of Korsede, Hof, and Vik. The train now ascends through 
a solitary wooded region , the highest point of which is about 
330 ft. above the Mjesen. Beyond (114 Kil.) Stange (730 ft.) it 
descends through a well-tilled district. 119 Kil. O«estad(610ft.), 
situated on the Akersvik , which the train crosses by an embank- 
ment and a bridge. 

126 Kil. (78 M.) Hamar (410ft.), seep. 116. — We now change 
rarriases, and proceed by the narrow-gauge Iieros Railway. 

The train gradually ascends the sparsely peopled and at places 
thickly wooded region of Hedemarken. The scenery is uninterest- 
ing , and the stations are unimportant. 129 Kil. Aker (405 ft.); 
131 Kil. Hjellum; 135 Kil. llseng. Near (139 Kil.) Hersand 
(570 ft.) we obtain a fine view of the Skreia Mts., to the S. of 
Lake Mjesen. 141 Kil. AadaUhrug. Beyond (144 Kil.) Leiten 

KOPPANG. 26'. Route. 209 

(760 i't.) we pass the drilling-ground of Temingmoen , and soon 
reach — 

158 Kil. (98 M. ) Elverum (600 it. ; Rail. Restaurant; *Erlandseris 
Inn; Nielsen' 8, in the adjacent Hummeldal), a prettily situated vil- 
lage, almost presenting the appearance of a town, situated on the 
left hank of the Glommen, the valley of which the train follows all 
the way to Rotos. The river is crossed by a long bridge. The im- 
portant Grundset- Marked, a great horse and timber fair, takes place 
here annually in March. The environs of Elverum are strewn with 
pleasant-looking farms. The peasantry of 0sterdalen, or the district 
traversed by the Glommen and its affluents, are among the richest 
in Norway, some of their forest-estates embracing an area of many 
square miles. Until recently the value of timber here was small, 
from lack of means of transport, but it has largely increased since the 
completion of the railway. The gaards of the wealthier landowners 
are most comfortably and even luxuriously fitted up , although 
their proprietors still adhere with pride to their original name of 
peasants or farmers (Gaardbruger). At the end of June or begin- 
ning of July a number of these stalwart yeomen are frequently to 
be seen at Christiania, where it is not uncommon for a single pro- 
prietor to conclude a contract for the sale of a hundred thousand 
.•rowns' worth of timber. The timber is felled in autumn and win- 
ter, during which seasons the hardy wood -cutters often spend 
weeks in the forest, in spite of the intense cold, passing the night 
in wretched little huts. Comp. Brock's Kongeriget Norge (Christia- 
nia, 1876). 

The next stations are (164 Kil.) Grundset and (171 Kil.) 0xna 
(660 ft.). Near (184 Kil.) Aasta the train crosses the river of 
that name. 

190 Kil. (118 M.) Rena (735 ft. ; Kail. Restaurant), prettily 
situated near the church of Aamot , in the vicinity of which are 
several inns. 204 Kil. Stenvihen , where the train crosses to the 
E. bank of the Glommen (views to the left). 214 Kil. Ophus 
(805 ft.). To the right a precipitous wall of rock. The Glommen 
forms several lake-like expansions. Beyond (237 Kil.) <Stai'(860 ft.) 
the mountains enclosing the valley become higher. 

247 Kil. (153 M.) Koppang (914 ft. ; *Hansen, 200 paces to 
the left of the egress from the station ; Jernbane Hotel , opposite 
the station, R. li/ 2 , S. 1 1 /l> kr. ; Koppang Hotel; Skyds-station, in 
the village, 10 min. distant), situated on a height above the river 
and commanding a good view of the valley. To the W., rising 
above the forests, are several lofty mountains, the tops of which are 
carpeted with yellow moss. The village of Vestgaard , with the 
church of Store Elvdal a little to the S. of it, is picturesquely 
situated on the opposite bank of the Glommen, about 10 min. walk 
from the railway-station. 

The train now runs through the woods, at a considerable height 

Baedekkk's Norway and Sweden. 3rd Edit. 14 

210 Route 26. T0N.SJET. From Vhristiania 

above the Glommen, and crosses two bridges. Fine views towards 
the S. The ground is often completely covered with lichen and 
moss. The mountains increase in height, and the valley contracts. 
Large masses of 'Epilobium' , a plant of which the roots and 
young shoots are eaten by the Norwegians, are seen here hung up 
to dry on hedges and frames. 

272 Kil. (169 M.) Atna (1170 ft.), near the mouth of the At- 
neelv, is the station for several gaards on the opposite bank. 

An interesting excursion may be taken hence (cnmp. p. 119) to the 
\V. to Solliden and Atnebro (good quarters at the gaards Ifcetiel, Bran- 
deu, Vti, and Treen) , near the Atne-Sje, commanding an imposing view 
of the chief peaks of the Eondane: the Rondeslot (7100 ft.), the He- 
groitd (6700 ft.) , the Stygfjeld (6730 ft.), and the Rundvashegda (6900 ft.). 
These peaks may be ascended from Slremboden in the upper Atneda), 
and through the Langglupdal. [Ola Slremboden, at the Hendre Guard of 
Strtfmboden is a good guide.) — From Strtfmboden a path leads across 
the hills to the Bjornhnl-Saeter (good quarters), the Musu-Swter , and 
through the Uladal to the S. to Moen i Set in the Gudbrandsdal (p. 121). — 
A road leads from Atnebro to Strombu, Blwsterdalen (to the E. of which 
rises the Store Selen or Dele Selen, 5800 ft.), and (33 Kil.) Krokhaugen- 
Foldalen, on the road between Lille-Elvdal and Jerkin (p. 205). 

285 Kil. (177 Engl. M.) Hanestad (1250 ft.), opposite which 
rises the imposing Orettingbratten. The train skirts the river, and 
then again enters a monotonous wooded district. At (304 Kil.) 
Barkald (1485 ft.) the Glommen forms the Barkaldfos. In the 
distance rises the snow-clad Tronfjeld ; to the W. are high moun- 
tains covered with debris (Vr). Near Barkald is the curious 
gorge of Jutulhugget, enclosed on every side except the E., and 
formed, according to local tradition, by the attempt of a giant to 
divert the waters of the Glommen into the Randal. 

324 Kil. (201 M.) Lille-Elvdal (1660 ft. ; Rail. Restaurant), 
whence a road ascends the Elvdal to Jerkin (p. 205). Near the 
railway is a new church. A bridge crosses the Glommen here, 
and there is another a little lower down. — The train now skirts 
the base of the Tronfjeld (5720 ft.), a lofty mountain consisting 
of gabbro and serpentine rocks, which may be ascended from Lille- 
Elvdal, and commands an extensive view (carriage-road nearly the 
whole way to the top). It appears in its full grandeur as we leave 
it behind us. — 337 Kil. Auma (1600 ft.). Near this point are 
large tracts of dead pine-trees, killed by the extreme cold of win- 
ter, when the thermometer sometimes sinks 60° Fahr. below zero. 
The scenery is very dreary. 

347 Kil. (215 M.) Xemsaet (1620 ft. ; *Jernbane Hotel, at the 
station; *Tenscet Hotel, 100 yds. to the right of the egress from 
the station), situated near the confluence of the Tennas and the 
Glommen, principally on the right bank of the latter. A good road 
with fast stations leads hence, via Kvikne in the Orkladal (the birth- 
place of Sjernson, the novelist), to Austbjerg(j>. 207). Farther on the 
line traverses the extensive Oodtlandsmyr. To the W., on the right 
side of the Tronfjeld, rise the summits of the Rondane (see above). 

to Thronanjem. K«KU». 26. Route. 211 

358 Kil. ('222 M.) Telme* (1620 ft.). The train now ascends 
more rapidly, running high above the Glominen, which here breaks 
through barriers of slate. Pasturage now takes the place of tilled 
fields. 368 Kil. Tolyen (1685 ft.), in an open situation. On the 
other side of the Glommen , which is here spanned by a wooden 
bridge of a single arch, stands a large red church. To the right 
rises the Hummelfjeld (5150 ft.). The vegetation now assumes a 
thoroughly Alpine character. 

385 Kil. (240 M.) Os (1975 ft.); the village lies on a slope 
(Lid) on the opposite bank. Beyond Os the train crosses the 
A'ornenelv, traverses a wide moor, and reaches — 

399 Kil. (247 M.) R«ros or Reraas (2060 ft. ; Larscns Hotel ; 
"Rail. Restaurant), with 2000 inhab., situated on a dreary and in- 
clement plateau, where winter prevails for fully eight months in 
the year. The town was founded in 1646 after the discovery of the 
neighbouring copper-mines, to which alone it owes its existence. 
It lies on the Hitterelv, and not far from the Glommen, which de- 
scribes a bend to the W. of the town. The old timber houses, with 
roofs of turf, and the large church of 1780 give the town a quaint 
and picturesque appearance. The railway-station, like the others 
on this line, is constructed in a rustic style to harmonise with the 
older buildings. Corn does not ripen here, and cattle-breeding is 
the only resource of the inhabitants, apart from the copper-mines 
and the trade they support. 

The annual yield of the mines is about 280 tuns of pure copper, and 
that of the two centuries since they were discovered is aaid to have been 
worth 72 million kr. in all (4.000,000!.). Far and near, the woods which 
formerly existed here have been cut down and used as fuel, but the 
works are now carried on with the aid of coal brought by the railway. 
The principal mines are Storvarts Grube, 2716 ft. above the sea-level, 
9 Kil. to the N.E.,the ore of which yields 8 per cent of copper; near it, 
Nij Solskins Grube; to the N.W. of the town, 14 Kil., Kongens Grube, 
yielding 4 per cent of copper; Mug Grube, 22 Kil. distant. The smelt- 
ing-works are the Reros Hytte, the Dragaas Hytte at Aalen, and the 
Lovisa Hytte at Lille-Elvdal. 

From Reros, which is a terminal station, the train returns on 
the same rails for a few hundred yards to the main line (views to 
the left). It then passes Storskarven on the right , and traverses 
a bleak and monotonous plateau. The wide expanses of turf are 
bordered by extensive terraces of glacial detritus and sandhills, 
which by dint of painstaking and ample manuring have been con- 
verted into pastures. Near (406 Kil.) Nypladsen (2055 ft.) is the 
Kongens Grube, with the huts of the miners. Large piles of copper 
ore C Kobbermalm) are generally to be seen waiting for transport at 
the station. A little farther on is the site of an old furnace, marked 
by its deep copper colour. — We now cross the turbulent Glom- 
men, which descends from the Aursund-Sjo (2154 ft.). Beyond 
(412 Kil.) Jensvold (2090 ft.), the train crosses large expanses of 
debris. A stone to the left marks the highest point of the railway 
(2200 ft.), on the watershed between the Glommen and the Quia. 


212 Route ->6. ST0REN. 

420 Kil. (260 M. ) Tycold (2180 ft.). The train descends rir- 
cuitously on the slope of a broad mountain basin. Beyond (432 Kil.) 
Iteitun (1780 ft.) it passes on the left some picturesque gaards in 
the old Norwegian style , and traverses several cuttings through 
the rocks. Below, on the Gula, lies the church of Hov. 

442 Kil. (274 M.) Eidet (1385 ft.). At the bottom of the valley 
here is a small copper smelting- work. We now reach the most 
picturesque part of the line. The train crosses the Dreilierne, 
passing through seven short tunnels, and enters the deep wooded 
ravine of the Dreia, which it traverses by means of a lofty bridge. 
In the cuttings we distinguish first the clay-slate, and afterwards 
the granite and gneiss formations. 454 Kil. Holtaalen (990 ft.), 
prettily situated in the bottom of the valley, with an old timber- 
built church. The costume of the peasantry here is interesting, 
usually consisting of a red jacket, leathern breeches, and a Toplue 
or peaked woollen cap. We now descend the valley of the Gula to 
(463 Kil.) Langlete and (472 Kil. ) Reitsteen (675 ft.). The scenery 
continues picturesque. 

480 Kil. (298 M.) Singsaas (545 ft. ; Restaurant), with a bridge 
over the Gula. Large terraces of debris to the left mark the en- 
trance of the Forradal. On the same side is a fine waterfall. — 
486 Kil. Bjergen (457 ft.), prettily situated. Three short tunnels. 
499 Kil. Rognm (300 ft.), with another bridge over the Gula. A 
little above Steren, to the left, lies the church of Engen, situated 
at the confluence of the Soknaelv and the Gula. We then cross 
the Gula and reach — 

510 Kil. (316 M.) St&ren (290 ft. ; see p. 207), in a beautiful 
district on the Gula, perhaps the most prettily situated place on 
the whole line. The scenery here presents a park -like appearance; 
the valley is well cultivated at places, and the rocky mountains 
enclosing it are partly wooded. Road from Steren over the Dovre- 
fjeld to the Gudbrandsdal, see R. 25. 

The remaining stations are unimportant. Beyond (517 Kil.) 
Hovin (170 ft.) the train crosses the river, which here forms the 
Gulefos. 524 Kil. Lundemo ; 530 Kil. Ler (80 ft.). We now quit 
the valley of the Gula, which turns to the W. and flows into the 
(iulosen , an arm of the Throndhjem Fjord. The train aseends to 
(535 Kil.) Kvaal (160 ft.) and then re-descends to (538 Kil.) 
Seberg (40 ft.) and (541 Kil.) Melhus, with a picturesquely situated 
church. Numerous terraces and mounds of debris, probably due 
to glacier-action, are passed. Shortly before reaching (546 Kil.) 
Nyfien, which is called at only by local trains, we obtain a fine 
view of the fjord, to the W. of Throndhjem. 

550 Kil. Heimdal. — The line follows the left bank of the Nid, 
passes between Throndhjem and the suburb of Ihlen, and describ- 
ing a curve round the N. side of the town, enters the station of — 

561 Kil. (347 M.) Throndhjem, see p. 213. 


27. Throndhjem and its Environs. 

■Dei er saa /avert in Throndhjem at hviW 
'Tis so pleasant in Throndhjem to dwell. 

(Burden of an Old Song.) 

Arrival. The station lies to the N. of the town, by the harbour. Carriages 
and porters (Bybud) with hand-carts (Triller) await the arrival of passen- 
gers at the railway -stations, and also at the quays at the mouth of the 
Nid near the Toldbod (Bratetren) or on the Nykaie. A slight custom-house 
examination takes place on board the steamer. The principal hotels are 
all about 5-10 min. walk from the stations and the quay. 

Hotels. ' Anoletekke (E. (I. Thane), Nordre Gaden, "Britannia, Dron- 
ningens-Gaden, both frequented by English travellers; charges similar, R. 
from l'/ 2 kr., L. 40, A. 40, B. or S. 1 kr. 40 0., D. 3 kr. ; baths and carriages 
in the hotels. "Victoria, Dronningens-Gaden 64, D. 2 kr. ; Peter's Hotel 
(P. Gjemso), at the corner of the Krambod-Gaden and the Strand-Gaden, 
B. 1 kr. 50 0. , D. 1 kr. 60 0. 

Restaurants, Harmonie, Munke-Gaden, at the corner of the Torvet. — 
Spirits cannot be obtained either in the hotels or restaurants (comp. p. 67). 

Fost and Telegraph Office at the corner of the Nordre and Kongens-Gade. 

Skyds-Station : Ole Wold, Btfrsvendveiten. — Carriages: P. Rest, 
Karl-Johans-Gaden, and Kolberg, 0rjaveiten, both near the Angleterre; O. 
Solberg, Apothekerveiten , at the back of the Britannia ; Elle/sen, Gau- 

Banks. Norges Bank, at the corner of the Kongens-Gade and Kj0b- 
mands-Gade; Privatbank, S0ndre Gaden; NordenfjeUke Kredit-Bank, in the 
same street; and several others. Money may also be exchanged at Mr. 
Kjeldsberg's, the English vice-consul, at the corner of the Strand-Gade 
and Sfifndre Gade, and at Mr. Claus Berg's (firm of Lundgrens Enke), the 
American vice-consul, Munke-Gaden, at the corner of the Torv. The usual 
bank office-hours are 10-2 o'clock. 

Consuls. English and American, see above. German, A. Jenssen, 
junr., KJ0bmands-Gaden ; French, H. Lundgren, same street; Austrian, 
C'/i. Touloio, Munke-Gaden. Also Danish, Russian, and others. 

Baths. Warm, shower, vapour and Turkish baths in the new Bath 
Mouse, at the corner of the Dronningens - Gade and Krambodveiten. — 
Sea Baths, on the breakwater, reached by boat from the N. end of the 

Shops. Preserved meats, biscuits, wines, spirits, etc. at Kjeldsberg"s 
and at Lundgrens Enke's (see above). A cheap and not unpalatable spirit 
in great local repute is that of the distillery of Lysholm, at C. J. Lein*s 
in the Strand-Gade. — Furs at J. N. Bruun's, Strand-Gaden 37, one of the 
best shops of the kind in Norway; eider-down 16-24 kr. per lb., according 
to quality. — Carved wood, 'Tolleknive 1 , etc. at Blikstad's, opposite the 
Victoria Hotel; good and cheap at the Tugthttset. — Booksellers: Staff it- 
Gramrn, Nordre -Gaden (also Northern antiquities); A. Brum, Kongens- 
Gaden. — Photographs at Brcelslad's, S#ndre-Gaden. 

Newspapers at the Athenceum Club, in the Harmonie building, at the 
S.W. corner of the Torv (introduction through a member), and in the 
Reading Room of the Britannia Hotel. 

Theatre and Concert Room, at the corner of Prindsens - Gaden and 
Vestre-Gaden. — The Hjorten, a 'Lyststed' or kind of 'Tivoli', at the W. 
end of the Ihlen suburb, is a popular resort (theatricals and music fre- 
quently in summer). 

Steamboats. All the steamboats start from the pier (Brateren) at 
the mouth of the Nid, the larger generally at high tide only, the smaller 
at any time. It should be noted that the larger vessels sometimes start 
from the pier before their time and cast anchor off Ihlen, the W. suburb. 
The principal services are at present the following (comp. Communica- 
lioner). Towards the S.: to Christianssimd on Sun., Wed., and Thurs. 
mornings: to Christianssund , Bergen, Christian ssand , and Vhristiania. mi 
Tues. at 7.30 am. and at midnight, and Thurs. 7.30 a iu.; to Hamlntry on 

2 1 4 Route 27 



Sat. at 7 a.m.; to Hull on alternate Thursdays. — Towards the N. : to 
Tromse , Hammerfesl, the North Cape, and Farda see R. 29. — In the 
Fjord: to 0rkedals0ren on Mon., Wed., and Frid. at 8 a.m.; to Beian 
once daily; to Levanyer, Ywrdalsaren, JStenkjcer, see p. 221. — All the 
coasting and local steamers stop at numerous stations. The above ser- 
vices are of course liahle to alteration. 

English Church Service in summer in the Chapter House of the 

Points of Interest. Cathedral (p. 214) ; walks to Chvistiansten on the 
K. side of the town (p. 216), and to the Stenbjenj to the 8.W. — A fa- 
vourite excursion is to the Ler/os (3'/2-4 hrs. there and back). 

Kilometer l' 100.00(1 

E-ngl. Milt' 

Of all the larger towns in Europe Throndhjem, with 22,600 in- 
hab., is the northernmost, being situated in 63° 30' N. lat., or in 
a line with the S. coast of Iceland. It lies on a peninsula at the 
mouth of the Nid, and on the N. bank of the very extensive and 
picturesque fjord called alter it. The vegetation of the beautiful 
undulating environs is remarkably rich for so northerly a latitude, 

imtnry. THRONDHJEM. 27. Route. 215 

and among the trees fine old walnuts occur frequently. The mean 
annual temperature is about 42° Fahr. (corresponding with the 
mean winter temperature of the S. coasts of England and Ire- 
land), while that of Christiania is 41° only (that of the Shetland 
Islands 45°). Christiania, on the other hand, is warmer in summer 
and colder in winter, the July temperature being 62° and that of 
Throndhjem 53° only. Many of the inhabitants are wealthy and 
prosperous, and they have long been noted for the kindliness of 
their disposition. 

The town is the capital of the district of Threndelagen, and its 
inhabitants are called "Thrender. The greater part of it lies on 
the Nidarnas , a peninsula resembling a fig in shape , formed by 
the fjord on the N. side and the circuitous course of the Nid on 
the S.W. , S. , and E. sides. At a bend of the river to the W., 
where it approaches within a few hundred paces of the fjord be- 
fore making its final sweep round the town , lies the suburb of 
Ihlen (probably from lie , 'an intrenchment'). Opposite , on the 
right bank of the river, is the peninsula called 0en. The Nid then 
falls into the fjord at Brateren on the E. side of the town. Beyond 
its mouth, to the E., rises the suburb of Baklandet ('hilly land'), 
with picturesque heights beyond it, the chief of which is the Blcese.- 
voldbakken (p. 218), with the old fortress of Christiansten, termina- 
ting in the promontory of Hladehammeren. On the S.W. side of 
the town, to the S. of Ihlen, rises the Stenbjerg, with numerous 
villas. All these heights command picturesque views. 

The town is regularly and on the whole handsomely built, al- 
though chiefly of timber. The wideness of the streets, which gen- 
erally intersect each other at right angles, is intended to diminish 
the danger of Are. The windows of many of the houses are embell- 
ished with a beautiful show of flowers. In the Kongens-Gade are 
several tastefully - kept little gardens , where the Sorbus Scandia 
frequently recurs. 

Down to the middle of the 16th cent, the name of the town was 
Nidaros ('mouth of the river Nid' ; Aa , Aar , signifying 'river , and 0s, 
'estuary') or Kaupanger i Thrandhjem ('merchants' town in Throndhjem'), 
after which period the present name came into general use. Like Upsala 
in Sweden, Throndhjem, which has been called the 'strength and heart 
of the country', may be regarded as the cradle of the kingdom of Norway, 
and it was on Brat/Jren here that the Norwegian monarchs were usu- 
ally elected and crowned. Here, too, was the meeting-place of the famous 
0rething. So early as the year 996 Olaf Tryggvason founded a palace to 
the S. of Bratizfren and a church which he dedicated to St. Clement. 
St. Olaf, who is regarded as the founder of the town (1016) , revived the 
plans of Olaf Tryggvason, which had fallen into abeyance after his death, 
and after the death of 'the saint' at the battle of Stiklestad (1030) a new 
impulse was given to building enterprise. His remains were brought to 
Throndhjem and buried there, but were soon afterwards transferred to a 
reliquary and placed on the high-altar of St. Clement's Church, where they 
attracted hosts of pilgrims , not only from other parts of Norway , but 
even from foreign countries. The spot where St. Olaf was originally bu- 
ried was by the spring adjoining the S. side of the choir of the present 
cathedral, and nn that site a magnificent church was subsequently erected. 

216 Routed. THRONDHJEM. Cathedral. 

Though now little more than a fragment, having been repeatedly de- 
stroyed by fire and sadly disfigured by alterations and additions , it is 
still the most beautiful and interesting church in the three Scandinavian 
kingdoms. The reverence paid to St. Olaf gradually rendered Thrond- 
hjem one of the largest and wealthiest towns in Norway, and gave rise 
to the erection of no fewer than fourteen churches and five monasteries. 
At a later period terrible havoc was caused by civil wars, pestilence, and 
conflagrations ; and the pilgrimages, to which the place owed so much of 
its prosperity , were at length put an end to by the Reformation. The 
precious reliquary of the saint was removed by sacrilegious hands from 
the altar in the octagon of the choir, while his remains were buried in 
some unknown spot, and most of the churches and monasteries were 
swept away. In 1796 the population numbered 7500 souls only, and in 
1815 not above 10,000. 

Since the Peace of 1814 Throndhjem has rapidly grown in size 
and wealth , and it bids fair to become a city of still greater im- 
portance through the new railway to Ostersund and Sundsvall in 
Sweden (see p. 220 and R. 49), as its fjord forms the natural har- 
bour for a great part of the Swedish 'Nonland'. In anticipation 
of a large increase of traffic a new Harbour has been constructed. 

The *Cathedral , situated on the S. side of the town , near the 
Nidelv and the present railway-station, has for several years been 
undergoing a thorough and judicious restoration under the superin- 
tendence of the architect Hr. Christie, and the chapter-house (Eng- 
lish service in summer) and the octagonal choir are now completed. 
The work will probably extend over several decades, but will 
doubtless progress steadily, as annual subsidies are granted both 
by government and by the town itself, and regular subscriptions 
are received from private persons who are justly proud of this 
noble national monument. The church is shown daily, 12-1 o'clock, 
by a student (no fee ; but strangers are expected to make a small 
donation towards the restoration-fund). At any other time the 
sacristan may be applied to for admission, and visitors may some- 
times enter unattended whilst the masons are at work. The con- 
nection and history of the different parts of the building are not 
easily understood without the aid of a guide , especially if the 
traveller visits it only once. Those who possess a moderate acquain- 
tance with Danish will find Nicolaysen's 'Om Throndhjems Dom- 
kirke'(60»., sold in the cathedral) a useful little guide, or they 
may consult P. A. Munch's larger work on the same subject, or the 
German work of Minutoli. — The first point to be borne in mind 
is that the building of the church extended over a century and a 
half, and that it underwent repeated alteration. The architects 
were, moreover, bound to the site of St. Olafs original burial- 
place, for it was there that they had to erect the altar destined for 
the reliquary containing the holy man's remains. The church 
originally built by Olaf Kyrre was a simple basilica, about 150 ft. 
in length and 40 ft. in width. Throndhjem having been erected 
into an archbishopric in 1 If) I , the crowds of pilgrims continued to 
increase, and the church was found inadequate for their require- 

Cathedral. THRONDHJEM. 27. Route. 21 7 

meats. Eystein (or Bystein, 1161-88), the third of the arch- 
bishops, accordingly erected the spacious Transept , with a tower 
over it, and also the * Chapter House (in which he lies buried) on 
the N. side of the choir , both in the Romanesque style. Of the 
appearance of the choir at that period nothing is known, but 
within a few decades after Eystein's death it was rebuilt , partly 
by English architects in an ornate Gothic style resembling that of 
several of the English cathedrals , and was completed about the 
year 1240. To that period belongs the exquisite **Octagon or 
apse (which recalls 'Becket's Crown' at Canterbury), forming an 
independent part of the edifice, and not being merely a projecting 
termination to the choir. It was on an altar in the centre of this 
sanctuary that the revered relics of St. Olaf were placed, and this 
was the great goal once so devoutly sought by thousands of pil- 
grims. The reliquary, executed in silver, and weighing no less 
than 200 lbs., stood here within a simple wooden chest, which in 
its turn was encased in a finely carved shrine, enriched with pre- 
cious stones. The reliquary and shrine were carried off to Copen- 
hagen at the time of the Reformation , and the worthless chest 
alone left behind. 

During the third building period , extending from about 124N 
to 1300, the imposing Nave, to the VV. of the transept, was erected, 
also in the Gothic style. This part of the church is now in ruins, 
while the transept (used for divine service, and at present sadly 
marred by Reformation work) and the choir are both roofed in. 

The whole church was about 325 ft. long, and the W. end 
was once richly embellished with statues of saints, a rose-window, 
and other ornamentation, but few traces of these now remain. 
After a number of fires which injured the interior of the cathedral 
(in 1328, 1432, 1531, 1708, and 1719), huge and shapeless walls 
were erected , partly for the purpose of propping up the ruins, 
and partly in order to obtain an available space for public wor- 
ship. In the course of that process many of the original pillars, 
arches, and ornamentation were concealed from view, and it is 
now a work of great difficulty to disengage them. The cathedral 
is built of a bluish chlorite slate , with which the white marble 
columns contrast admirably. The old quarries from which the 
former was procured lie about l'/a Engl. M. to the E. of Baklan- 
det, while the marble was brought from the quarries of Stoksund 
(p. 229). 

On the E. side of the S. transept is the Chapel of SI. John the Baplist, 
in the round-arch style, dating from Eystein's period, and containing the 
monument of Thomas Anyell (d. 1767), a wealthy benefactor of Thrond- 
hjem. On the E. side of the N. transept, immediately to the left of the 
present N. entrance to the church, is a corresponding chapel of the same 
period. Above the chapel of St. John, is another" (reached by a stair- 
case), dedicated to St. Olaf, and now containing a number of interesting 
fragments of ancient tombstones found in and around the church , all in 
so.-ipstone (Klteherslen). In the 18th cent, the Lagthing, or national as- 

21$ Route. 27. THRONTm.TEM. Environs. 

semblv used to meet in the S. transept. — The highly ornate chapels of 
the choir are also worthy of careful inspection. The rich mouldings of 
the triforium windows are all different, and most elaborately executed; 
hut some of them were left unfinished by their 13th century sculptors and 
still remain in that condition. On the S. side of the octagon is — 

St. Olafs Well, which most probably gave rise to the selection of this 
site for the church, having, according to tradition, burst forth at the spot 
where the king was originally buried. — Good photographs of the cathe- 
dral are sold in the S. chapel, the proceeds being paid to the building fnnd. 

In the 11th and 12th centuries the cathedral was the burial-place of 
the kings of Norway, and several were crowned here at a later period. 
By the present constitution of Norway (that of 1814) all the sovereigns of 
the country are required to repair to Throndhjem to be crowned in the 
cathedral; and the ceremony was accordingly performed in the case of 
Charles XIV. John (Bernadotte) in 1818, Oscar I. in 1844, Charles XV. in 
1860, and Oscar II. in 1873. 

To the S. of the cathedral is the pleasing Churchyard, many of 
the graces in which , in accordance with the Norwegian custom, 
are adorned with fresh flowers every Saturday. Adjacent is the 
Arsenal, which occupies the site of the old Kongs Qaard and of 
the residence of the archbishops, and which contains an interesting 
collection of old Norwegian weapons (adm. on application to the 

The other churches in Throndhjem are St. Mary's (Vor Frue. 
Kirke) in the Kongens-Gade, a small promenade adjoining which 
(called 'Parfcen') is embellished with a statue (by Bergslien, 1876) 
of Tordenskj old (A. 1720), the famous admiral, who was born 
at Throndhjem ; the Hospital Church, at the W. end of the Kongens- 
Gade, and the Bakke Kirke in Baklandet (whence there is a Flet 
or ferry to Brateren). At Ihlen there is a new Roman Catholic 

Among the public buildings may be mentioned the large tim- 
ber-built Stiftsretsgaard in Munke-Gaden, part of which is 'occu- 
pied by the 'Stiftsamtmand', and part fitted up as a royal palace. 
At the S.W. corner of the Torv is the large building now occupied 
by the Harmonie and Athenaeum clubs (p. 213). In the Munke- 
Gade is also situated the Kathedralskole, which contains the val- 
uable library (50,000 vols.) and the antiquarian collections of 
Throndhjems Lwrde Selskab, a scientific society founded in 1760, 
of which .Schening , Suhm , Gunnerus , and other distinguished 
scholars were once members. It is now partly supported by an 
annual subsidy of 4000 kr. from government. — In the Kongens- 
Gade, on the S. side, are the Sparbank , or Savings Bank, and the 
handsome building of the Arbeider-Forening, containing a concert- 
room and cafe. 

Environs. To the E. of the town rises the fortress of Christ- 
iansten (reached in 20 min. by crossing the Nid by the bridge and 
ascending the hill beyond), erected in the 17th cent., but now 
disused. It commands an excellent survey of the town and fjord, 
and a still finer view is obtained from the*Bla>sevoldbakken behind 
it. — Turning to the left beyond the Nid bridge, we may walk 

Environs. THRONDHJEM. 27. Route. 21 9 

or drive through the suburb of Baklandet , crossing the Meraker 
railway (p. 218), to (l*/2 Engl. M.) Hladehammeren (Hammer, 'pro- 
montory'), another good point of view. 

Another fine view , differing from these , is obtained from a 
rocky height to the S. of Ihlen, where the remains of the castle of 
Sverresborg , built in the 12th cent., were discovered in 1873. 
This point is reached from Ihlen by following the road along the 
Nid and then ascending to the right, or by the broad road ascend- 
ing from the S.W. angle of Ihlevolden, passing the *Tokstagimrd 
on the left, which also commands a fine view of the fjord and the 
town with its picturesque red roofs. The Blyberg , opposite the 
Sverresborg, commands a still more extensive view. 

A pleasant walk may be taken to the W. by ascending from 
Ihlen to the left past the gaard Fagerli to the Ojetfjeld, and pro- 
ceeding high above the fjord and past several substantial gaards, 
to (I-IV2 nr tne Munfeaune (private property ; no admission), and 
(20 min. farther) the iron-works of Trollabrug. Return by the 
shore past the promontory of Hovringen, which commands an ad- 
mirable view of the mountains to the E., Fagervik and Ilsviken. 

In the fjord, to the N. of the town, and about 1 Engl. M. dis- 
tant, lies the picturesque Munkholm (reached by boat in 20 min. ; 
fare l'/2-2 kr., but a bargain should be made ; no permission ne- 
cessary ; visitors are attended by one of the soldiers). As its name 
imports , the island was once the site of a monastery, founded in 
1028, of which the lower part of a round tower is now the only 
relic. Count Peter Griffenfeld (P. Schuhmacher), the minister of 
Christian V., was confined in a cell here from 1680 to 1698, and 
shortly after his release died at Throndhjem. The island is de- 
scribed by Victor Hugo in his 'Han d'Islande'. The walls of the 
small fortress which now stands here command a beautiful view, 
and contain some interesting old guns and gun-carriages. On the 
S.W. side is a small lighthouse. 

The Excursion to the two falls of the Nid near the gaard of Leeren, 
Kil. south of Throndhjem, is picturesque, but may be omitted if the 
traveller's time is limited. We follow the road leading from the suburb 
of Baklandet (p. 215), afterwards turning to the left. A good walker 
requires 5 hrs. there and back. In wet weather the last part of the road 
is unpleasant. (Carriage with one horse, there and back 5, with 2 horses, 
12 kr.) The lower or Lille Leerfos is 80 ft. high. The upper or Store 
leerfoa, though higher, is broken by a mass of rock about half-way 
across. The best survey of it is obtained from one of the windows in 
the saw-mill overhanging the seething waters on the right bank (a some- 
what rough path descends to the foot of the fall.) The path from the 
lower to the upper fall is not easy to find. If only one is visited, the 
upper fall should be chosen. The road, especially near Throndhjem, is 
very picturesque. 

An Excoksion to the S.elbo-Sj0 takes two days. On the first day 
we go by railway to Heimdal (p. 212), and drive thence across the Skjela 
Pass to Teigen (18 Kil., pay for 27), at the W. end of the Sffilbo-SjjB 
(525 ft.), a fine sheet of .vater, 29 Kil. (18 Engl. M.) in length, on which 
a small steamboat plies thrice weekly in summer. At the S.K. end of 

220 Route 27. MERAKER. 

the lake lies Marienborg , with the church of Stelbo, whence a road ascends 
the pretty and well-tilled Tydal. In the winter of 1718 the greater part 
of the Swedish army was frozen to death on the Tydalsfjelde when on 
their retreat from Throndhjem. 

From Throndhjem to Storlien (Ostersund, Stockholm), 106 Kil. 
(60 Engl. M.J, railway ( Merakerbane) in 5 hrs. (fares 5 kr. 84, 3 kr. 
46 ».). The station lies to the N. of the town, by the harbour, 
which the line crosses. ■ — The train passes the church of Lade on 
the left, and beyond (3 Kil.) Leangen the lunatic asylum of Rot- 
void, also on the left. Soon after it reaches the fjord, here called 
the Strindenfjord, farther on the Stjerdals fjord. 7 Kil. Ranheim ; 
15 Kil. Malvik; 23 Kil. Hommelviken, the centre of a considerable 
trade in timber. The train now passes through a short tunnel, 
and reaches — 

32 Kil. (20 Engl. M.) Hell, at the mouth of the Stjerdalselr, 
across which a bridge leads to the skyds- station of Sandferhus 
(p. 219) on the opposite bank. The line now runs inland, along 
the left bank of the Stjerdalselv. 42 Kil. Hegre , near the con- 
fluence of the Forra, which descends from the N., with the St»r- 
dalselv. 57 Kil. Floren ; 72 Kil. Qudaa (280 ft.), where the Reinaa. 
is crossed. The train passes through a tunnel and ascends rapidly, 
crossing the Sterdalselv, to — 

81 Kil. (50 M.) Meraker (720 ft.), a thriving and prettily 
situated little town, the last station in Norway. Beyond Meraker, 
near which there is an old copper-mine , the line continues to 
ascend rapidly. The district is sparsely peopled, and the vegeta- 
tion also becomes scantier. The Areskuta and other snow-moun- 
tains of Sweden appear in the distance. The train at last crosses 
the Swedish frontier, 1950 ft. above the sea-level, and reaches — 

106 Kil. (66M.) Storlien, the junction for the railway to Stock- 
holm (K. 49). 

28. Inland Route from Throndhjem to Namsos. 

About 200 Kil. or 125 Engl. M. The steamers 'Kong Oscar' and 'Sten- 
kjEer', sail from Throndhjem to Levanger on Mon., Wed., and Sat. forenoons; 
and the 'Levanger' on Sun., Tues., and Thurs. forenoons, in 5-6 hrs. The 
two first steamers proceed, in 5 hrs. , to Stenkjtcr; the road between 
Levanger and that station is, however, so picturesque, that driving is 
preferable to the steamboat journey. — From Stenkjwr drive (fast stations) 
to the fjord opposite Namsos; thence cross by boat. 

On the Steamboat Journey from Throndhjem to Stenkjter the 
traveller has the advantage of seeing something of the picturesque 
rocky W. bank of the Throndhjem Fjord, which is scarcely visible 
from the land-route. The steamer steers between the Tuttere, 
with the ruins of the monastery of Tautra , and the mainland 
(Froslen) on the E. to Holmberget , and across the fjord to the 
N.W. to Lexviken. It then recrosses to Ekne on the E. bank, 
whence it steers to the large island of Yttere (with the parish of 

LEVANGER. 2d. Route. 221 

Eid\ At the station HoksUid on this island are extensive mines of 
pyrites. The vessel then steers to — 

Levanger (Madam Backland\i Hotel), a charmingly situated 
little town with lOOOinhab., which was almost entirely burned 
down in December, 1877, but has since been rebuilt. 

The road from Levanger to Stenkjjsk, 37 Kil., has only two skyds- 
stations (both fast) viz., (12 Kil.) Vwrdalseren, at the month of -the Vcer- 
dalselv, and (14 Kil.) Reske. — The church of Vcerdalen, 6 Kil. from Veer- 
dalstfren marks the scene of the battle of Stiklestad, at which St. Olaf 
was killed 29th .Tnly 1030 (p. xlvi). 

The next steamboat-stations are Skaanws, Tronws, Hylla, and 
Sundnces, on the peninsula of Indere, on the E. side of which 
is the strait of Stremmen, leading into the picturesque Borgen- 
fjord, on which rises the church of Metre. The steamer, however, 
does not enter this bay of the Throndhjem Fjord, but steers to the 
W. to Kjarringvik, and through the narrow Skarnsund on the 
W. side of the Indere, touches at Vennas, and enters the broad 
Beitstadfjord, the innermost recess of the Throndhjem Fjord. It 
then either proceeds direct to Stenkjar, via Krogsvaagen, or steers 
into a narrow ramification of the Beitstadfjord to the N. to Malmo 
unAFosnas, and thence to Stenkjser. From the skyds-station of 
0stvik, near Fosnses. the traveller may drive to Elden and Namsos 
(see below). 

15 Kil. Stenkjaer (Hot. Haaka; Thorbjemsen's Hotel), a small 
town with 1500 inhab., on the Byelv. 

Travellers who intend to visit the beautiful Snaasenvand (and the 
Fiskumfos) should telegraph for skyds before the arrival of the steamer at 
Stenkjser, so that they may proceed the same evening to (11 Kil.) Sundc 
at the S. end of the Snaasenvand. A steamer plies thence thrice weekly 
to Sent, at the E. extremity of the lake; and from Sem we take skyds to 
(8 Kil.) Homo, where we join the road to Fisktem. — Failing the steamer 
at Sunde, travellers must drive from Stenkjser. The stations by road, 
all fast, are: 15 Kil. Langhammer , 8 Kil. Kvam, 15 Kil. 0stre Hegge, 
15 Kil. Nedre Vekset , 33 Kil. Homo, 11 Kil. Vie, 11 Kil. Fosland, 
17 Kil. Fiskum. Tolerable quarters are to be had only at Kvam, Nedre 
Vekset, Homo, and Vie; but unless the traveller is prepared to put up 
with very humble fare, he should telegraph beforehand, especially to Vie. 
The whole road lies through a series of magnificent landscapes, with 
wood and lake, and streams dashing over rocks. Between Vekset and 
Homo there is a noteworthy waterfall. In the last stage, we cross the 
Namsenelv by a ferry. 

The road to Namsos passes the following stations : — 

15 Kil. 0stvik (good quarters) lies on the northernmost bay 
of the Beitstadfjord. The road now quits the fjord of Throndhjem, 
and crosses an Eid or isthmus, about 200 ft. high, to the Namsen- 
fjord. 15 Kil. Elden. 

12 Kil. Overgaard lies on the Numsenfjord or Lyngenfjord. 
17 Kil. Fjar ; 11 Kil. Sp ilium , near the Namsenelv. (Or by 
water from Overgaard to Bangsund 22 Kil. , and thence by road to 
Spillum 11 Kil.) From Spillum the road leads to the Stremshylden 
Ferry (6 Kil.), whence we cross the fjord by boat to (3 Kil.) — 

Namsos (A. Jensen's Hotel), charmingly situated on the N. bank 

222 Route l>!t. NORDLAND. 

of the estuary of the Namseiielv. The town was almost entirely 
burned down in 1872, but has since been rebuilt. A wood on 
the hills to the W. of the town was also destroyed by the same 
fire. The new Church stands on a rocky height in the middle of 
the town. The staple commodity of the place is timber. — The 
richly wooded Namsdal , containing 8000 inhab., is very pictur- 
esque , the scenery improving as we ascend. — Two or three of 
the large coasting steamers touch at Namsos weekly , both on the 
outward and homeward voyage (comp. p. 230). 

Excursion to the Fiskumfos. This most interesting excursion is 
made either from Spillum, or from Namsos, the roads uniting near Hun. 
The Namseiielv, through the valley of which the road ascends, is considered 
one of the best salmon-rivers in Europe, and is accordingly far famed 
among anglers. The fishings are always let to English sportsmen, and 
are jealously preserved. The stations from Namsos are: 15 Kil. Hun 
(good quarters), 11 Kil. Haugum, 17 Kil. Vie (Inn, very poor accommo- 
dation), a great fishing station, 11 Kil. Fosland, 17 Kil. Fiskum. The last 
stage is through a magnificent ravine. The "Fiskumfos, a most imposing 
fall, sometimes compared to the falls of the Rhine at Schaffhausen, with 
a copious volume of water, is 100ft. in height. To reach the best point 
of view, a projecting rock on the left bank (inaccessible when the river 
is in flood), a guide is necessary. This is the upper limit of the salmon- 

The route from Fiskum to Vefsen up the Namsdal, and past the Store 
Maivand, is attended with serious privations, ~and is "by no means recom- 
mended. The scenery is wild and great, but not sufficiently interesting 
to repay the fatigue. 

29. The Nordland, 

Communication with the Nordland is maintained by the steamers 
of the united companies Dergenske Dampskibs-Selskab and Norde7i- 
fjeldske Dampskibs-Selskab, of which the formerhasits headquarters 
in Bergen, the latter in Throndhjem. The agent of the combined 
companies at Christiania is Mr. Berg-Hansen, at Throndhjem Mr. 
J. Eriksen. Detailed time-tables may be obtained on personal or 
written application either to the agents or to the head-offices ['di- 
rection') at Bergen and Throndhjem; and the Norges Communica- 
Uoner mentioned at p. xix also give all the necessary information. 
The Mail Steamers ply throughout the year, leaving Hamburg once 
weekly for Vads», and Christiania twice weekly for Hammerfest and 
theNorthCape. The Hamburg boats start onFrid. evening and leave 
Throndhjem on Wed. morning ; the Christiania boats start on Thurs. 
afternoon and at midnight on Frid., leaving Throndhjem at the 
same times in the following week. The Tourist Steamers are put 
on in the height of summer, from about June 20th to July 20th, 
and run from Throndhjem twice weekly(Sun. andWed. evenings)to 
the North Cape. During the season there are thus five opportunities 
weekly of starting from Throndhjem, where the Nordland tour proper 
begins, for the North Cape. Smaller steamers also ply from Bergen 
to the Lofoden Islands, but are not used by the ordinary tourist. 

The Mail Steamers call at numerous intermediate stations and 

JNOKDLAND. 29. Rente. 223 

take 2-3 days for the voyage from Throndhjem to Bode, 2 days 
more to Tromse, and another day (5-6 days from Throndhjem) to 
reach Hammer f est. For a visit to the North Cape, which lies fully 
half-a-day beyond Hammerfest , the Christiania mail - steamers 
will be found quite as convenient as the tourist boats , except 
that they allow no time for an excursion to the 'bird-mountain' of 
Sva;rholt (p. 261). The Christiania steamers take 10 days to make 
the journey from Throndhjem to the North Cape and back. The 
ordinary route of the Hamburg steamer leads through the Mager» 
sound to Vadse (2'/ 2 days from Hammerfest), but if the passengers 
desire it and the weather is favourable, the captain will change 
this for the course round the North Cape, though without stopping to 
allow of landing. The steamer leaves Vadse again the day after its 
arrival, and the whole voyage from Throndhjem and back thus 
takes about 18 days. 

The Fares on the mail-steamers are reckoned by mileage, the iirst 
cabin, which can alone be recommended, costing 40 0. per Norwegian sea- 
mile. The fare from. Throndhjem to Bode (76 sea-miles) thus amounts to 
30 kr. 40 0., to Tromte (125 M.) 50 kr., to Hammer/esi (155 31.) 62 kr., to the 
Worth Cape (171 M.), fare calculated to Vard0) 80 kr., to Vadsa (200 M.| 
84 kr. Family tickets are granted at considerable reductions (see p. xix) 
and return tickets ('Tur og Retur') available for six months are issued at 
a fare and a half for distances of 20 sea-miles and upwards. The latter, 
however, are not recommended, as they do not allow the journey to be 
broken, the liberty to do which is one of the great advantages of tra- 
velling by the mail-steamers (comp. p. 227). 

On voyages of three days and upwards the steamboat companies pro- 
vide a liberal board at the rate of 5 kr. per day, including a cup of coffee 
with biscuits ('karvinger 1 ) on getting up , dejeuner with tea or half a 
bottle of beer, dinner including a cup of coffee, and supper with tea or 
half a bottle of beer. A pint of claret costs 1 kr. 25, half a bottle of beer 
25, selters water 25 0. On shorter journeys the prices for single meals 
are as follows: coffee and biscuit 35 0., dejeuner or supper l'/a kr., dinner 
2kr. 40 0. For attendance 50 0. per day is charged. Before ordering 
anything of the waiter it is advisable to consult the price-list hung up 
in the cabins. — Each steamer contains a small Post Office, which also 
undertakes the transmission of telegrams. The captain, pilots, and post 
office officials generally understand English. 

The course of the Toubjst Steamers is as follows. At midnight 
on Sun. and Wed. they leave Throndhjem, reaching Torghoettan 
(p. 230) at 4 p. m. on the following day. Here time is allowed for 
a visit to the rocky tunnel. The steamers then pass through the 
Bronesund or the Toftsund and at 8 a. m. on Tues. and Frid. reach 
Bode (p. 236). At 2 p. m. on the same days they pass Henning- 
svcer and on Wed. and Sat. forenoon arrive at Tromse (p. 249), 
where a landing is made for a visit to the camp of the Lapps. At 
Hammerfest, which is reached on Thurs. or Sun. at 8 a. m., a stay 
of 3 hrs. is made. We then traverse the Mageresund, crossing the 
entrance of the Porsanger Fjord, to the 'bird-mountain' of Svier- 
holt (p. 261), from which we return to the North Cape (p. 259), 
reaching it in the evening. We ascend to the top of the cape by the 
light of the Midnight Sun, and next morning (Frid. or Mon.) begin 
the homeward journey, the first stage of which is Lyngenfjord 

224 Route :>!). NORDLAND. 

(p. 253, Frid. or Moil, evening). Tromsei is reached on Sat. or Tnes. 
morning, Srartisen (p. *235) on Sun. or Wed. afternoon, and 
Throndhjem about 5 p. m. on Monday or Thursday. The whole ex- 
cursion from Throndhjem to the North Cape and hack thus takes 
only eight days by the tourist steamers. 

The Fare on the tourist steamers for the whole excursion amounts 
to 250-270 kr. for a berth in a state-room containing one or two berths, 
250 kr. for a share of a state-room containing three or more berths, and 
220 kr. for a berth in the saloon or in the fore-cabin. This fare includes 
meals as on the mail-steamers, with the addition of half a bottle of 
wine at dinner. No extra charge is made for attendance. On the tourist 
steamers no reduction in the fares is made for families. 

The tourist steamers are very comfortably fitted up but are as 
a rule somewhat crowded. They afford the easiest and speediest 
means of visiting the principal points of theNordland, hut the 
methodical and ultra-punctual way in which the programme is 
gone through deprives the voyage of much of the charm of novelty, 
while the life on board is exactly similar to that in a large hotel 
on shore. Those, therefore, who are not pressed for time and who 
wish to study the life and customs of the inhabitants as well as 
the beauties of nature, are recommended to travel by the mail- 
steamers, which are also well equipped and scarcely inferior to the 
tourist steamers in the matter of food. 

A sufficiency of repose is an urgent necessity on an excursion 
to the Nordland. As there is scarcely an uninteresting point on 
the whole voyage and as in the height of summer daylight never 
entirely disappears, the traveller feels naturally averse to wasting 
any of his time in the unconsciousness of sleep. This feeling, 
however, should not be yielded to, and all who wish to avoid 
overstrain and nervous exhaustion should sleep for at least 4-6 hrs. 
after midnight and other 1 hrs. after dinner. The sleeping-places 
in the saloon must be quitted by 6 a. m. and those who desire to 
sleep in comfort should endeavour betimes to secure a berth in 
one of the state-rooms. The best and only sure plan is to apply 
beforehand to the steamboat office at Bergen or at Throndhjem 
(according to the company to which the steamer belongh ; comp. 
p. 122 and the Norges Communicationer) or to the agent Berg- 
Hansen at Ohristiania. On receiving an affirmative reply it is 
necessary to forward the amount of the fare at once, as otherwise 
the berth will not be reserved. If the traveller has not ordered a 
cabin in advance he should lose no time on going on board in 
selecting the best of the still vacant berths, though he will seldom 
find any free except those in the saloon. In the mail-steamers, 
however, there is always the chance of securing a berth vacated by 
a passenger leaving the ship at one of the intermediate stations. 

The vessel's course lies almost always within the island-belt 
(^indenskjars 1 ), and sea-sickness is of rare occurrence. From the 
Skjcergaard, however, a view of the open sea is frequently obtained 
beyond the lower Skjar, or Var, as they are sometimes called. 

NOKDLAND. 29. Route. 225 

A coasting voyage of moderate length has many attractions. 
The captain and crew are usually very obliging and communica- 
tive, especially if the traveller shows an interest in their country. 
The Pilots (Lodsen) are especially well informed and intelligent. 
Two of them navigate the vessel from Ohristianssand to Thrond- 
hjem, two from Throndhjem to Hammerfest, and two others thence 
to Vadse, one of them always being on duty , except when the 
steamer is stationary. They are appointed by government, and 
each receives 140 kr. per month, besides his board. The number 
of pilots proper is , however , inadequate for the great traffic , and 
their place is often filled by other qualified persons (Kjendtmcend). 

Among the deck-passengers there are sometimes Lapps (here 
called Firmer), Finns (Kvmner; comp. p. 251). and convicts, these 
last being occasionally met with on their way to the Slavcri, or 
house of correction, at Throndhjem. If questioned as to the object 
of their journey, they speak of it euphemistically as a 'voyage to 
the south' or 'in the king's service'. Itinerant musicians (who in 
accordance with the traditions of the country travel free) are often 
a source of annoyance, and when the traveller hopes to get rid of 
them by going ashore, they are pretty sure to re-appear at the 
nearest inn or Gjcestgiveri. The sailors are generally a sober and 
hard-working class, and the traveller will frequently have occasion 
to admire the patience and perseverance they exhibit in loading 
or discharging cargo. 

The inhabitants of the small stations, who on the steamer's 
arrival crowd round her in their Ranebaade (pointed skiffs) arc 
another object of interest. The charge for going ashore is usually 
20 ». , but the Taxt should always be asked for, lest the traveller 
should unwittingly hurt the feelings of some landed proprietor or 
local dignitary (albeit wielding 'the oars with upturned shirt 
sleeves) by offering to pay. However far north the traveller ex- 
tends his voyage, he will be struck with the civility, honesty, and 
intelligence of the natives , especially those who are not in im- 
mediate contact with the influences of modern 'civilisation'. In 
Tromse the telegraph official on one occasion insisted on accom- 
panying the writer for a quarter of an hour in the midst of a 
deluge of rain to show him the way to the post-office ; and at 
Vads0 a merchant of the place showed him a collection of valu- 
able photographs from Vienna and a work on the philosophy of 
Bacon of which the owner was an admirer. Another native of 
the far north mentioned that he had just returned from Rome 
where he had spent the winter, while an intelligent native of 
Kjelvik, close to the North Cape, had travelled over a considerable 
part of Great Britain, but expressed a decided preference for the 
freedom of his Arctic home, the greater purity of its air and water, 
and even for its climate ! Clergymen, teachers, and government- 
officials also travel frequently in these vessels, and will give much 

226 Route 29. NORDLAND. 

interesting information regarding the Lapps, Finns, and other in- 
habitants of the country. 

The natural phenomena of this hyperborean region will not fail 
to excite a keen interest even in the most experienced traveller. 
The weather, the winds, and the fogs, the play of light and shade, 
the purity of the atmosphere, are all quite unlike the same natural 
features in other parts of Europe. The Alpine tourist will be sur- 
prised to find how little his former practice aids him in estimating 
distances heTe. The animal world is of extraordinary richness. The 
sea teems with cod, herrings, skate, and other fish. Whales are 
frequently seen spouting columns of water into the air, or rising to 
the. surface in unwieldy gambols. Swarms of eider-ducks swim 
near every island, and the air is full of sea-gulls. Not unfrequently 
the traveller may see the industrious sea-gull (Krykje) robbed of 
its prey by the skua (Lestris parasitica), which, unable to fish for 
itself, compels the gull to drop its booty and catches it with 
unerring dexterity before it reaches the water. A peculiar ruffling 
of the water is sometimes caused by the shoals of herrings (Sild- 
stim), often pursued by the voracious Sei ('saith', or hake, one of 
the Oadidce) , or by a seal (Scelhund), to escape from which they 
dart into the nets and even spring ashore. 

The scenery with which the writer was most struck extends 
from the Arctic Circle (the Hestmandse) to the Lofoden Islands 
and the S. extremity of Hindis (Ledingen) , where the grandest 
mountains and glaciers are seen in close proximity with the sea. 
A girdle consisting of numerous islands, some of which rise to a 
height of several thousand feet, here stretches far out to sea, while 
the fjords extend as far in the opposite direction, reaching to the 
bases of the lofty inland mountains. 

A trip to Bode and as far as Ledingen in the Lofoden Islands 
will thus comprise some of the most characteristic features of these 
northern regions ; but, if possible, the voyage should be extended 
to Tromse and Hammerfest for the sake of seeing the Lyngenfjord 
and the island scenery of the Arctic Ocean, the finest of the kind 
in Europe. But the North Cape itself forms the most natural limit 
to the journey. Europe there terminates, and the Arctic regions 
begin; and there, too, the sublime scenery of the Norwegian coast 
may be said to culminate, as that of the N. and N.E. coasts begins 
to show a falling off in point of grandeur and interest. 

A protracted voyage among the fjords is often productive of 
a kind of physical and mental lethargy, which sadly mars the 
traveller's enjoyment and is not easily shaken off, while the con- 
finement, the not unfrequent overcrowding and want of ventilation, 
and the daily round of meals at the table d'hote are very apt to 
become irksome. Even beyond Throndhjem every possible oppor- 
tunity should be taken of breaking the voyage by excursions on 
land; and a voyage to any distant station and back by the same 

NORDLAND. 29. Route. 227 

steamer should by all means be avoided. Travellers by the tourist- 
steamers have time to pay short visits to the Torghaettan and the 
camp of the Lapps at Tromse, and to ascend the North Cape. But 
a longer interruption of the journey is possible to passengers by 
the mail-steamers, who may land at the best points for excur- 
sionising, as for example Bod», Svolvaer, and Troms», and either 
spend a few days at each and go on by the next steamer, or 
continue their journey by inland routes and local steamers. 

Breaks in the Voyage. Among the more interesting of such 
breaks may be mentioned : — 

*1. Journey by Land from Throndhjem, or from Vardalseren, to 
Namsos ; visit to the Fiskumfos (p. 222). 

*2. Visit to the Torghcetta from Somnces or Breineisund (this ex- 
cursion, taking a few days, can be more conveniently made from 
the tourist-steamers; p. 230). 

3. Visit from Vigholmen to the Ranenfjord, and perhaps also 
to the Dunderlandsdal, and thence to the N. to the Saltenfjord or 
Beierenfjord (pp. 233, 237). 

4. Excursion to the Hestmandsei from Indre Kvare, or from 
Selsevig (p. 235). 

5. FTom Grene to the glacier of Svartisen (see p. 235). 

6. From Bode to the Saltstrem, and from Fuske to the Sulit- 
jelma (pp. 238, 239). 

*7. From Svolvcer to the Lofoden Islands, a magnificent trip of 
2-3 days (p. 243). 

8. From Ledingen to the Ofotenf (p. 246). 

9. From Seveien, in the interior of the Salangenfjord, by a good 
road through the Barduelvsdal and Maalselvsdal to the Rostavand, 
and to Maalselv on the Malangenfjord ; thence by a rough road to 
the Balsfjord and the Lyngenfjord (pp. 247-253). 

*10. From Tromse to the Tromsdal with its herds of reindeer, 
and, if possible, thence to the Lyngenfjord (pp. 251-253). 

*il. Visit to Tyven from Hammerfest (p. 256). 

*12. The ascent of the North Cape (p. 259). ' . 
Midnight Sun. The best season for a cruise to the North Cape 
is between 20th June and 15th August, whether the main object 
of the traveller be to witness the subdued glory of the midnight 
sun, or to see the scenery to the best advantage. Down to the 
middle of June the mountains are almost all covered with snow, 
and the vegetation in the valleys is imperfectly developed, and 
after the middle of August the nights become longer and colder; 
but the intervening period forms one unbroken day, during which 
the weather is often warm and genial. The midnight sun, which 
is visible within the Arctic Circle (66° 50') only, is partially or 
wholly seen from the sea-level within the following dates (those 
for the North Cape, however, being reckoned for a point 1000 ft. 
above the sea) : — 


228 Route 'Jit. 


From Throndhjem 

For the first time. 

For the last time. 








Nortfi Cape 

30th Mav 
15th - 

1st June 
19th May 

3rd June 
20th May 

8th Julv 
27th - 
30th - 

10th July 
27th - 
28th - 

12th July 
1st Aug. 

It need hardly be observed that travellers desirous of seeing 
the midnight sun should not postpone their journey till the latest 
possible date, as clouds and mist, as well as intervening mountains 
and islands, too often conceal the horizon and cause disappoint- 
ment. A height of several hundred feet of course commands a 
better view than the deck of the steamer, and enables the spec- 
tator to see the midnight sun about one day earlier and later in 
the season than is otherwise possible. The sublimity of the spec- 
tacle, when witnessed in all its majesty, produces an impression 
never to be forgotten, and has been finely described by Carlyle, 
Bayard Taylor, and many other writers, while Teener's lines on 
the subject are remarkable for their extreme simplicity : — 

'Midnattssolen pa bergen satt, 

Blodrbd till att skada ; 

Det var ej dag, det var ej natt, 

Det vagde mellan bada. ' 
(Literally: — 'The midnight sun sat on the mountains, blood-red 
to behold; 'twas neither day nor night, but a balance between them.') 

Travellers will do well to supplement the small-scale maps accompany- 
ing the present volume , by procuring C'ammermeyer's Heisekart over det 
nordlige Norge (scale 1 : 800,000; price 4 kr.); see p. xxviii. 

I. From Throndhjem to Bod«. 

76 M. (304 Engl. 31.). Steamboat in 2 days; comp. p. 223. Intending 
passengers should bear in mind that when a vessel is advertised to sail on 
a certain day, the very beginning of that day, or what is usually called 
the midnight of the preceding day, is frequently meant. The direct 
distances from Throndhjem are prefixed to each station. Between Chri- 
stiania or Christianssand and Bergen there are 4 stations, between Bergen 
and Throndhjem 6-10 stations ; between Throndhjem and Bodjzr 17-25, be- 
tween Bod0 and Tromsu 12-16, between Troms0 and Hammerfest 3-6, and 
between Hammerfest and Vads# 19; or in' all 63-90. For distances between 
the small stations, see 'Communicationer'. 

As the voyage through the outer Throndhjem Fjord and along 
the coast beyond is at first comparatively uninteresting, the travel- 
ler is recommended to secure some sleep at this stage. If the boat 
starts at night he should seek his berth in good time the evening 
before. The first stations on the N. bank of the fjord are (3 M.) 
Redbjerget, with the ruined convent of Rein, and Beian (p. 173), 
where travellers from the S. can join the steamer from Throndhjem, 
without proceeding to that town. Beian is situated on the S. ex- 
tremity of the peninsula of Ireland, to the N.E. of which stretch- 

to Bode. BJ0R0. 29. Route. 229 

es the Skjerenfjord. Not far from the steamboat-station is Qaarden 
0steraat , a place famed in the annals of Norway (the scene of 
the drama 'Fru Inger til 0straat', by Henrik Ibsen, whose 'Kong- 
semnerne' is also partly enacted in and near Throndhjem). 

The vessel now steers to the N. , skirting the extensive penin- 
sula of Fosen, formed by the sea and the long fjord of Throndhjem. 
To the W. are the islands of Stor-Fosen and the Tarv-0er, and 
farther on is the Fro-Hav, a wide channel bounded on the W. by 
the Fro-0er. 

12 M. Valdersund. The Nordlandsjcegte , with their peculiar 
raised cabins (Veng), and rigged with a single square-sail (Raaseil) 
and a topsail (Skvcersegl or Topsegl), are frequently seen here on 
their way to the Tydske-Bryg or German Quay at Bergen (see 
p. 73), deeply laden with wood and dried fish [Klipfisk and Rund- 
fisk, comp. p. 242). Part of their homeward cargo often consists 
of coffins, filled with bread and Kringler (a kind of rusk). These 
vessels, both in build and rig, are the lineal descendants of the 
piratical craft of the ancient Vikings. 

If) M. Stoksund i Bjerner, with the marble-quarries that furnish- 
ed the material for Throndhjem cathedial (see p. 216). Of four 
caverns here the largest is Harebakhulen, at the gaard of Harebak. 
To the W. lie the Stoke and Lindncese. 

17 M. Syd-Kroge. Fish spread out on the rocks to dry (Klipfisk), 
begin to be seen here. In winter they are hung on Hjelder, or 
wooden frames, for the same purpose (thence called Stokfisk). 
Eider-ducks abound. 

21 M. Ramse. The black and white rings on the rocks (Ter- 
neringe), resembling targets , indicate the position of iron stan- 
chions for mooring vessels (Marker). The maintenance of these 
rings (Ringvcesen), like that of the lighthouses and pilots (Fyrvcesen, 
Lodsvasen), is under the supervision of government. The number 
of lights required in the 'Skjsergaard' is, of course, very large. For 
the next two hours the vessel traverses the open and sometimes 
rough Foldensje, which is prolonged towards the N.E. by the 
Foldenfjord (not to be confounded with the fjord of that name 
to the N. of Bod», p. 240). 

25 M. Bjere. Here, and farther to the N., we often observe 
white marks on the rocks, and sometimes white planks in the 
water, the object of which is to attract the salmon, which mistake 
them for their favourite waterfalls and are thus decoyed into the 
nets (comp. p. 113). 

Beyond Bjer» the steamer's course is again 'indenskjsers'. To 
the right is the island of Skjetngen. We now steer to the S.E. into 
the Namsenfjord, which is separated from the Reidsund to the N.E. 
by the long winding island of Otterei. As usual, the scenery improves 
as the fjord is ascended, and the steamer soon stops at the charm- 
ing little town of ■ — 

230 Route 29. TORGFLETTAN. From Throndhjem 

31 M. Namsos (p. 221). 

From Namsos to Kongsmo on the Indre Foldenfjord, a small steam- 
boat once a week (Frid. 3 a.m.)' The fjord ia very narrow and pictur- 
esque, resembling the Lysefjord near Stavanger, and is nearly 12 sea-miles 
in length. Stations : Bervig , Seierslad , Lund , etc. From the terminus 
Foldereid we can proceed by boat-skyds to Kongsmo whence a road leads 
by Heland and Overhalden to Namsos; from Aavatnsvand, on the Eidsvand, 
a little beyond H0land, a path diverging to the left crosses the hills to 
(5-6 brs.) Fiskumfos (p. 222). 

Steering to the W. we next touch at Foslandsosen, then thread 
the very narrow Redsund, traverse the Foldenfjord with its maze 
of islands, and reach Apelvar, on a small island at the mouth of 
the Indre Foldenfjord. 

The steamer, which generally performs this part of the voyage 
at night, now threads its way through an infinity of small islands. 
To the right the island of Nar&, with the parsonage of the same 
name. The next station is Rervik, on the island of Indre Vigten, to 
the W. of which are the islands of Mellem Vigten and Ytre Vigten, 
on which rise the Sulafjeld and Dragstind (450 ft.). On the left, 
farther on, is the Lecke, where a curiously shaped mountain is said 
by tradition to represent a giantess who was pursued by her lover, 
while her brother attempted to rescue her. The ' Torghattri 1 (see 
below), or hat of the latter, having been pierced by an arrow shot 
by the amorous 'HestmancV (p. 235), the sun shone through the 
aperture and metamorphosed the distressed maiden into stone, the 
pursuer being at this juncture only 105 English miles off! In pass- 
ing the giantess the natives sometimes raise their hats with mock 

36 M. Qutvik. On the right, farther on, is the Bindalsfjord, 
with its numerous ramifications , the boundary between Nordre 
Throndhjems Amt and Helgoland , the Halogaland of early Nor- 
wegian history, which extends to the >'. to the promontory of 
Kunnen near Bode (p. 236). 

Twice weekly the steamer 'Torghatten' from Br0n# (see below) plies 
on the Bindalsfjord as far as Teraak, to the S.W. of Vatsaas. Thence 
towards the Jf.W. runs the Thosenfjord, a huge mountain-cleft, l 3 /4 sea- 
miles in length, extending to Thosbotn and Gaarden Thosdal, from which 
the traveller may proceed with a guide to Hortskarmo in the Svenings- 
dal and Mosjeen on the Vefsenfjord (p. 232) in l'/2-2 days. The ascent 
from Gaarden Thosdal is extremely steep, and on the E. side of the moun- 
tain there is a very troublesome ford across the Gaasvaselv. 

From Gutvik the steamer steers towards the island of Torgen 
with the **Torghsetta ('market hat'), one of the most famous is- 
lands of the Nordland, situated in 65° 24' N. latitude. It resembles 
a hat , about 800 ft. in height , floating on the sea , and is pierced 
about halfway up, from N.E. to S.W., by an aperture known as 
Hullet (formed by the 'Hestmand's' arrow ; see the legend above 
mentioned), through which, in passing between the island and the 
mainland , the passenger can see the sky on the other side. The 
height of this curious natural tunnel at the E. entrance, according 
to Prof. Mohris measurements , is about 62 ft. , in the middle 

to Bode. BR0N0 2,9. Route. 231 

203 ft., and at the W. end 246 ft. The sides are flat at most 
places, nearly perpendicular, and here and there look as if they 
had been artificially chiselled. 'At the entrances are huge heaps 
of rocky rubble (Vr), but in the cavern itself there are but few 
blocks of rock. The view of the sea with its countless islands and 
rocks, seen from this gigantic telescope, is indescribably beautiful 
and impressive'. (Vibe, 'Kiisten u.Meer Norwegens'; Gotha, 1860, 
with two views of the island. See also Friis, 'Kong Oscar II' b Reise ; 
Kristiania, 1874.) On the island is Gaarden Torget (good quarters), 
near which are a burial-place and a few reminiscences of anti- 
quity. The tourist-steamers afford their passengers an opportunity 
of landing to inspect the rock -tunnel; but passengers by mail- 
steamer who intend to visit the island must disembark at Semnaes, 
by which they lose several days. The Hamburg -Varde steamer 
does not touch at S»mnses. 

(41 M.) Semnas, a charmingly situated place, to the S.E. of 
the Torghstta, with smiling meadows and corn-fields. Thence we 
steer through the Brenesund to 

42 M. Br«n«r (65°28'), which boasts of a pastor, a doctor, 
and a telegraph-office. The telegraph is of great importance to the 
natives. On the arrival of a Sildstim , or shoal of herrings, they 
frequently have to telegraph for extra supplies of salt and barrels, 
which are then sent by steamers chartered for the purpose. On the 
shore are often seen the isolated cottages of the Strandsiddere, who 
live exclusively by fishing. Inland settlers are called Opsiddere 
or Nysiddere by way of contrast. The steamboat 'Torghatten' 
maintains regular communication between Br»n» and the surround- 
ing islands and coast villages. 

A visit may be paid from Br0n0 to the grand Velfjord, on which the 
steamer 'Torghatten' plies twice weekly, touching at Rere, Ei-Soeterland 
(at the entrance to the Skillebotn, at the end of which there is a quarry of ex- 
cellent blueish-white marble), Nccvernas, and (11 Kil.) Hegge (good quarters 
at the landhandler's) near the church of Nestvih. — In the TidingdaL one of 
the innermost branches of the Velfjord, which is there called the Store 
Sj '%o a '' tbe valle y ascending from the fjord suddenly rises to a height 
of 438 ft., and over this terrace is precipitated the Tidingdalsfos in a 
single leap. — From the Velfjord to the N. diverge the Oksfjord and the 
Slorfjord, two long and wild creeks, which may also be explored from 
Saltbu. — From Bjergeeren, at the end of the Store Bjerrga, a fatiguing 
mountain-route crosses to Hortskarmo in the Sveningsdal (see above). — 
From Hegge the traveller may walk to the S. to Nceversted on the Vr/Jord, 
row thence to Somnhoved, and walk to Semnws, the steamboat-station to 
the E. of the Torghsetta (p. 230). 

Some of the steamboats next call at Tilrum-Markedplads, to the 
N. of Brene, others at — 

45 M. Rere, on the large mountainous island of Vcegen, to the 
W. Most of the vessels then steer past the Velfjord, in which, to 
the right, rises the huge Mosakselen, while on the N. side are the 
Heiholmstinder. They then pass between the island of Havne and 
the mainland, on which lies — 

47 M. Formk or Vivelstad. Near Vistnes, farther on , opens the 

232 Route 29. SEVEN SISTERS. From Throndhjem 

0sterfjord, from the head of which a path crosses the mountains 
to the Lakaadal and the Eiteraadal in the district of Vefsen (see 
below). The steamer now approaches the imposing Seven Sisters 
(see below), which have long been visible in the distance. To the 
E. towers the conspicuous Finkrue (3880 ft.). The vessel crosses 
the Vefsenfjord, passes on the right a hill remarkable for its red 
colour, and stops at the flat island of — 

47 M. Tkjete, formerly the property of Haarek of Thjete , a 
well-known character in early Norwegian history. 

The Hamburg steamboats skirt the W. side of the large island 
of Alsten, touch at S«vik, and then at (51 M.) Sandnasen, at 
the N. end of the island, near which are the old church of 
Stamnas and the district-prison. The view from this point of 
the Seven Sisters is strikingly grand. At the 8. end of Alsten 
(Of) Engl. sq. M. in area; 1500 inhab.) is the church of Ateta- 
houg (5 Engl. M. from Savik, 12 M. from Sandnaesaen), where 
Peter Duss , the famous author of 'Nordlands Trompet' (pub- 
lished for the first time in 1739) was pastor from 1689 to 
1708. This work contains a most accurate description of this 
province of Norway in poetic garb , and will be found an in- 
valuable travelling companion by persons acquainted with the 
language. (Rest edition by Eriksen; Christiania, 1874.) On the 
Haugnces, near the church, is the so-called Kongsgrav. — About 
4 Engl. M. from Sandnaes»en is Uaarden Botnet, the best starting- 
point for the ascent of the northernmost of the *Seven Sisters (Syv 
Sestre), which rise to a height of upwards of 3000 ft. There are 
in reality six mountains only , but the summit of one is divided 
into two ridges. The highest summit is called the Digertlnd. 
The view from the top is one of the grandest and most peculiar 
in the Nordland. 

From S#vik the small steamer 'Helgeland' ascends (on Wed. and Thurs.) 
the Vefsenfjord via Sandn8es#n to Vefsenbunden near Mosjeen, at its S.E. 
end. The scenery is very imposing, and in the interior of the fjord the 
mountains are beautifully wooded. From Mosj#en, near which are several 
large steam saw-mills, a good road leads to the Tustervand and to Slornes on 
the Resvand, which ranks next to Lake Mjusen in point of area. From Stornet 
the traveller may ascend the Bruvskanke and iheKjeringtind, on the W. side 
of the lake, and then follow the course of the Resaa, the discharge of the 
Tustervand and Rj9svand, towards the N. to Resaaeren on the Ranmfjovd 
fp. 1233). About, halfway thither a digression may be made to the E., up 
the course of the Bjuraa , for the sake of ascending the imposing 0x- 
l.indvr ; but these peaks are more easily reached from Rjjsaa^ren and 
through the Leerskardal. 

On other days this steamer plies on the Ranenfjord (see below) and also 
goes to the W. to Heraen. The fishery at Aasvcer, to the W. of Dynmese, 
and on the 'Skallen' ("fishing banks') in December and January is very 
productive. At that season no fewer than 10,000 fishermen sometimes 
congregate here, and within a fortnight or three weeks they catch as many 
as ten million herrings (200-250,000 barrels). The greatest Fair in the 
Nordland takes place on 2nd July annually in the lijeru- Mcwkuadsplads in 
the island of Dynnws, and is largely attended by the country-people from 
far and near, and by their servants, who are in the habit of specially 
stipulating in their contracts for ' Mai'kedsferie}'' or 'fair holidays. 1 The 

to Bode. RANENFJORD. 29. Route. 233 

fairs in the Nordland were formerly called Ledingsberge (Lensberge), be- 
cause the taxes (Lading) of the inhabitants were paid at them. 

53 M. Kobberdal on the island of Lekten, the next station of 
any importance, commands a view, towards the E., of the Banen- 
fjord. The Hamburg steamers do not enter this fjord, but the other 
large steamers frequently visit the more important stations. 

The "Ranenfjord (anciently Radund) is famous for its timber, and 
yields the material of which almost all the boats, houses, and coffins 
between this point and Vads0 are made (boats, see p. 234). The prin- 
cipal stations are Bemnces and Mo, of which the former is 4, the latter 
8 sea-miles from Vigholmen. The scenery becomes more attractive as we 
ascend the fjord. 

Banners (good quarters at Landhandler Nilsen's), with a new church. 
Round the church are several small cottages, erected for the accommo- 
dation of peasants from a distance, who arrive here on Saturday evening 
to attend divine service on Sunday. Excursions hence to Resaaeren and 
to the Oxtinder (p. 232). 

Mo (rooms at Landhandler Meyer's) carries on a considerable trade 
with Sorsele in Sweden via Umbuglen and the Bonws Pass. Railways to 
Throndhjem to the S., to the Foldenfjord to the N., and even across the 
Bonses Pass into Sweden are projected. — The following stalactite ca- 
verns ('Drypstenshuler') may be visited from Mo : the Risagrotte on the 
Langvand, near Bammemais (7 Engl. M.) ; the Laphul, near Oaarden Bjer- 
naa, and opposite to it another by Oiiarden Gunlien , both in the valley 
of the Redvaselv. An excursion may also be taken to the glacier of 
Svartisen (p. 235) by rowing to the end of the Langvand and following 
the valley to the N. as far as Fisktjernmo. A glacier-pass crosses hence 
to the end of the Mel/jord (p. 235). 

Another excursion is to the Svartisvand , a lake into which an off- 
shoot of the Svartisen Glacier descends. (Forbes's Norway, p. 228.) 

To the N.E. of Mo extends the interesting Dunderlandsdal (the Finnish 
word Tunduri, and the Lappish Duodar signifying mountain), a broad 
valley, the central point of which is Bjmldaanws. Several of the streams in 
this valley disappear in caverns formed by the erosion of the marble 
from the surrounding mica-slate, and suddenly re-appear lower down. 
This is the case with the Slilvasaa, near Oaarden Stor/orshei in the Skog- 
frudal (about 15 Kil. from Mo), where there is a very curious, but now 
ruined mill. Near it is the Urtvand, an interesting forest-girt lake. 
Farther W. is the Eiteraa, which drives mills immediately on its egress 
from the bowels of the earth. In the vicinity are Tyvshelleren ('thieves' 1 
grotto") and an interesting Ravine, with an icy current of air through it, 
where the rushing of the subterranean water is distinctly heard. A third 
stream of the same kind is the Pruglaa near Oaarden Jordbro. By the 
Pruglheibro are about fifty water -worn Jcettegryder ('giant cauldrons'), 
called by the Lapps L Kadniha Basatam Oarre\ or the wash-tubs of the 
mountain- women . 

From Bjasldaanaes (55 Kil. from Mo ; carriage-road without stations) 
we may visit the Stormdalsfos and the Marble Grotto at its foot, near 
the Brediksfjeld. The Urtfjeld, reached by crossing the Stormdalshei, and 
the Brediksfjeld command uninterrupted views, embracing the Svartisen 
and the Lofoden Islands. An excursion is recommended to the Svartisen, 
which descends to the Kvitvaselvdal, and to its ice-fall on the slope of 
the Magdajoktind. 

From Bjseldaanses it is a day's ride to (55 Kil.) Storjord in the Beieren- 
dal. The route follows the Bjeeldaadal, passes the Nedre and 0vre Bjeel- 
daavand, and traverses the 0vre and Nedre Toldaadal, past Toldaa and 
Aasbakke, to Storjord (good quarters at the under-forester's). From Stor- 
jord to Soleen (with the church of Beieren, p. 237) it Kil. more. 

From Bjeeldaanffis to Almindingen in the Saltdal is also a long day's 
journey, during which the traveller meets no one but workmen employed 
on the telegraph. The route leads either through the Bjseldaadal (following 

234 Route 29. JUNKERSDAL. From Throndhjem 

the telegraph-wires), or through the Gubbelaadal, Randal, and Lenesdal, 
which last forms the upper end of the Saltdal. Below the junction of the 
Saltdal and Junkersdal lies Oaarden Berghulnces ; thence to Almindingen and 
Rognan, see p. 239. — From Berghulna-s the traveller should proceed to 
the E. to the Junkersdals-Gaard, in the Junkersdal (14Kil. ; good quarters). 
The bridle-path thither leads through the Up, one of the grandest rocky 
ravines in Norway, formed by the Kjern/Jeld to the E. and the Solvaag- 
fjeld to the W. (4-5000 ft. high). The route is very dangerous in winter 
owing to the frequency of avalanches (Sneskred). The valley is named 
after the 'Amtmand', or governor, Junkep Prmbend von Ahn, who during 
a war with Sweden was encamped here with a body of troops. Farther 
up, the valley is called Graddis, and is traversed by a bridle-path to 
Sweden, much frequented in winter, and provided with several 'Fjeld- 
stuer'. Many settlements of Lapps are to be met with on the heights in 
the Dunderdal and Saltdal, where acquaintance may easily be made with 
their Gammer (-earth-huts') and their mode of life (comp. p. 251). — From 
the Junkersdal to the Saltdal, see p. 240. 

The next station, a little to the N. of the Ranenfjord, is — 

55 M. Vigholmen (good quarters), charmingly situated. The 
Ranvceringsbaade, pointed skin's with lofty bows, recalling the Ve- 
netian gondola, are built here. They are called Fjering, Sexring, or 
Ottring , according as they have four, six, or eight oars (each 
pair wielded by one rower), these words being contractions of the 
numbers 4, 6, 8, in composition with (tring, a termination from 
Aar ('oar'). These boats were formerly amazingly cheap, and even 
now a substantial 'Sexring' can be bought for 40-50 crowns. The 
Fembeiring (or Fcmbyrding~), a heavier kind of boat, used in the 
Lofoden fishery, and accommodating Ave men, is also built here. As 
might be expected , the Norwegian boatmen are much more adroit 
in the management of their craft than most other continental oarsmen. 

From Vigholmen the steamboat steers to the N.W. between the 
islands of Huglcn, Hannese, and Tombe. To the E. are seen the 
S.W. spurs of the Svartisen, and to the W. the singularly shaped 
islands of Lovunden and the group of Threnen (Threnstdvene). 
The former, upwards of 2000 ft. high, is 20 Engl. M., and the 
latter, a group which is equally lofty , consisting of four rocky 
islands, 30 Engl. M. distant; but both seem quite near in clear 
weather. These islands are the haunt of dense flocks of sea-birds 
(Lunnen, Lund e fugle , Mormon ArcticusJ, which nestle in the 
clefts of the rocks and are caught by dogs trained for the purpose. 

The precipitousness of Lovunden, the summit of which appears to 
overhang the water, has given rise to the saying — 

'Se ! hvordan han luder den gamle Lovund !' 
('See how it overhangs, the ancient Lovund'.) 

Another saying is — 

'Hestemanden tute, Lovunden lute, og Trenen er lsengere ute.' 
('The Hestemand blows his horn, the Lovund overhangs, and the 
Thren lies farther out.') 

See Peter Dass, 'Samlede Skrifter'; Kristiania, 1874; vol. i., p. 94. 

Lovunden and Threnen are inhabited by fishermen only. On 
one of the latter group of islands there is a church, where the 
pastor of Litre occasionally performs divine service. These islands 
may be visited from the station Indre Krare , but the passage of 

to Bode. SVARTISEN. 29. Route. 235 

the Threnfjord is often rough. The coasting steamers sometimes 
touch at Lovunden. — Sandflesen, a mythical island like Gunillas 
0ar in Frithjofs Saga, overrun with game, and with shores abound- 
ing in fish, is said to lie to the W. of Threnen. 

In steering towards the Kuareer the steamboat traverses the 
Stegfjord, the passage between the Lure on the left and Alderen on 
the right, and we soon come in sight of the*Hestmands«(1750ft.), 
which is perhaps the most interesting island in this archipelago. 
To the right, on a projecting peninsula of the mainland, lies — 

59 M. Indre Kvare, a lonely place , from which visits may be 
paid to the Melfjord (see below), the Lur», Lovunden, Threnen, and 
the Hestmand. The 'horseman's island', seen from the W., resem- 
bles a rider with a long cloak falling over his horse (see the legend 
mentioned above). The summit is said to be inaccessible, but an 
attempt to reach it might be made from Oaard Hestmoen on the S. 
side of the island. The view from it must be very grand , as even 
that from the ridge below the head of the horseman embraces the 
whole of the archipelago and the imposing Svartisen on the main- 
land. Those who visit the Lure should ascend the mountain 
(2110 ft.) at the back of Gaarden Lure, which lies li/ 2 Engl. M. 
from the harbour. The view is extolled by L. v. Buck. — The 
Arctic Circle (66° 50'), which we now cross, passes through the 
islands of Threnen and a little to the S. of the Hestmandse. 

Magnificent as the scenery has hitherto been, it is far surpassed 
by that of the *Svartisen, which the steamer now skirts for several 
miles. This part of the voyage appears to greatest advantage when 
performed at night, so that passengers have an opportunity of observ- 
ing the effects of the midnightsun. Svartisen is an enormous mantle 
of snow and ice, resembling the Jostedalsbrse and the Folgefond, 
about 44 Engl. M. in length and 12-25 M. in breadth, and covering 
a mountain-plateau upwards of 4000 ft. in height, from which pro- 
trude a few Nuter or Knolde ('peaks', 'knolls'). From this plateau 
descend numerous glaciers to within a few hundred feet of the sea, 
those extending farthest down being in the Holandsfjord. The 
westernmost spur of this almost unknown region is the promon- 
tory of Kunnen (see below), which extends far into the sea. 

The first station on this part of the voyage is (60 M.) Selsevig, 
to the right of which is the Rangsunde , with the Melfjord and its 
grand mountains beyond it. 

The Melfjord, which may be visited from Selsizrvig, branches off into 
the Nordfjord and the inner Melfjord. From Gaarden Melfjord, at the 
head of the latter, a route crosses the Svartisen to Fisktjernmo, and leads 
thence to the Langvand and to Mo on the Kanenfjord (see p. 233). 

62 M. Rede, with the 'Norske Leve'. To the right, farther on, 
are the Tjongsfjord and the Skarsfjord, with their ramifications the 
Berangsfjord and Holandsfjord, which extend into the heart of 
Svartisen. Passing the Omnese on the right, the steamer touches 
at(64M.) Qrene, a picturesque and smiling island , one of the 

236 Route 29. BOD0. From Throndjhem 

nearest points to the Svartisen, of which it commands a striking 
view , and the best starting-point for a visit to its magnificent 
scenery. The steamer affords a view of the deep indentation formed 
by the Glomfjord (see below), and then steers through a narrow 
strait between the Mele on the left and the Skjerpa on the right 
to the promontory of Kunnen. Far to the N. we obtain our first 
glimpse of the Lofoden Islands. 

From Ur0n<9 we may lake a boat into the Holandsfjord as far as 
Reindalsvik (fair quarters) , and thence ascend the Reindalstind (2100 ft.), 
which commands a magnificent view of the Svartisen. — A visit should 
also be paid to the (l'/a Engl. M.) Fondalbra, with its huge ice-caverns. 

From Qlommen, at the head of the Glomfjord (also reached by boat 
from Gr0n0), which does not penetrate so far into the Svartisen, the dreary 
Dokmodal or Arstadal may be ascended and the mountains crossed (without 
difficulty, though no path) to (30 Kil.) Beierens Kirke (Soleen, Arslad, 
p. 237), at the head of the Beierenfjord. 

The promontory of *Kunnen or Rotknceet (1995 ft.) forms the 
boundary between the districts of Helgeland and Salten, and at the 
same time possesses a climatic and geographical importance similar 
to that of the promontory of Stadt in the Sradmere (p. 169). From 
this point there is a 'Havseie' ('sea glimpse'), or opening in the 
island-belt, through which a view of the open sea is obtained and 
its motion sometimes felt. To the N. the Fugle comes in sight, and 
53/4 sea-miles beyond it the island of Landegode, resembling 'two 
gigantic buoys which mark the entrance to the Saltenfjord'. The 
atmosphere here is often remarkably clear. — The opening in the 
'Skjaergaard' is soon passed (generally at night), and we next ob- 
serve on the left the Fugle, the Fleina, and the Ameer, and on the 
right the church of Gildeskaal and the large island of Sandhorn, 
the highest mountain in which is called Sandhornet (3295 ft.). 
The Beierenfjord (p. 237) may be entered either on the S. or the 
N. side of this island. This fjord and the promontory of Kunnen 
form the northernmost limit of the silver fir. — We now enter the 
Saltenfjord, obtaining a view in clear weather of the snow-moun- 
tains around the Sulitjelma (p. 239) to the E., and soon reach the 
curious rocky harbour of — 

76 M. Bod* (b7° 17'; Nilsen's Hotel, R. 1, S. I1/2 kr.), a busy 
and increasing place, with 1500 inhab., the seat of the Aintmand 
or provincial governor, and a telegraph-station. The annual mean 
temperature here is 37-/ 5 ° Fahr. , that of July 6A l /-2°, and that of 
January (not colder than Christiania)32°. The large modern build- 
ings contrast strangely with the old cottages with their roofs of turf 
(Ncever). The stone church is very ancient, and contains several 
old pictures and the ooats-of-arms of some Danish families. Almost 
all the steamers coal at Bod». Passengers who do not intend mak- 
ing any stay here will at least have time to disembark and ascend 
(with guide) the *Lebsaas, a hill 1 hr. to the N. of the town, 
which commands a view of the Lofoden Islands to the W., of the 
Blaamimd.ifjeld (/Hmnjitlox, 5350 ft.). a snowy range adjoining 

to Bode. BEIERENFJORD. 29. Route. 237 

the Sulitjclma (which is not itself visible) to theE., of the Bens- 
vatnstinder to the S.E. and the Sandhorn, with the Svartisen, 
to the S. (A similar view, though less extensive, is obtained from 
the fields, 5 min. to the S. of the town.) Geologists will be in- 
terested in the erratic blocks of syenite in the midst of a rock- 
formation of slate. The town is supplied with water from a neigh- 
bouring lake. — A pleasant excursion may be made hence to the 
(6 Kil.) Vaagevand, on the bank of which is a club-hut. 

A road leads to the S.E to (V2 hr.) the Church of Bode and the 
Prcestegaard, at which Louis Philippe, when travelling as a refugee 
under the name of Miiller (accompanied by Montjoye, who called 
himself Froberg), was entertained on his voyage to the North Cape 
in 1796. A room in the house is still named, after him. On the S. 
wall of the church is the monument of a former 'Praest' (d. 1666). 
Beyond the church the road traverses a pleasant tract , with rich 
vegetation, on the bank of the Saltenfjord (see below). Herrings 
and small whales are frequently seen in the fjord here (p. 226). 

Bod» is a good starting-point for a number of very interesting 
Excursions , of which the two following are the most important. 
Comp. the Maps, pp. 228, 240. 

1. From Bod» to the Beierenfjord. 

This fjord, a profound mountain-chasm, not unlike the Geiranger 
Fjord, is most conveniently visited by the steamer l Salten\ which usually 
leaves Bod# on Tuesday and Friday mornings, touches at Skaalland, 
Rosaces, Sandnces, Kjelling, and Tvervik, and returns the same day (6 hrs. 
there and hack). Travellers intending to visit the inner Fjord must leave 
the steamer at Tvervik, and after having performed the round describ- 
ed below, await there the next steamer on its return voyage. 

Crossing the Saltenfjord, we skirt the island of Sandhorn. Sta- 
tions Skaalland, on the left, and Sandnces, in the island of Sand- 
horn. We now enter the *Beierenfjord, a narrow inlet flanked by 
most imposing mountains. The narrowest point is at Oaarden Ey- 
gesvik. The last station is Tvervik, whence the steamer returns to 
Bod». From Tvervik we row to (3 Kil.) Soleen (good quarters at 
Landhandler Jentoft's), whence we may ascend the Heitind 
(4120 ft. ; with guide), which commands a magnificent view of the 
mountain-solitudes extending into Sweden, of the Svartisen to the 
S., and of the sea with its numerous islands to the W., including 
even the mountains in the Lofoden islands, 17-20 sea-miles distant; 
or we may row to Arstad, where there is a skyds-station and a fine 
waterfall. The road leads thence through a picturesque valley, past 
Beierens Kirke (with Oaarden Moldjord adjacent), to Storjord. 
Aasbakke, and (about 20 Kil.) Toldaa (p. 233). 

2. From Bona to the Saltenfjord and Skjbrstadfjord. 

The steamboat l Salten' usually leaves Bod0 on Wednesdays and Sa- 
turdays for Rognan at the S. end ot the Skjerstadfjord, where the Saltdal 
begins, and returns thence to Bodu at night. Stations : Valosen, Lading., 
Strem, Skjerstad, Venset, Fuske, Lei/set, and Rognan. 

238 Route 29. SALTSTR0M. Excursions 

An equally good plan of visiting the Saltstrjjm is to drive from Rod0 
(telegraph beforehand if possible for carriole) to (17 Kil., l»/2 Qr.) Kval- 
vaay; thence by sailing-boat in I-IV2 hr. to Strern (see below). In this 
case the excursion takes 6-8 hrs. 

The Skjerstad Fjord is the western prolongation of the Salten- 
fjord, from which it is separated by the Strenw and the Qode, to 
the N. of the Streuue. Between these islands and the mainland 
are three very narrow straits, the Sundstrem (200 ft. wide), the 
Storstrem (500 ft.), and the Godestrem , through which an enor- 
mous mass of water has to pass four times daily, forming a tre- 
mendous, roaring cataract, commonly known as the Saltstrem, as 
each tide pours in or out of the fjord. The usual rise of the tide 
here is 5-6 ft. only, but when it increases to 8-9 ft., as in the case 
of spring-tides, the scene is a most imposing one. The steamboat 
can pass through these straits during an hour or so at high or at low 
tide only, and times its departure from Bod» accordingly (from 4 
to 10 a.m.). The Saltstrtfm is described by Schytte in 'Bodes 
Beskrivelse', by Sommerfelt in 'Saltdalens Beskrivelse', by Vibe 
in his work on the sea and coast of Norway, and by other writers. 

To view the Saltstrem , which far surpasses the famous Mal- 
strem (p. 245) on the coast of the Lofoden Islands, we must disem- 
bark at Strem, and wait for several hours (quarters at Landhandler 
Thomson's). The best point of view, to find which a guide is ne- 
cessary, is about 3/4 M. from Strom. The scene is most effective 
when the water is pouring into the fjord, when thousands of water- 
fowl hover about, fishing in the troubled waters. A granite column 
at Baksundholm commemorates the visit of Oscar II. in 1873. (Friis' 
Eeise). The ascent of the Bersvatnstinder to the S. of Strain is 

Skjerstad, on the S. bank of the fjord named after it, lies at 
the entrance to the Misvcerfjord, a bay of the fjord. Opposite, to 
the W., is the old gaard of Lences, with an ancient burial-place. 
The steamer then recrosses the fjord to — 

Venset (good quarters at Koch's). About 5-6 Kil. farther is 0ines- 
gavlen, a promontory of conglomerate, a formation which also oc- 
curs in the Kjcetnces , 14 Kil. to the S. — The steamer next 
touches at — 

Fuske (slow skyds-station), on the N. bank of the fjord, whence 
a road leads by the Fuskeeid to Dybvik on the Foldenfjord [Ser- 
folden, p. 240). 

Fuske is also the starting-point for an — 

Excursion to the Sulitjelma, which, in spite of inevitable pri- 
vations (bad sleeping quarters), is well worth undertaking. Leaving 
Fuske by boat-skyds (to be obtained at Andresen's) we cross the Finn- 
rid, where there is a fine waterfall, past which runs a wooden slide 
(Lapp muork(i) for the purpose of drawing boats up to the lake 
across the isthmus. We then row on the Nedre Vand to Moen, at 
its upper end, and over the 0vre Vand, The route traverses the 

from Bode. SULITJELMA. 29. Route. 239 

district called Vattenbygden. At the head of the 0vre Vand is 
(3 hrs. from Fuske) Skjenstaa, the last skyds-station, where the 
night is spent. Next day we walk to (1 1/ 2 nr - , guide) Skjenstaadal, 
where we hire a boat to Fagerlid. The starting-place is about */ 2 hr. 
from Skjenstaadal. Our picturesque course leads first up the swift 
stream issuing between steep banks from the Langvand and inter- 
rupted, here and there, by rapids, where we disembark for a short 
passage by land. We then ascend the Langvand itself, on whose 
banks are numerous waterfalls and gaards. In 3 krs. (5 hrs. from 
Skjenstaa) we reach the upper end of the lake with the gaards 
Fagermo and Fagerlid (quarters at Opsidder Serensen's, whose son 
Peder is an excellent guide). 

The ascent of the 'Sulitjelma (from two Lapp words l Sullui Gielbma' 
signifying the 'threshold of the island world') from this point requires 
13 hrs. (there and back) and is neither extraordinarily fatiguing nor 
dangerous. In 2 hrs. we reach a lofty plateau, with a fine view of the 
Langvand, the Svartisen, and the Sulitjelma group ; 2 hrs. more brings 
us to the foot of the southern peak ; and after another 2 hrs. steep climb 
over loose stones we reach the summit (5320 ft.), and enjoy a magnificent 
prospect over a wild desolate mountain-region, with innumerable glaciers 
(here known as Jwkna) and lakes. The mountain is covered with enormous 
masses of snow, which have forced the glacier to descend 700 ft. below the 
snow-line. The northern summit is somewhat higher than the southern 
(6150ft.). Between them the Salajcekna descends towards the S. to the Lomi- 
jaur (2260ft.). This lake is separated by a narrow Eid, the watershed ( Vand- 
killel) between the Atlantic and the Baltic, from the Swedish Pjeska- 
aur. — Adjoining the Sulitjelma group on the N. is the Olmajalos 
p. 236), with its two glaciers, the Olmajalos and the Lina-Jcekna. About 
'30 Engl. M. to the N.E. rises the Sarektjokko (6990 ft.), the highest summit 
in Sweden. The range is formed of mica-slate. — See G. Wahlenberg , » 
'Berattelse om Matninger och Observationer vid 67 Graders Polhojd'j 
Stockholm, 1808. G. v. Duberi's 'Om Lappland och Lapparne', 1873. Har- 
tung <C- fluiiVNorwegen'', 1877. Du Chaillu's Land of the Midnight Sun, 1882. 
The return from Skj/afnstaadal to (4-5 hrs.) Saxenvik on the Saltenfjord, 
should only be attempted with an experienced guide. Fine retrospect of